|• Revised Romanization||Gyeongheung-gun|
Map of North Hamgyong showing the location of Kyonghung
|Province||North Hamgyong Province|
|Administrative divisions||1 ŭp;, 3 workers' districts, 12 ri|
|• Total||920 km2 (360 sq mi)|
|Population (1991 est.)|
Kyŏnghŭng County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. Formerly known as Ŭndŏk County (Chosŏn'gŭl : 은덕군; Hancha : 恩德郡), from 1977 to 2010.
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. Nevertheless, North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
The county borders the People's Republic of China to the northeast. With the exception of the southwest, it is dominated by low hills, with occasional plains. The highest point is Songjinsan (1,146 m (3,760 ft)). The dominant river is the Tumen, which separates the county from China. The level ground along the Tumen is developed, but approximately 80% of the county is forested.
The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman or Duman River, is a 521-kilometre (324 mi) long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into Sea of Japan. The river has a drainage basin of 33,800 km2.
Mining, particularly coal mining, is the chief industry in Undok, where lignite is found; Undok is the site of the Aoji Coal Mine. In addition, farming and livestock raising are widespread. The chief crops are maize, rice, soybeans, and potatoes. The Aoji-ri Chemical Complex is located in the county as well.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States, "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content. It has a carbon content around 60–70 percent. It is mined all around the world, is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation, and is the coal which is most harmful to health.
The Aoji-ri Chemical Complex is a large industrial complex in Haksong-ri, Kyŏnghŭng county, South P'yŏngan province, North Korea, which produces about 51 different products, including methane, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, and coal tar derivatives. It also allegedly produces blood agents and vomiting agents, including Adamsite.
Undok lies on the Hambuk Line and Hoeam Line railroads.
The Hambuk Line is an electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway in North Korea, running from Ch'ŏngjin) on the P'yŏngra Line to Rajin, likewise on the P'yŏngra line.
The Hoeam Line is a 10.4 km (6.5 mi) non-electrified secondary line of the Korean State Railway in Kyŏnghŭng County, North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea, running from Haksong on the Hambuk Line to Obong.
Under Joseon period "Kyunghung", the ancient name of Undok, was one of the six post/garrisons (Chosŏn'gŭl : 육진; Hancha : 六鎭) establish under the order of King Sejong the Great of Joseon in 1433, to safeguard his people from the hostile Chinese and Manchurian nomads living in Manchuria
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls entirely within the People's Republic of China or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is widely used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of the Koreans, Xianbei, Khitan, and Jurchen peoples, who built several states within the area historically.
Kyŏnghŭng County is divided into 1 town ("Ŭp") 12 villages ("Ri") and 3 worker's districts ("Rodongjagu").
The Radio and Television Broadcasting Committee of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, also known as Korean Central Broadcasting Committee and Korean Central Broadcasting, is a state-owned broadcaster of North Korea.
Sonbong County, formerly called Unggi, is a subdivision of the North Korean city of Rason. It is located at the northeastern extreme of North Korea, bordering Russia and China. It lies on Unggi Bay, an extension of the Sea of Japan. A uranium mine is allegedly located there, as is a 200 megawatt oil-fired power plant. The word Sonbong means "Vanguard" in Korean.
Hoeryŏng is a city in North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea. It is located opposite Jilin Province, China, with the Tumen River in between. Sanhe (三合鎮), in Longjing City, is the closest Chinese town across the river. Hoeryŏng is claimed to be the birthplace of Kim Il Sung's first wife and Kim Jong Il's mother, Kim Jong Suk. The Hoeryong Revolutionary Site commemorates the birthplace.
Onsŏng County is a county (kun) in North Hamgyong Province, North Korea, located near the border with China. The administrative center is the town (ŭp) of Onsong. Onsong is the alleged site of the former Onsong concentration camp, now closed.
Musan County is a county in central North Hamgyong province, North Korea. It borders the People's Republic of China to the north, across the Tumen River. It is divided into one ŭp, six labor districts, and fifteen ri. The county seat is the town of Musan, Musan ŭp. Luguo and Dehua are the closest Chinese cities across the river.
Myŏnggan County, formerly known as Hwasŏng County, is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. Unlike many Korean districts that date from the Joseon Dynasty, Hwasong was created after liberation. Yŏngan was established in 1952, separated from Myŏngch'ŏn. In 1967 Yŏngan was renamed to Myŏnggan, in 1981 to Hwasŏng, and in 2004 to Myŏnggan.
Ŏrang County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It is situated on the coast of the Sea of Japan. Originally part of Kyŏngsŏng county, Ŏrang was created in 1952 following the division of Korea.
Yŏnsa County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It was created following the division of Korea, being split off from Musan county in the 1952 reorganization of local government.
Kyŏngwŏn County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyong province, North Korea, located at, formerly known as Saebyŏl. It is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the north and east, Kyonghung to the southeast, Hoeryong to the southwest, and Onsong to the west.
Puryŏng County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
Chŏngp'yŏng County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It borders South P'yŏngan province to the south, and the East Korea Bay to the east.
Sinhŭng County is a mountainous county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea.
Ch'ŏrwŏn County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Portions of it were once a single county together with the county of the same name in South Korea; other portions were added from neighbouring counties in the 1952 reorganization of local governments. After the initial division of Korea, the entire county lay to the Northern side of the dividing line, but in the course of the Korean War part of the county was taken by the South.
Kŭmgang County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Kŭmgang lies immediately north of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. It was formed in 1952 from a portion of Hoeyang County and from those sections of Yanggu, and Rinje counties that remained under Northern control after the armistice. The county takes its name from the Mount Kŭmgang, which is partially located there. The county seat, Kŭmgang-ŭp, was formerly called Malhwi-ri.
Kapsan County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang province, North Korea. During the Chosŏn Dynasty, officials who had fallen into disfavour were often sent into internal exile there.
Taehongdan County is a kun, or county, in Ryanggang province, North Korea. It was originally part of Musan County.
Rangrim County is a kun, or county, on the eastern flank of Chagang province, North Korea. It was created in 1952 from portions of Changgang and Changjin, as part of a general reorganization of local government. Originally part of South Hamgyong, it was transferred to Chagang province in 1954. It borders Hwapyong and Ryanggang's Kimjongsuk and Kimhyongjik counties to the north, South Hamgyong's Pujon county to the east and Changjin to the south, as well as the counties of Changgang, Songgan, and Ryongnim to the west.
The Pyong'an dialect, alternatively Northwestern Korean, is the Korean dialect of the northwestern Korean peninsula and neighboring parts of China. It has influenced the standard Korean of North Korea, but is not the primary influence of North Korea's standard Korean.