Kurilsk

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Kurilsk

Курильск
Iturup10.jpg
Kurilsk in 1981
Flag of Kurilsk (Sakhalin oblast).png
Flag
Coat of Arms of Kurilsk (Sakhalin oblast).png
Coat of arms
Location of Kurilsk
Kurilsk
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Red pog.svg
Kurilsk
Location of Kurilsk
Outline Map of Sakhalin Oblast.svg
Red pog.svg
Kurilsk
Kurilsk (Sakhalin Oblast)
Coordinates: 45°13′N147°53′E / 45.217°N 147.883°E / 45.217; 147.883 Coordinates: 45°13′N147°53′E / 45.217°N 147.883°E / 45.217; 147.883
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast [1]
Administrative district Kurilsky District [1]
Founded18th century
Elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Population
  Total2,070
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
1,607 (−22.4%)
   Capital ofKurilsky District [1]
  Urban okrugKurilsky Urban Okrug [4]
   Capital ofKurilsky Urban Okrug [4]
Time zone UTC+11 (MSK+8   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [5] )
Postal code(s) [6]
694530 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Dialing code(s) +7 42454 [7]
OKTMO ID64720000001

Kurilsk (Russian : Кури́льск; Japanese : 紗那村Shana-mura) is a town and the administrative center of Kurilsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located on the island of Iturup. Population: 2,070(2010 Census); [2] 2,233(2002 Census); [8] 2,699(1989 Census). [9]

Contents

History

Ainu have been known to inhabit the present site of Kurilsk since the 2nd millennium BCE, with their settlement known as Shana, and under Russian rule as Syana (Сяна). Russian colonists first appeared on Iturup in the late 18th century, with the Japanese erecting a military post in 1800. Tensions between Russian and Japanese colonists in the area led to the Treaty of Shimoda, which saw the southern Kuril Islands officially placed under Japanese rule in 1855, remaining so until the end of World War II.

Under Japanese administration that ended in 1945, the village of Shana was the central settlement of the island. As of August 15, 1945, the population of the village was 1,001. [10]

In 1947, the village was given its present name and granted town status by the Soviets. All Japanese villagers were exiled; however, the Japanese do not recognize it to have been legally dissolved and the city office of Nemuro in Hokkaido takes care of its family registry.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kurilsk serves as the administrative center of Kurilsky District and is subordinated to it. [1] As a municipal division, the town of Kurilsk and six rural localities of Kurilsky District are incorporated as Kurilsky Urban Okrug. [4]

Economy

Kurilsk is a center for fishing and fish farming, particularly salmon. A tsunami warning station is also located in the town.

Climate

Remarkably for its relatively southerly latitude, Kurilsk has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) that almost qualifies as a subarctic climate owing to the powerful influence of the cold Oyashio Current which makes summers exceptionally cool. Unlike most subarctic climates, however, the winters are fairly mild and there is no permafrost. Precipitation, as with all the Kuril Islands, is very heavy owing to the influence of the Aleutian Low, though Kurilsk is a little less wet than Yuzhno-Kurilsk because of its westerly aspect which tends to shelter it from cyclonic storms originating over the Pacific. The climate actually resembles the subpolar oceanic climate of the Aleutian Islands more than the climate of interior Siberia, but the mean February temperature of −6.1 °C (21.0 °F) is well beyond the −3 °C (27 °F) threshold of oceanic climates.

Climate data for Kurilsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)9.9
(49.8)
9.8
(49.6)
13.0
(55.4)
21.6
(70.9)
25.7
(78.3)
25.6
(78.1)
31.9
(89.4)
30.2
(86.4)
27.7
(81.9)
24.7
(76.5)
19.5
(67.1)
13.4
(56.1)
31.9
(89.4)
Mean maximum °C (°F)3.8
(38.8)
3.0
(37.4)
6.9
(44.4)
14.9
(58.8)
20.7
(69.3)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
26.4
(79.5)
24.0
(75.2)
18.9
(66.0)
14.5
(58.1)
8.0
(46.4)
27.3
(81.1)
Average high °C (°F)−1.8
(28.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.3
(41.5)
10.6
(51.1)
13.9
(57.0)
17.4
(63.3)
19.8
(67.6)
17.4
(63.3)
12.9
(55.2)
6.8
(44.2)
1.2
(34.2)
8.4
(47.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−4.5
(23.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−3.4
(25.9)
2.0
(35.6)
6.6
(43.9)
10.1
(50.2)
13.8
(56.8)
16.4
(61.5)
13.9
(57.0)
9.3
(48.7)
3.7
(38.7)
−1.4
(29.5)
5.0
(41.1)
Average low °C (°F)−7.1
(19.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.5
(36.5)
6.2
(43.2)
10.1
(50.2)
12.9
(55.2)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.7
(35.1)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−13.9
(7.0)
−17.0
(1.4)
−15.7
(3.7)
−7.7
(18.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.6
(33.1)
4.0
(39.2)
6.5
(43.7)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.7
(30.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−10.1
(13.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
Record low °C (°F)−22.0
(−7.6)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−16.1
(3.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.4
(34.5)
0.2
(32.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
−17.0
(1.4)
−27.4
(−17.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)101.4
(3.99)
65.1
(2.56)
84.7
(3.33)
77.9
(3.07)
71.4
(2.81)
51.7
(2.04)
85.0
(3.35)
109.7
(4.32)
122.2
(4.81)
133.5
(5.26)
132.2
(5.20)
116.0
(4.57)
1,150.8
(45.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)18.712.711.89.39.17.59.88.310.313.817.019.6147.9
Source 1: Météo climat stats [11]
Source 2: Météo Climat [12]

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #25-ZO
  2. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 Law #524
  5. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. Телефонные коды Сахалина - Dialing codes of Sakhalin Archived December 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  8. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. Northern Territories Association. 北方領土の人口 (in Japanese). Retrieved April 7, 2007.
  11. "Moyennes 1981-2010 Russie (Asie)" (in French). Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  12. "Météo Climat stats for Kurilsk". Météo Climat. Retrieved November 1, 2019.

Sources