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Kyoto City
Kyoto montage.jpg
From top left: Tō-ji, Gion Matsuri in modern Kyoto, Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kiyomizu-dera, Kinkaku-ji, Ponto-chō and Maiko, Ginkaku-ji, Cityscape from Higashiyama and Kyoto Tower
Flag of Kyoto City.svg
Emblem of Kyoto, Kyoto.svg
Kyoto in Kyoto Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Kyoto in Kyoto Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates: 35°0′42″N135°46′6″E / 35.01167°N 135.76833°E / 35.01167; 135.76833 Coordinates: 35°0′42″N135°46′6″E / 35.01167°N 135.76833°E / 35.01167; 135.76833
Country Japan
Region Kansai
Prefecture Kyoto Prefecture
  Type Mayor–council
  BodyKyoto City Assembly
  Mayor Daisaku Kadokawa
   Designated city 827.83 km2 (319.63 sq mi)
Highest elevation
971 m (3,186 ft)
Lowest elevation
9 m (30 ft)
 (October 1, 2015) [1]
   Designated city 1,475,183
(2018) [2]
  Rank 9th, Japan
  Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
[3] (2015)
2,801,044 (JP: 4th)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- Tree Weeping Willow, Japanese Maple and Katsura
- Flower Camellia, Azalea and Sugar Cherry
Kyoto (Chinese characters).svg
"Kyoto" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 京都
Hiragana きょうと
Katakana キョウト

Kyoto(京都,Kyōto, /kiˈt/ ; [4] Japanese:  [kʲoːꜜto] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially Kyoto City(京都市,Kyōto-shi, Japanese:  [kʲoːtoꜜɕi] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. For over a thousand years, Kyoto was the former Imperial capital of Japan but is now a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area.

Cities of Japan administrative division of Japan

A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947.

Kyoto Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Kyoto Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan in the Kansai region of the island of Honshu. Its capital is the city of Kyoto.

Kansai region Region

The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Nara, Wakayama, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui, Tokushima and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable. The urban region of Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area.



18th-century map with the Japanese capital "Meaco" Meaco in map.jpg
18th-century map with the Japanese capital "Meaco"

In Japanese, Kyoto was previously called Kyō (), Miyako (), or Kyō no Miyako (京の都). In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto ("capital city"), from the Middle Chinese calligraphic, kˠiæŋtuo (京都) [5] . After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo (東京, meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868 and the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō (西京, meaning "Western Capital"). Kyoto is also sometimes called the thousand-year capital (千年の都).

Middle Chinese or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionary recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology.

Edo Former city in Musashi, Japan

Edo, also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world".

Tokyo Capital of Japan

Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.

The National Diet never officially passed any law designating a capital. [6] Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto, Miaco and Meaco, utilised mainly by Dutch cartographers. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi( 京師 ), meaning "urba" or "capital". [7]

National Diet legislature of Japan

The National Diet is Japan's bicameral legislature. It is composed of a lower house called the House of Representatives, and an upper house, called the House of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under parallel voting systems. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of adopting the Meiji Constitution. The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution, which considers it the highest organ of state power. The National Diet Building is in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo.


18th-century European town map of "Miaco" John Gaspar Scheuchzer - Ichnographia urbis Miaco - Historical map of Kyoto - 18th century.jpg
18th-century European town map of "Miaco"


Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, [8] although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines.

Japanese Paleolithic archaeological culture

The Japanese Paleolithic period is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery, generally before 10,000 BC. The starting dates commonly given to this period are from around 40,000 BC; although any date of human presence before 35,000 BC is controversial, with artifacts supporting a pre-35,000 BC human presence on the archipelago being of questionable authenticity. The period extended to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jōmon period, or around 14,000 BC.

