Kwekwe

Last updated

Kwekwe
City
Kwekwe.jpg
Main Street
Kwekwe seal.jpg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Kwelaz
Motto(s): 
The Now City in Touch with Tomorrow
Zimbabwe adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kwekwe
Coordinates: 18°55′S29°49′E / 18.917°S 29.817°E / -18.917; 29.817 Coordinates: 18°55′S29°49′E / 18.917°S 29.817°E / -18.917; 29.817
Country Zimbabwe
Province Midlands
District Kwekwe
Established1898
Government
  TypeCity council
  Mayor Angeline Kasipo
  Member of Parliament, MPMasango Matambanadzo
Elevation
1,220 m (4,000 ft)
Population
  Total100,900
 2012 census
Time zone UTC+2 (CAT)
Area code(s) 055
Climate BSh
Website http://www.kwekwecity.org.zw/

Kwekwe ( /ˈkwkw/ KWEH-kweh), known until 1983 as Que Que, [1] is a city in the Midlands province of central Zimbabwe. The city has an estimated population of about 120,000 residents live within the city limits as of 2019, making it the 6th-largest city in Zimbabwe and the second-most populous city in the Midlands, behind Gweru.

Contents

Location

It is located in Kwekwe District, in the Midlands, in the center of the country, roughly equidistant from Harare to the northeast and Bulawayo to the southwest. It has witnessed robust population growth since the 1980s, growing from 47,607 in 1982, 75,425 in 1992 and the preliminary result of the 2002 census suggests a population of 88,000. In 2012, the city's population was estimated at 100,900 people. It is a centre for steel and fertiliser production in the country.

Kwekwe and neighbouring Redcliff are the headquarters of Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company (ZISCO), the country's largest steelworks. It also hosts the Zimbabwe Iron and Smelting Company (ZIMASCO), the largest ferrochrome producer, and one of the biggest power generating plants, ZESA-Munyati, in Munyati, a suburb of Kwekwe. Kwekwe is Zimbabwe's richest city in terms of minerals.

History

Kwekwe town was founded in 1898 as a gold mining town, and hosts Zimbabwe's National Mining Museum. Like much of the Midlands, KweKwe owes its prosperity to the Great Dyke and its mineral wealth which stretches down to Gwanda, some 500km southwest. The towns name originates from the large population of croaking frogs that populated the Kwekwe river in the early 1900s, hence its original name Que Que. The promise of wealth at the time attracted thousands of speculators from as far afield as Australia and New Zealand. Though the amount of gold found was underwhelming, deposits of chrome, and the production of iron, steel, aluminum and glass, have kept the city growing since.

KweKwe remains an industrial centre of the country. The name stems from the Zulu word "isikwekwe", which means "scurvy", "mange" or "scab". [2] In recent years, the area has attempted to diversify its economic base to education, tourism, and services, attracting a growing campus of Midlands State University, though its tourism industry remains at infancy, compared to larger cities. Although Kwekwe has successfully diversified its economy and continues to grow, especially compared to de-industialising Bulawayo, the city continues to face the same economic challenges facing the rest of the country.

Geography

The town is situated on Zimbabwe's Highveld at an altitude of 1,220 metres (4,000 ft), above sea level. It is located in the tropics but its high altitude modifies this to a warm temperate or humid subtropical climate.

The average annual temperature is 19 °C (66 °F). [3] As with much of the Highveld, summers are long and pleasant, as the temperature depends on the amount of cloudiness and indirectly the amount of rain received. Drought years are hotter than wetter years. The climate is hot and wet during the summer rainy season from mid November to mid March, with cool, dry weather from May to mid-August in the winter season, and warm dry weather from August to mid November. During summertime, the average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) at daytime, but it can get above 30 °C (86 °F) on the hottest days.

Winters are characterised mainly by their cold nights, with an average minimum temperature of 7 °C (45 °F), and are the sunniest time of the year. During winter, cold fronts from the Indian Ocean to the southeast, bringing cool, drizzly weather, often peaking in August and early September. They can move very quickly, bringing cloudy weather one day, followed by mild sunshine the next. Kwekwe's weather is also influenced by the air masses from the north in summer, bringing hot and dry weather in October, followed by summer rain [4] .

