|Kwantung Leased Territory|
|Leased territory of the Empire of Japan|
Kwantung Leased Territory in 1921 including the Japanese area of influence and neutral zone.
|Emperor of Japan|
• 1895 •1905–1912
|Historical era||Empire of Japan|
|17 April 1895|
|23 April 1895|
|5 September 1905|
|14 August 1945|
|Today part of||China|
|Kwantung Leased Territory|
The Kwantung Leased Territory (Japanese : 關東州, Kantō-shū), (traditional Chinese : 關東州 ; simplified Chinese :关东州; pinyin :Guāndōng zhōu; Wade–Giles :Kwan1-tung1-chou1) was a leased territory of the Empire of Japan in the Liaodong Peninsula from 1905 to 1945.
Japan first acquired Kwantung from the Qing Empire in perpetuity in 1895 in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after victory in the First Sino-Japanese War. Kwantung was located at the militarily and economically significant southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula at the entrance of the Bohai Sea, and included the port city of Ryojun (Port Arthur/Lüshunkou). Japan lost Kwantung weeks later in the Triple Intervention and the Qing transferred the lease to the Russian Empire in 1898, who governed the territory as Russian Dalian and rapidly developed infrastructure and the city of Dairen (Dalniy/Dalian). Japan re-acquired the Kwantung lease from Russia in 1905 in the Treaty of Portsmouth after victory in the Russo-Japanese War, continued to rapidly develop the territory, and obtained extraterritorial rights known as the South Manchuria Railway Zone. Japan extended the lease with the Republic of China in the Twenty-One Demands and used Kwantung as a base to launch the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Kwantung Leased Territory ceased to exist following the Surrender of Japan in World War II in August 1945.
The name Kwantung (traditional Chinese : 關東 ; simplified Chinese :关东; pinyin :Guāndōng; Wade–Giles :Kwan1-tung1), means "east of Tong/Dong/Shanhai Pass", a reference to part of Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei province, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. The name originally referred to all of Manchuria but later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the leased territory. In Japanese it is pronounced Kantō and it is often referred to as Kantō-shū to avoid confusion with the Kantō region surrounding the capital Tokyo.
In Qing dynasty China, the Liaodong Peninsula (simplified Chinese :辽东半岛; traditional Chinese :遼東半島; pinyin :Liáodōng Bàndǎo) was administratively part of Liaoning Province. In 1882, the Beiyang Fleet established a naval base and coaling station at Lüshunkou near the southern end of the peninsula.
The Empire of Japan occupied the region during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), and under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed by Japan and China ending the war in April 1895, Japan gained full sovereignty of the area. However, within weeks, Germany, France and Russia pressured Japan to cede the territory back to China, in what was called the Triple Intervention.
In December 1897, Russian naval vessels entered Lüshunkou harbor, which they began to use as a forward base of operations for patrols off of northern China, Korea and in the Sea of Japan. The Russian Empire renamed the harbor Port Arthur. In March 1898 Russia formally leased the region for 25 years from China. The leased area extended to the northern shore of Yadang Bay on the western side of the peninsula; on the eastern side it reached Pikou; Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev, chief of Russian Pacific Fleet, became the head of this territory. The peninsula north of the lease was made a neutral territory in which China agreed not to offer concessions to other countries. In 1899, Russia founded the town of Dalniy (meaning "distant" or "remote"), just north of the naval base at Port Arthur. This would later become the city of Dalian (Dairen).
In 1898 Russia began building a railroad north from Port Arthur to link Dalniy with the Chinese Eastern Railway at Harbin; this spur line was the South Manchurian Railway.
Under the Portsmouth Treaty (1905) resulting from the Russo-Japanese War, Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. Port Arthur was renamed Ryojun(旅順), and Dalniy was renamed Dairen(大連). Japan also obtained extraterritorial rights in the region north of the territory adjacent to the 885 kilometers (550 mi) South Manchurian Railway in 1905 (i.e. the South Manchuria Railway Zone), which was extended north of Mukden to Changchun. These rights, along with the railway and several spur lines were passed to the corporation known as the South Manchurian Railway Company.
Japan established the Kwantung Governor-general (關東都督府, Kantō Totokufu) to administer the new territory, and based the Kwantung Garrison to defend it and the railway. The Kwantung Garrison later became the Kwantung Army, which played an instrumental role in the founding of Manchukuo. In negotiations with the Republic of China under the Twenty-One Demands, the terms of the lease of the Kwantung Leased Territory were extended to 99 years.