Shimogamo Shrine Shinto shrines in Kyoto, Japan

Shimogamo Shrine in Japanese, is the common name of an important Shinto sanctuary in the Shimogamo district of Kyoto city's Sakyō ward. Its formal name is Kamo-mioya-jinja (賀茂御祖神社). It is one of the oldest Shinto shrines in Japan and is one of the seventeen Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto which have been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The term Kamo-jinja in Japanese is a general reference to Shimogamo Shrine and Kamigamo Shrine, the traditionally linked Kamo shrines of Kyoto; Shimogamo is the older of the pair, being believed to be 100 years older than Kamigamo, and dating to the 6th century, centuries before Kyoto became the capital of Japan. The Kamo-jinja serve the function of protecting Kyoto from malign influences.


During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province. [9]

Buddhism World religion, founded by the Buddha

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana.

Emperor Kanmu Emperor of Japan

Emperor Kammu was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kammu reigned from 781 to 806.

Nara, Nara Core city in Kansai, Japan

Nara is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture, bordering Kyoto Prefecture. Eight temples, shrines, and ruins in Nara remain: specifically Tōdai-ji, Saidai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, Kasuga Shrine, Gangō-ji, Yakushi-ji, Tōshōdai-ji, and the Heijō Palace, together with Kasugayama Primeval Forest, collectively form "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara", a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During the Nara period, Nara was the capital of Japan, and the Emperor lived there before moving the capital to Kyoto.

The new city, Heian-kyō (平安京, "tranquility and peace capital"), a scaled replica of the then Tang capital Chang'an, [10] became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto (Muromachi shogunate) or in other cities such as Kamakura (Kamakura shogunate) and Edo (Tokugawa shogunate), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration.

Heian-kyō former name of Kyoto, capital of Japan 794-1868

Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.

Changan ancient city of China

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.

Heian period last major division of classical Japanese history (794 to 1185), named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto

The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian (平安) means "peace" in Japanese.

The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, and power was divided among the military families. [11] Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility ( kuge ) and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since.

In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called odoi(御土居) encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo.

Modern Kyoto

Kyoto skyline Kyoto Skyline - Pentinlo.jpg
Kyoto skyline
Downtown Kyoto Si Tiao Jing Ban Qian (basu), Kyoto, Japan (Unsplash).jpg
Downtown Kyoto
View of Kyoto from beside the Hondo (Ben Tang ) of Kiyomizudera (Jing Du Qing Shui Si ). - 1879 1879 view of Kyoto.jpg
View of Kyoto from beside the Hondō (本堂) of Kiyomizudera (京都 清水寺). – 1879

The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. [13] The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. [14]

There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to possibly persuade the emperor to surrender. [15] In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki. The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties.[ citation needed ]

As a result, the Imperial City (Emeritus) of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya . However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex.

Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions.

Historical population
1889 279,165    
1900 371,600+33.1%
1910 470,033+26.5%
1920 591,323+25.8%
1930 765,142+29.4%
1940 1,089,726+42.4%
1950 1,101,854+1.1%
1960 1,284,818+16.6%
1970 1,419,165+10.5%
1980 1,473,065+3.8%
1990 1,461,103−0.8%
2000 1,467,785+0.5%
2010 1,474,015+0.4%
2015 1,475,183+0.1%
Source: [14]


Kyoto seen from Mount Atago in the northwest corner of the city Atago07.JPG
Kyoto seen from Mount Atago in the northwest corner of the city

Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level. This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, and the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres (319.7 sq mi).

The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an. The Imperial Palace faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, and Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern.

Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names.

Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Due to large-scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate.


Historically, Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo (Tokyo) towards the end of the 16th century. In the pre-war years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. In 1947, it went back to being 3rd. By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th, in 2015 it is now 9th.


Kyoto has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), featuring a marked seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Summers are hot and humid, but winters are relatively cold with occasional snowfall. Kyoto's rain season begins around the middle of June and lasts until the end of July, yielding to a hot and sunny latter half of the summer. Kyoto, along with most of the Pacific coast and central areas of Japan is prone to typhoons during September and October.