Climate data for Kwekwe (1961–1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)28.4
(83.1)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
25.5
(77.9)
25.5
(77.9)
23.3
(73.9)
26.0
(78.8)
29.5
(85.1)
31.1
(88.0)
29.5
(85.1)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
Average low °C (°F)16.9
(62.4)
16.5
(61.7)
15.0
(59.0)
12.8
(55.0)
8.7
(47.7)
8.7
(47.7)
5.9
(42.6)
7.8
(46.0)
11.7
(53.1)
15.2
(59.4)
16.5
(61.7)
16.9
(62.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches)158.7
(6.25)
119.1
(4.69)
62.6
(2.46)
29.1
(1.15)
5.3
(0.21)
2.0
(0.08)
0.5
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
5.4
(0.21)
24.8
(0.98)
85.4
(3.36)
144.6
(5.69)
637.9
(25.11)
Average rainy days13106300001491359
Source: World Meteorological Organization [5]

Culture and recreation

Kwekwe has always been a festive and social centre with a mild political atmosphere. It is a multicultural city. In and around the city one is assured to come across Shona, Ndebele, Karanga, Chewa, Venda, Tonga language and Nambya speaking people.

Association Football, cricket and rugby union are the main sports in the city, much like the rest of the country. Kwekwe hosts one of Zimbabwe's major provincial cricket sides – the Mid West Rhinos. Their cricket ground has been host to several first class and one day matches, and has even hosted some internationals, most notably against Kenya. Kwekwe also hosts a variety of touring sides versus Zimbabwe 'A' teams. Almost all of the schools in Kwekwe play cricket.

Kwekwe hosts two football (soccer) clubs, the Lancashire Steel (named after a local steel company) and Kwekwe Cables. The Kwekwe Queens Club is also a reputable sporting establishment, with a sizeable membership and drinking crowd. Lancashire Steel FC, the main team in the city, has been in the PSL a number of times. At its home stadium, Baghdad Stadium, it has hosted a number of big teams in the country, including Dynamos FC, and Highlanders FC.

Golf tournaments are hosted by Kwekwe Golf Club.

Tongai Moyo, and Bob Nyabinde are popular singers in the country who hail from Kwekwe. Bantu Entertainment Zimbabwe is one of the city's arts and culture promotion stable that is fighting to develop the performing arts in the City. Kwekwe is a major stop for many music groups in the country who perform at Mbizo Stadium. The cricketer Charles Coventry also hails from Kwekwe – he is best known for equaling the ODI World Record of 194 runs in an innings. The city is also the birthplace of former cricketer Norman Featherstone.

A stampede at Mbizo Stadium killed 11 people in 2014.

Education

Kwekwe is well endowed with many educational facilities. Most are state-run. For university education, the closest facilities are 60 km away in Gweru, the Midlands Province capital, at Midlands State University.

Primary and secondary schools

Like most urban areas in the country, the city of Kwekwe hosts dozens of schools. Amaveni High School, Mbizo High School and Manunure High School recently expanded to offer A-level classes. Amaveni High serves the high density suburb of Amaveni while Mbizo and Manunure serve the high density suburb of Mbizo. Shungu High School is located about 16 km from Kwekwe. It is a Catholic run school. The middle-class suburbs close to the city centre have Kwekwe High School and Goldridge College, plus the primary schools including Goldridge Primary School, Fitchlea Primary School, Kwekwe Junior High School and Globe & Phoenix Primary School, Maryward Primary School and Sally Mugabe Primary School. There is almost one primary school for about four sections of the high density areas

Tertiary education

Kwekwe Polytechnic and Midlands State University, Kwekwe are the city's major tertiary educational institutions. Sable Chemicals and ZISCO Steel run apprenticeship programs with the polytechnic and with other universities in Zimbabwe. Recently the polytechnic has started offering B-tech degrees. Plans are underway to convert it into a modern university.

Cityscape

A scene close to the bus terminus in Kwekwe, 2006 Kwekwe Scene.jpg
A scene close to the bus terminus in Kwekwe, 2006
Mbizo One Extension, a new addition to one of the oldest suburbs in the town, 2006 Mbizo One Extension.jpg
Mbizo One Extension, a new addition to one of the oldest suburbs in the town, 2006

The residential suburbs in the city are divided into higher and lower density areas. The main suburbs in the town are Mbizo Township, Amaveni Township, Msasa Park, Goldrich, Hillandale, Newtown, Gaika, Beverly Hills, Chicago, Golden Acres, Southwood and Fitchlea. [6]

Kwekwe's suburbs are divided into low cost housing, residential housing and also industrial and railway housing. Kwekwe has only one set of traffic lights which are just outside the city centre on a road leading to the high density suburb of Mbizo.