After the foundation of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo in 1932, Japan regarded the sovereignty of the leased territory as transferred from China to Manchukuo. A new lease agreement was contracted between Japan and the government of Manchukuo, and Japan transferred the South Manchurian Railway Zone to Manchukuo. However, Japan retained the Kwantung Leased Territory as a territory apart from the nominally-independent Manchukuo until its surrender at the end of World War II in 1945.
After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory and the Soviet Navy made use of the Ryojun Naval Base. The Soviet Union turned it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
In a reorganization of 1919, the Kwantung Garrison was renamed the Kwantung Army and separated from the civilian administration of the territory, which was designated the Kwantung Bureau (關東廳, Kantō-cho). The Kantō-cho initially directly reported to the office of the Prime Minister of Japan; later it was subordinated to the Ministry of Colonial Affairs. Internally, the Kwantung Leased Area was divided into two districts, with two cities and nine towns. The city assemblies were in part elected, and in part appointed by the governor.
Massive capital investment was concentrated in Dairen (now the capital of the territory), wherein Japanese firms developed a significant industrial infrastructure, as well as creating a first class port out of the mediocre natural harbor. The facilities of the port at Dairen and its free trade port status made it the principal trade gateway to northeast China. The South Manchurian Railway Company was headquartered in Dairen, and some of the profits from its operation were channelled into transforming Dairen into a showcase city of modern city planning and modern architecture, with hospitals, universities and a large industrial zone.
In the Japanese national census of 1935, the population of the Kwantung Leased Territory was 1,034,074, of whom 168,185 were Japanese nationals. The numbers excluded military personnel. The area of the territory was 3,500 square kilometres (1,350 sq mi).
|1||General Baron Yoshimasa Ōshima (大島義昌)||10 October 1905||26 April 1912|
|2||Lieutenant General Yasumasa Fukushima (福島安正)||26 April 1912||15 September 1914|
|3||Lieutenant General Akira Nakamura (中村覺)||15 September 1914||31 July 1917|
|4||Lieutenant General Yujiro Nakamura (中村雄次郎)||31 July 1917||12 April 1919|
|5||Gonsuke Hayashi (林權助)||12 April 1919||24 May 1920|
|6||Isaburo Yamagata (山縣伊三郎)||24 May 1920||8 September 1922|
|7||Ijuin Hikokichi (伊集院彦吉)||8 September 1922||19 September 1923|
|8||Hideo Kodama (兒玉秀雄)||26 September 1923||17 December 1927|
|9||Kenjiro Kinoshita (木下謙次郎)||17 December 1927||17 August 1929|
|10||Masahiro Ōta (太田政弘)||17 August 1929||16 January 1931|
|11||Seiji Tsukamoto (塚本淸治)||16 January 1931||11 January 1932|
|12||Mannosuke Yamaoka (山岡萬之助)||11 January 1932||8 August 1932|
|13||General Nobuyoshi Mutō (武藤信義)||8 August 1932||28 July 1933|
|14||General Takashi Hishikari (菱刈隆)||28 July 1933||10 December 1934|
|15||General Jirō Minami (南次郎)||10 December 1934||6 March 1936|
|16||General Kenkichi Ueda (植田謙吉)||6 March 1936||7 September 1939|
|17||General Yoshijirō Umezu (梅津美治郎)||7 September 1939||18 July 1944|
|18||General Otozō Yamada (山田乙三)||18 July 1944||28 August 1945|
The Treaty of Shimonoseki, also known as Treaty of Maguan in China and Treaty of Bakan in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel (春帆樓), Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from 20 March to 17 April 1895. This treaty followed and superseded the Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty of 1871.
Dalian is a major sub-provincial port city in Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, and is Liaoning's second largest city and the fourth most populous city of Northeast China. Located on the southern tip of Liaodong peninsula, it is the southernmost city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast. Dalian borders the prefectural cities of Yingkou and Anshan to the north and Dandong to the northeast, and also shares maritime boundaries with Qinhuangdao and Huludao across the Liaodong Bay to west and northwest, Yantai and Weihai on the Shandong peninsula across the Bohai Strait to the south, and North Korea across the Korea Bay to the east.
The South Manchuria Railway, officially The South Manchuria Railway Company, Ltd., or 滿鐵 for short, was a large National Policy Company of the Empire of Japan whose primary function was the operation of railways on the Dalian–Fengtian (Mukden)–Changchun corridor in northeastern China, as well as on several branch lines.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.