Climate data for Kyoto, Kyoto
Record high °C (°F)19.9
Average high °C (°F)8.9
Daily mean °C (°F)4.6
Average low °C (°F)1.2
Record low °C (°F)−11.9
Average precipitation mm (inches)50.3
Average snowfall cm (inches)5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)
Average snowy days3.
Average relative humidity (%)66666259626770666868686866
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.2117.4146.8175.4180.9138.3142.3182.7136.8157.4138.1135.81,775.1
Source #1: 平年値(年・月ごとの値)
Source #2: (record temperatures) 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)

Politics and government

Kyoto City Hall Kyoto city hall.JPG
Kyoto City Hall

The directly elected executive mayor in Kyoto as of 2013 is Daisaku Kadokawa, an independent supported by Democratic Party of Japan, Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito Party, Your Party and Social Democratic Party. The legislative city assembly has 69 elected members.

Kyoto City Assembly

Political partyNumber of seats [16]
Liberal Democratic Party 22
Japanese Communist Party 14
Democratic Party of Japan 13
New Komeito Party 12
Kyoto Party4



Wards of Kyoto Kyoto city map.png
Wards of Kyoto

Kyoto has eleven wards (,ku).

Wards of Kyoto
1 Fushimi-ku 伏見区
2 Higashiyama-ku 東山区
3 Kamigyō-ku 上京区
4 Kita-ku 北区
5 Minami-ku 南区
6 Nakagyō-ku
administrative center
7 Nishikyō-ku 西京区
8 Sakyo-ku 左京区
9 Shimogyō-ku 下京区
10 Ukyō-ku 右京区
11 Yamashina-ku 山科区

Together, they make up the city of Kyoto. Like other cities in Japan, Kyoto has a single mayor and a city council.


A tsukemono shop on Nishiki Street Tsukemono shop by Gavin Anderson in Nishiki Ichiba, Kyoto.jpg
A tsukemono shop on Nishiki Street

Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was not entirely destroyed in WWII. It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center, which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits. [17] [18] Kyoto has been, and still remains, Japan's cultural center. [19] [20] The government of Japan is relocating the Agency for Cultural Affairs to Kyoto in 2021.

A monk by the Katsura River in Arashiyama Japanese buddhist monk by Arashiyama cut.jpg
A monk by the Katsura River in Arashiyama
Ponto-cho Street Narrow streets of historical part of Kyoto decorated with all kinds of traditional japanese lanterns at a rainy city night.jpg
Ponto-chō Street

With its 2,000 religious places – 1,600 Buddhist temples and 400 Shinto shrines, as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact – it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Among the most famous temples in Japan are Kiyomizu-dera, a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Kinkaku-ji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji, the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji, famous for its rock garden. The Heian Jingū is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the Imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace and Sentō Imperial Palace, homes of the Emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa, one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa, one of its best Japanese gardens. In addition, the temple of Sennyu-ji houses the tombs of the emperors from Shijō to Kōmei.

Other sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama, the Gion and Pontochō geisha quarters, the Philosopher's Walk, and the canals that line some of the older streets.

The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto" are listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. These include the Kamo Shrines (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera, Daigo-ji, Ninna-ji, Saihō-ji (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji, Rokuon-ji (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji, Hongan-ji, Kōzan-ji and the Nijō Castle, primarily built by the Tokugawa shōguns. Other sites outside the city are also on the list.

Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the Kyoto area(京野菜,kyō-yasai).

Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Many jidaigeki , action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura. [21] A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings, which are used for jidaigeki. Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi (the bridge at the entry to Edo), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police box and part of the former Yoshiwara red-light district. Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action.

The dialect spoken in Kyoto is known as Kyō-kotoba or Kyōto-ben, a constituent dialect of the Kansai dialect. When Kyoto was the capital of Japan, the Kyoto dialect was the de facto standard Japanese and influenced the development of Tokyo dialect, the modern standard Japanese. Courtesans performing duties at Tokyo were referred to as "Edokko" (bourgois). Famous Kyoto expressions are a polite copula dosu, an honorific verb ending -haru, a greeting phrase okoshi-yasu "welcome", etc.