Amaveni Township and Mbizo Township are low-cost housing suburbs. These two slum areas were primarily built close to the mines for the use of mineworkers, and the most successful businesses, especially local bars known as beer halls, serve this customer base. Then there are the middle-class homes in the Fitchlea area. This area is made up of big three- and four-bedroom homes and is still home to wealthy families despite the collapse of the economy.

Masasa Park and New Town are among the wealthier suburbs. The very wealthy upper-class families reside mugomo (on the mountain) in the suburb of Chicago although New Town is considered the richest area in the town. This is subdivided into mini-suburbs such as Hazeldene. The homes in this area are significantly larger than most, and are usually staffed with 2–4 domestic workers and, at times, security guards.

The town lies on the Bulawayo–Harare railway line. It is home to two mosques, a meetinghouse for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Seventh-day Adventist, Salvation Army, Protestant and Catholic churches.

Kwekwe has paved roads leading to Gweru, Kadoma, Mvuma and Gokwe Business Centre hence it is considered a well-connected city. Besides being close to the geographical centre of the country, Kwekwe is also strategically located within the Midlands metropolitan area. Kwekwe, together with Gweru, Munyati, Kadoma and Redcliff form a single customer base for local commercial enterprises.

Economy

As elsewhere in Zimbabwe, a growing proportion of the population depends on the informal sector, possibly more than half of the population. Many self-employed miners carry out unauthorised digging work just north of the city, panning for gold, one of the most lucrative sources of income. Other residents engage in less strenuous work as cobblers, carpenters, TV and radio repairmen, and vendors selling anything from onions to meat.

Mining

Part of the informal sector in the town: vendors selling snacks to travellers in a bus Kwekwe Vendors.jpg
Part of the informal sector in the town: vendors selling snacks to travellers in a bus

Gold is mined in the city, and is the reason the city was established. At one stage, the Globe and Phoenix Mine around which the town developed (circa 1900) was the biggest gold mine in the country. In the local mining museum on its premises stands a relic of these boom days called the Paper House, a wood and reinforced cardboard structure in striking green and white. This two-bedroom dwelling on stilts (presumably to combat the heat and protect from termites) was home to the first mine manager, and was once slept in by Cecil John Rhodes, the colonial empire builder who was closely connected with the early development of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe's former name). Kwekwe was originally a gold mining camp and is today characterised by the large mines in its vicinity producing gold, and the chrome ore and iron ore used in steelmaking.

Four gold deposits within the Kwekwe district have been studied. The Primrose and Globe and Phoenix gold deposits display typical features of Archean orogenic lode gold systems such as fluid inclusions with low salinity, mixed aqueous-carbonic fluids, formation temperatures between 300 and 400 °C, and a common stable isotope composition of fluid and mineral precipitates. Deposits of this type formed in the brittle-ductile crustal transition zone at 1.5 to 3.0 kbars. In contrast, gold mineralisation at Jojo and especially the Indarama gold deposits probably formed at lower temperatures (<<300 °C) and from dominantly aqueous, early moderate- to late high-salinity fluids. [7]

Manufacturing

Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company (ZISCO) and Lancashire Steel are the major players in the city. ZISCO, with its satellite town of Redcliff, is the centre of Zimbabwe's steel industry. Lancashire Steel (Pvt. Ltd.) is involved in the manufacture of steel rods and wire. [8]

Dairy Industry

Dendairy is the second largest dairy producer in Zimbabwe which is now a major player in the manufacturing business in Kwekwe. Dendairy is the only dairy company in Zimbabwe that is able to produce UHT milk that has a shelf life of up to a year. Dendairy produces UHT milk, maas (fermented) milk, yogurt, ice cream and fruit juices. Dendairy have the only Tetra Pak Plant in Zimbabwe which packs boxed UHT long life milk that has a shelf life of one year.