Lüshunkou District is a district of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also formerly called Lüshun City or literally Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun. The district's area is 512.15 square kilometres (197.74 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 324,773.
The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER, is the historical name for a railway system in Northeast China.
Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces east of the Greater Khingan Range, namely Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, but historically is meant to also encompass the four easternmost prefectures of Inner Mongolia west of the Greater Khingan. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain, the largest plain in China, with an area over 350,000 km2 (140,000 sq mi). It is separated from Russian Far East to the north by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers; from Korea to the south by the Yalu and Tumen Rivers; and from Inner Mongolian to the west by the Greater Khingan and parts of the Xiliao River.
Dalian Bay, known historically as Talienwan, Talien-wan and Talien-hwan, is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Korea Bay in the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay. Its significance is that it is ice-free year-round, while Jinzhou Bay on the other, northwest side of the peninsula is part of the Bohai Sea (渤海), and is shallow and closed by ice for four months of the winter.
Organization of the Kwantung Army of Japan
The South Manchuria Railway Zone (南満州鉄道附属地, Minami Manshū Tetsudō Fuzoku-chi) (Hanyu Pinyin: Nán Mǎnzhōu Tiědào Fùshǔ-dì; Wade–Giles: Nan2 Man3-chou1 Tʻieh3-tao4 Fu4-shu3-ti4) or SMR Zone, was the area of Japanese extraterritorial rights in northeast China, in connection with the operation of the South Manchurian Railway.
Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre and facing the Bohai Sea to the west as well as the Korea Bay to the east and has a longer history than Dalian itself, and used to be a thriving walled city where the officials of this area were dispatched from the central government. Recently, it is again a thriving town, having Dalian Development Area within its area as well as becoming a bedroom community to downtown Dalian. Its area is 1,352.54 square kilometres (522.22 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,102,773.
The Yamato Hotels were a chain of hotels in Manchuria owned and operated by the South Manchuria Railway during the period from the 1910s to 1940s. Some of these hotels still exist in Northeast China, used as art nouveau hotels under different names.
The Ryojun Guard District was the major navy base for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Kwantung Leased Territory before and during Second Sino-Japanese War. Located in at Ryojun), (present-day Lüshunkou, China, The Ryojun Guard District was responsible for control of the strategic seaward approaches to Manchukuo and to north China and for patrols in the Yellow Sea and along the China coastlines. It was disbanded in 1943.
Located at the southernmost point of the Liaodong Peninsula, the city of Dalian came under the territorial control of the Russian Empire from 1898 until that country's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. The Russians called the city Dalniy, which means “distant” or "remote", describing the city's location relative to the Russian heartland. The modern Chinese name, Dalian, comes from a Chinese reading of the Japanese colonial name Dairen, which itself was a loose transliteration of Dalniy. Under Russian control, Dalniy grew into a vibrant port city and before its loss in 1905 was one terminus of the Russian-controlled Chinese Eastern Railway.
Lüshun railway station is located in Lüshunkou District of Dalian City, China, and is the final stop of the Dalian-Lushun branch of the Dalian-Harbin railway. It sits on the east side of the Long River, within a hundred meters of the Lüshun Naval Port, its building being of the Russian-style wooden architecture.
The Petrov Case is a 1950 mystery fiction novel by a Japanese novelist, Tetsuya Ayukawa. It is Ayukawa’s debut novel, and is based on memories and experiences from Ayukawa’s childhood in Manchuria. The story was also the first in a long series of novels featuring the same protagonist, “Detective Onitsura”.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.
關東, 关东, or 関東, all literally meaning East of the Pass, may refer to the following:
The Renkyō Line was the primary trunk line of the South Manchuria Railway from 1907 to 1945. The 701.4 km (435.8 mi) line ran between Dalian (Dairen) and Changchun (Xinjing).
The Manshū Nichi-Nichi Shimbun was a Japanese-language newspaper owned by the South Manchuria Railway Company and printed from 3 November 1907 until Japan's defeat in the Second World War in 1945. Printed in Dairen, capital of the Japanese-controlled Kwantung Leased Territory, and from 1938 in Mukden, it was the most influential newspaper serving the growing Japanese settler population in northeastern China. In 1927, it merged with the rival Ryōtō Shimpō and was renamed the Manshū Nippō, before returning to its original name in 1935 following another merger with Dairen Shimbun, whereupon it gained a complete monopoly on Japanese-language news in what had become the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. In 1944, it briefly changed its name back to Manshū Nippō before going out of print in 1945 following Japan's defeat in the war and subsequent withdrawal from Manchuria.
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