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Nintendo main headquarters
Light blue represents the Kyoto metropolitan area defined by Kyoto Toshiken Jichitai Network and blue represents Kyoto MEA. Greater Kyoto area.svg
Light blue represents the Kyoto metropolitan area defined by Kyōto Toshiken Jichitai Network and blue represents Kyoto MEA.
GDP (PPP) per capita [22] [23]

The key industry of Kyoto is information technology and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo, Intelligent Systems, SCREEN Holdings, [24] Tose, Hatena, Omron, [25] Kyocera, Shimadzu Corp., [26] Rohm, [27] Horiba, [28] Nidec Corporation, [29] Nichicon, [30] Nissin Electric, [31] and GS Yuasa.

Tourists are hugely fond of Kyoto, contributing significantly to its economy. The cultural heritage sites of Kyoto are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. In 2014, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto, [32] and it was favoured as the world's best city by U.S. travel magazines. [33]

Traditional Japanese crafts are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in their plants. Kyoto's kimono weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate.

Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Gekkeikan and Takara Holdings are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto.

Other notable businesses headquartered in Kyoto includes Aiful, Ishida, MK, [34] Nissen Holdings, Oh-sho, Sagawa Express, Volks and Wacoal.

The concentration of population to the capital city area is 55%, which is highest among the prefectures. The economic difference between the coastal area and inland area including Kyoto basin is significant. Encompassing ¥ 10.12 trillion, Kyoto MEA has the fourth-largest economy in the country in 2010. [35]

Colleges and universities

Kyoto University Kyoto University.jpg
Kyoto University

Home to 40 institutions of higher education, Kyoto is one of the academic centers in Japan. [36] Kyoto University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. According to the Times Higher Education top-ranking university, Kyoto University is ranked the second university in Japan after University of Tokyo, and 25th overall in the world as of 2010. [37] The Kyoto Institute of Technology is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Popular private universities, such as Doshisha University and Ritsumeikan University are also located in the city.

Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, which consists of three national, three public (prefectural and municipal), and 45 private universities, as well as the city and five other organizations. The combination does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities. [38]

In addition to Japanese universities and colleges, selected American universities, such as Stanford, also operates in the city for education and research. Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) is a combination of 14 American universities that sponsors a two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies. [39]


Kyoto and Karasuma Street seen from Kyoto Tower Kyoto and Karasuma Street (MA 59).jpg
Kyoto and Karasuma Street seen from Kyoto Tower


Kansai Airport express Haruka at Kyoto Station JR West Type 281.jpg
Kansai Airport express Haruka at Kyoto Station

Although Kyoto does not have its own large commercial airport, travelers can get to the city via nearby Itami Airport, Kobe Airport or Kansai International Airport. The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyoto Station in 73 minutes. [40]

Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyoto Station Hachijo Gate in 50 minutes and cost 1,310 yen (as of 2017) for a one-way trip. [41] Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and terminals in the downtown area.


A typical Kyoto Municipal Bus Kyoto City Bus 200 Ka 1519.jpg
A typical Kyoto Municipal Bus

Kyoto's municipal bus network is extensive. Private carriers also operate within the city. Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet.

Most city buses have a fixed fare. A one-day bus pass and a combined unlimited train and bus pass are also available. These are especially useful for visiting many different points of interest within Kyoto. The bus information center just outside the central station handles tickets and passes. The municipal transport company publishes a very useful leaflet called "Bus Navi." It contains a route map for the bus lines to most sights and fare information. This too is available at the information center in front of the main station.

Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyoto Station. In addition to Kyoto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and Sanjō Keihan. The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street, Kyoto's main north–south street.


Cycling is a very important form of personal transportation in the city. The geography and scale of the city are such that the city may be easily navigated on a bicycle. There are five bicycle rental stations and 21 EcoStations in central Kyoto. Because of the large number of cyclists, permitted bicycle parking areas can be difficult to find. [42] Bicycles parked in non-permitted areas are impounded.


Within Kyoto's ancient lanes, one-way system is prevalent and necessary for preservation of its character. The city is connected with other parts of Japan by the Meishin Expressway, which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi (Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami (Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. The Kyoto-Jukan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka.