Chemicals

Sable Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. is located just outside the city. It is the only producer of fertiliser in the whole country. [9] Sable Chemicals produce hydrogen for their ammonia required in the manufacture of fertiliser using the world's largest electrolysis plant. This requires half the electricity available from the Kariba hydroelectric power station.

Services

The main retailers and banks in the country have branches in Kwekwe. OK and TM Supermarkets have outlets along the main street in the town. Kingdom Bank, Trust Bank, Barclays Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, CBZ Bank, Stanbic Bank, Allied Bank and Ecobank all maintain branches in city.

Travel and Tourism

Kwekwe Mosque Kwekwe Mosque.jpg
Kwekwe Mosque

Despite the poor economy, some small tourist operators maintain hunting and photographic safari licences on farms and concessions near town, where an abundance of wildlife can be seen, including rhino, elephant, leopard, lion and most big antelope (such as kudu, eland, sable, and tsessebe). The Kwekwe Sports Club hosts games by Zimbabwe's Midlands provincial cricket side, and hosted a One Day International against Kenya in 2002, along with a number of matches between Zimbabwe A and touring teams. Sebakwe dam is one of the main tourist attractions whereby tourists can waterskii, hunt, view game and camp. Sable Park is a recreational privately owned game reserve.

The National Mining Museum, dedicated to the mining industry in the country, is one of the main tourist attractions in the city, near the entrance of Gold and Phoenix mine. The museum is housed at Paper House, a wood framed, prefrabricated building constructed and shipped from the United Kingdom to Zimbabwe in 1894. Despite its unorthodox construction, the building remains in excellent condition and is a city landmark. Other notable attractions in the city include, Sebakwe Recreational Park, Sebakwe Dam, Echo Park and Lower Zivangwe Dam (commonly known by residents as Dutchman's Pool) [10]

Public services

Politics

The member of parliament (MP) for Kwekwe Central constituency was Emmerson Mnangagwa until his defeat in the elections of 2000. Since then, Blessing Chebundo of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) has represented the district in the Parliament of Zimbabwe. Kwekwe politics is mainly dominated by MDC.

As with other Zimbabwean towns run by opposition parties, Kwekwe saw a number of politically motivated incidents during the 2000s and early 2010s, in which people were killed and arrested.

See also

Related Research Articles

Midlands Province Province in Zimbabwe

Midlands is a province of Zimbabwe. It has an area of 49,166 square kilometres (18,983 sq mi) and a population of 1,614,941 (2012). It is home to various peoples. Located at a central point in the country, it contains speakers of Shona, Ndebele, Tswana, Sotho and Chewa, as well as of various other languages. Gweru, the third-largest city in Zimbabwe, is the capital of the province.

Gweru City in Midlands, Zimbabwe

Gweru is a city in central Zimbabwe. Near the geographical centre of the country, it is the capital of Midlands Province. Originally an area known to the indigenous Ndebele as "The Steep Place" because of the Gweru River's high banks, in 1894 it became the site of a military outpost established by Leander Starr Jameson. In 1914 it attained municipal status, and in 1971 it became a city.

Redcliff, Zimbabwe Place in Midlands, Zimbabwe

Redcliff is a town situated in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe, with a population of approximately 35,000. It lies about 219 km (136 mi) north-east of Bulawayo.

Kwekwe High School School in Zimbabwe

Kwekwe High School is a high school in the city of Kwekwe, in the Midlands Region of Zimbabwe. It was known until 1982 as Que Que High School. The school motto is Non Sibi Sed Omnibus. Kwekwe High is an co-ed interracial school that offers education from Form 1 up to Form 6 and offers sports such as rugby, cricket, tennis, basketball, swimming, field hockey, netball and volleyball. The school was founded in the early twentieth century, and was a combined primary and secondary school until the late 1920s when it was separated. At its inception the school mainly served the children of white employees of the Globe and Phoenix Gold Mine and of industries based on nearby deposits of iron and chromite, along with the children of local white farmers and ranchers. The school was opened to students of all races in 1980. It has some 1,500 students and 50 teachers, with six of them teaching mathematics. The class sizes are usually between 40 and 43 students per class.