Although Greater Kyoto has fewer toll-highways than other comparable Japanese cities, it is served with elevated dual and even triple-carriageway national roads. As of 2018, only 10.1 kilometres (6.3 miles) of the Hanshin Expressway Kyoto Route is in operation. [43]

There are nine national highways in the city of Kyoto: Route 1, Route 8, Route 9, Route 24, Route 162, Route 171, Route 367, Route 477 and Route 478.


Inside Kyoto Station JRJing Du Yi  - panoramio (6).jpg
Inside Kyoto Station

Just like other major cities in Japan, Kyoto is well served by rail transportation systems operated by several different companies and organizations. The city's main gateway terminal, Kyoto Station, which is one of the most popular stations in the country, connects The Tōkaidō Shinkansen bullet train Line (see below) with five JR West lines, a Kintetsu line and a municipal subway line.

The Keihan, the Hankyu, and other rail networks also offer frequent services within the city and to other cities and suburbs in the Kinki region.

There is a Railway Heritage site in Kyoto, where visitors can experience the range of Japanese railways in the JR Museum (formerly Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum, situated about the roundhouse.


The Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau operates the Kyoto Municipal Subway consisting of two lines: the Karasuma Line and the Tōzai Line.

Karasuma Line
An express service bound for Kokusaikaikan Station of the Karasuma Line is running on Kintetsu Kyoto Line Kyoto Subway 1111.JPG
An express service bound for Kokusaikaikan Station of the Karasuma Line is running on Kintetsu Kyoto Line

The Karasuma Line is coloured green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "K".

The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan (terminal) and Matsugasaki in Sakyō-ku; Kitayama and Kitaōji in Kita-ku; Kuramaguchi and Imadegawa in Kamigyō-ku; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike in Nakagyō-ku; Shijō, Gojō and Kyōto in Shimogyō-ku; Kujō and Jūjō in Minami-ku; and Kuinabashi and Takeda (terminal) in Fushimi-ku.

Between Kitaōji and Jūjō, trains run beneath the north-south Karasuma Street ( 烏丸通 ,Karasuma-dori), hence the name. They link to the other subway line, the Tōzai Line, at Karasuma Oike. They also connect to the JR lines at Kyoto Station and the Hankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma, Kyoto's central business district. At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named Shijō, whereas Hankyu's station is called Karasuma.

The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station in Nara. The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at Kyoto and Takeda. All the stations are located in the city proper.

Tozai Line
Platform screen doors at Higashiyama Station of the Tozai Line Platform of the Higashiyama Station Kyoto City Subway01.jpg
Platform screen doors at Higashiyama Station of the Tōzai Line

The Tōzai Line is coloured vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "T". This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. tōzai in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east-west streets: Sanjō Street ( 三条通 ,Sanjō-dori), Oike Street ( 御池通 ,Oike-dori) and Oshikōji Street ( 押小路通 ,Oshikōji-dori).

The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō (terminal) in Uji; Ishida and Daigo in Fushimi-ku; Ono, Nagitsuji, Higashino, Yamashina and Misasagi in Yamashina-ku; Keage, Higashiyama and Sanjō Keihan in Higashiyama-ku; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae, Karasuma Oike, Nijōjō-mae, Nijō and Nishiōji Oike in Nakagyō-ku; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa (terminal) in Ukyō-ku.

The Keihan Keishin Line has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from Hamaōtsu in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu, the capital of Shiga Prefecture.

The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at Rokujizō, Yamashina, Misasagi and Sanjō Keihan, to the JR lines at Nijō, Yamashina and Rokujizō, and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto.

High-speed rail

Shinkansen at Kyoto Station Shinkansen N700 series at Kyoto station 2016-10-07.jpg
Shinkansen at Kyoto Station

The Tōkaidō Shinkansen operated by JR Central provides high-speed rail service linking Kyoto with Nagoya, Yokohama and Tokyo to the east of Kyoto and with nearby Osaka and points west on the San'yō Shinkansen, such as Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, and Fukuoka. The trip from Tokyo takes about two hours and eighteen minutes. From Hakata in Fukuoka, Nozomi takes you to Kyoto in just over three hours. All trains including Nozomi stop at Kyoto Station, serving as a gateway to not only Kyoto Prefecture but also northeast Osaka, south Shiga and north Nara.


Japanese trade and haulage traditionally took place by waterways, minimally impacting the environment up until the highway-systems built by Shogunates. There are a number of rivers, canals and other navigable waterways in Kyoto. The Seta and Uji rivers, confluence into the (Yodo River), Kamogawa and Katsura river flow through Kyoto. Lake Biwa Canal was a significant infrastructural development. In present days, however, the waterways are no longer primarily used for passenger or goods transportation, other than limited sightseeing purpose such as Hozugawa Kudari boat on the Hozu River and Jukkoku bune sightseeing tour boat in Fushimi-ku area. Lake Biwa remains a popular place for recreational boating, also the site of a Birdman Rally where contraptions and contrivances are driven from land over the waterway.


Tourists on street near Kiyomizu-dera Kyomizuzaka.JPG
Tourists on street near Kiyomizu-dera

Kyoto contains roughly 2,000 temples and shrines. [44]

UNESCO World Heritage Site

About 20% of Japan's National Treasures and 14% of Important Cultural Properties exist in the city proper. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) includes 17 locations in Kyoto, Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. The site was designated as World Heritage in 1994.


Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum Umekoji SL museum 001 JPN.jpg
Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum
Kyoto International Manga Museum Kyoto Manga Museum.jpg
Kyoto International Manga Museum
Kyoto Botanical Garden KyotoBotanicalGarden.jpg
Kyoto Botanical Garden


Kyoto is well known for its traditional festivals which have been held for over 1000 years and are a major tourist attraction. [45] The first is the Aoi Matsuri on May 15. Two months later (July 1 to 31) is the Gion Matsuri known as one of the 3 great festivals of Japan, culminating in a massive parade on July 17. Kyoto marks the Bon Festival with the Gozan no Okuribi, lighting fires on mountains to guide the spirits home (August 16). The October 22 Jidai Matsuri, Festival of the Ages, celebrates Kyoto's illustrious past.



In football, Kyoto is represented by Kyoto Sanga FC who won the Emperor's Cup in 2002, and rose to J. League's Division 1 in 2005. Kyoto Sanga has a long history as an amateur non-company club, although it was only with the advent of professionalization that it was able to compete in the Japanese top division. Nishikyogoku Athletic Stadium is its home stadium.

Amateur football clubs such as F.C. Kyoto BAMB 1993 and Kyoto Shiko Club (both breakaway factions of the original Kyoto Shiko club that became Kyoto Sanga) as well as unrelated AS Laranja Kyoto and Amitie SC Kyoto compete in the regional Kansai soccer league.


Between 1951 and 1952 the Central League team Shochiku Robins played their franchised games at Kinugasa Ballpark ( ja:衣笠球場 ,Kinugasa Kyujo) in Kita-ku. In 2010, Nishikyogoku Stadium in Ukyo-ku became the home of a newly formed girls professional baseball team, the Kyoto Asto Dreams.

Additionally, Kyoto's high school baseball teams are strong, with Heian and Toba in particular making strong showings recently at the annual tournament held in Koshien Stadium, Nishinomiya, near Osaka.

Horse racing

Kyoto Racecourse in Fushimi-ku is one of ten racecourses operated by the Japan Racing Association. It hosts notable horse races including the Kikuka-shō, Spring Tenno Sho, and Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup.


Kimiko Date, a tennis player who reached number 4 in WTA Rankings in the 1990s, was born here.

International relations

Kyoto, having been the capital city of Japan, a seat of learning and culture, has long-established ties with other great cities around the world. Many foreign scholars, artists and writers have stayed in Kyoto over the centuries.

Twin towns and sister cities

The city of Kyoto has sister-city relationships with the following cities: [46]

Partner cities

In addition to its sister city arrangements which involve multi-faceted cooperation, Kyoto has created a system of "partner cities" which focus on cooperation based on a particular topic. At present, Kyoto has partner-city arrangements with the following cities: [49]

See also

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