Zhombe Communal land in Midlands, Zimbabwe

Zhombe is a rural communal area in Kwekwe District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe.It is an area of mixed Shona and Northern Ndebele People.It lies along Mnyathi Border line between Midlands and Mashonaland Provinces. There are a few commercial farms within its borders and a handful of resettlement areas. Most of it is within the Zhombe Constituency. Its administrative centre is the Zhombe Joel Growth Point, and it is under the Zibagwe Rural District Council.

Midlands State University

Midlands State University is a government owned university in Zimbabwe. The university has 9 faculties offering a wide variety of courses and many specialist programmes. The university is accredited through the National Council for Higher Education, under the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education of Zimbabwe.

Amaveni Township is a high density suburb in Kwekwe, Zimbabwe. It is about 5 kilometres (3 mi) west of the city's central business district. The township's name of 'Amaveni' according to one of its first residents, the late Jonas Macela Nkomo (1908–2002), was derived from a Ndebele army's battalion that was called by the same name. The battalion fought during the 1893 Anglo-Ndebele war in Matebeleland region of Zimbabwe.

Kwekwe District District in Kwekwe, Zimbabwe

Kwekwe District is a district in Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company is the largest steel works in Zimbabwe. It is located just outside Kwekwe, in Redcliff. Over the years the company has faced many operational problems and corruption scandals.

Silobela Village in Midlands, Zimbabwe

Silobela is an agricultural village in Kwekwe District in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. It is located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of Kwekwe town, 80 kilometres (50 mi) north-west of Gweru town, and bordering Nkayi on the west.

Sebakwe River

Sebakwe River or Zibagwe River is a river in Zimbabwe.

Mid West Rhinos Zimbabwean cricket team

The Mid West Rhinos is one of the four cricket Zimbabwean cricket franchises. They are a first-class cricket team, based in Midlands Province and the Mashonaland West area. They play their home matches at Kwekwe Sports Club in Kwekwe.

The Kwekwe-Gokwe Highway or the R84-7 Highway is an all-weather bitumen macadam highway in Zimbabwe running from Kwekwe to Gokwe passing through Zhombe. as a trunk road it is officially the P11 Highway

Gweru District District in Midlands, Zimbabwe

Gweru District is a district in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe.

Sebakwe Dam Dam in Kwekwe District, Zimbabwe

Sebakwe Dam is a dam in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. It was built in 1957 and owned by the Zimbabwe government. It is across Sebakwe River in the Sanyati Catchment Area.

Globe and Phoenix Mine is a gold mine in Zimbabwe. It is just outside Kwekwe CBD.

The Gaika Mine, now known as the Gaika Gold Fields, is situated in what was Chicago Farm just about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south of Kwekwe CBC. The Gaika Mine was the earliest mine developed in 1894, then Globe and Phoenix in 1895-1900, the Eldorado in 1905, the Antelope in 1908, the Cam and Motor Mine in 1909, the Shamva Mine in 1909-1910, and numerous others during the period 1895-1911.

The A5 Highway is a national road in Zimbabwe. It joins the cities of Harare and Bulawayo, and is hence known as the Harare-Bulawayo Highway or Harare-Bulawayo Road.

Prag Lalloo Naran was a Zimbabwean politician and businessman recognized as a "Nationalist for the struggle for Zimbabwe’s independence," and a "leading member of the (Zimbabwe) Asian Community".

References

  1. Names (Alteration) Act Chapter 10:14 Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  2. THIS IS OUR LAND. Stories and Legends of the two Rhodesias by Frank Clements. p.43, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, 1963.
  3. Average monthly data 1971 – 2000, GHCN Climate averages
  4. https://en.climate-data.org/africa/zimbabwe/midlands-province/kwekwe-25753/
  5. "World Weather Information Service – Kwekwe". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  6. iConnect Online; sharing knowledge on ICT4D – Computer training & e-commerce Archived 23 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Peter Buchholz{dagger} and Thomas Oberthür. Economic Geology; May 2007; v. 102; no. 3; p. 347–378; doi : 10.2113/gsecongeo.102.3.347
  8. Lancashire Steel (Private) Ltd. | Kwekwe, Zimbabwe | Company Profile, Research, News, Information, Contacts
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. https://www.google.com/books/edition/Zimbabwe/7_ir4Y5RphUC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=kwekwe&pg=PA174&printsec=frontcover
  11. http://etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-07242006-152936/unrestricted/00front.pdf%5B%5D