Kyoto University

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Kyoto University
京都大学
Kyoto University logo.svg
Motto Japanese: 自由の学風
Motto in English
Freedom of academic culture
Type Public (National)
EstablishedFounded June 18, 1897
Endowment ¥ 250.2 billion (2.2 billion USD)
President Nagahiro Minato [1]
Academic staff
2,864 (Teaching Staff) [2]
Administrative staff
5,397 (Total Staff) [2]
Students22,707 [2]
Undergraduates 13,399 [3]
Postgraduates 9,308 [4]
Location, ,
Coordinates: 35°01′34″N135°46′51″E / 35.026212°N 135.780842°E / 35.026212; 135.780842
Campus Urban,
135 ha (333 acres)
Athletics48 varsity teams
Colors Dark blue  
Nickname Kyodai
Affiliations Kansai Big Six, ASAIHL
MascotNone
Website www.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Kyoto University (京都大学, Kyōto daigaku), or Kyodai (京大, Kyōdai), is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. Founded in 1897, it is the second oldest university in Japan and one of the former Imperial Universities. [5] The university is usually ranked amongst the top two in Japan, the top ten in Asia, and the world's top thirty institutions of higher education. It is the birthplace of the Kyoto School of philosophy.

Contents

Founded on the principles of its motto, “freedom of academic culture”, the university is currently composed of three campuses with ten Faculties, eighteen Graduate Schools, thirteen Research Institutes, and twenty-two Research and Educational Centers.

Kyoto University has generated 5 prime ministers of Japan to date, and is famed for producing world-class researchers. As of October 2019, 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 Fields medalists, and 1 Gauss Prize winner have been affiliated with Kyoto University, giving it the most Nobel laureates of all universities in Asia. Apart from distinguished politicians and scholars, the university also counts in its alumni esteemed medical and legal professionals, writers, artists, and business leaders.

History

Old photo of Kyoto Imperial University Kyoto Imperial University-old1.jpg
Old photo of Kyoto Imperial University

Kyoto University's forerunner was the Chemistry School (舎密局, Seimi-kyoku) founded in Osaka in 1869, which, despite its name, taught physics as well (舎密 is a transcription of a Dutch word chemie). Later, the Third Higher School (第三髙等學校, Daisan-kōtō-gakkō), was established in the place of Seimi-kyoku in 1886, it then transferred to the university's present main campus in the same year.

Kyoto Imperial University (京都帝國大學, Kyōto-teikoku-daigaku) as a part of the Imperial University system was established on June 18, 1897, [5] using the Third Higher School's buildings. The higher school moved to a patch of land across the street, where the Yoshida South Campus stands today, and was integrated into Kyoto University in May 1949 and became the College of Liberal Arts in September 1949. [6] [7] In the same year of the university's establishment, the College of Science and Technology was founded. The College of Law and the College of Medicine were founded in 1899, the College of Letters in 1906, expanding the university's activities to areas outside natural science.

After World War II, the current Kyoto University was established by merging the imperial university and the Third Level School, which assumed the duty of teaching liberal arts as the Faculty of Liberal Arts (教養部, Kyōyō-bu). The faculty was dissolved with the foundation of the Faculty of Integrated Human Studies (総合人間学部, Sōgō-ningen-gakubu) in 1992.

Kyoto University has since 2004 been incorporated as a national university corporation under a new law which applies to all national universities.

Despite the incorporation which has led to increased financial independence and autonomy, Kyoto University is still partly controlled by the Japanese Ministry of Education ( 文部科学省 , Monbu-kagaku-shō).

The University's Department of Geophysics and their Disaster Prevention Research Institute are represented on the national Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction. [8]

Campuses

The Clocktower Kyoto University Clock Tower.jpg
The Clocktower
Yoshida Campus headquarters Kyoto University Campus.jpg
Yoshida Campus headquarters

The university has three campuses in Yoshida, Kyoto; in Katsura, Kyoto; in Gokashō, Uji

Yoshida Campus is the main campus, with some laboratories located in Uji. The Graduate School of Engineering is currently under process of moving to the newly built Katsura Campus.

Organization

The university has about 22,000 students enrolled in its undergraduate and graduate programs.

Faculties

Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Classroom Main Building (Yoshida Campus) Kyoto university.jpg
Faculty of Engineering Civil Engineering Classroom Main Building (Yoshida Campus)
Graduate School of Science Building No. 4 (Yoshida Campus) Graduate School of Science Bldg. No.4 of Kyoto U.JPG
Graduate School of Science Building No. 4 (Yoshida Campus)
Faculty of Law and Economics Main Building (Yoshida Campus) Kyoto university - law faculty.jpg
Faculty of Law and Economics Main Building (Yoshida Campus)

[9]

Graduate schools

[9]

Academics

Kyoto University promotes itself as an academic institution fostering a "spirit of freedom". [10] The university claims eleven Nobel Laureates and two Fields Medalists among its faculty and alumni. The university is also known as the starting point for the Kyoto School philosophical movement.

Notable research institutes and facilities

Academic rankings

Kyodai is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. It can be seen in the several rankings such as shown below. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Kyoto University as follows:

YearJapanAsiaWorld
20152nd2nd26th
20142nd2nd26th
20132nd2nd26th
20122nd2nd26th
20112nd2nd27th
20102nd2nd24th
20092nd2nd24th
20082nd2nd23rd

The Times Higher Education ranked the Kyoto University as follows:

YearJapanAsiaWorld
2015-20162nd9th88th
2014-20152nd9th59th
2013-20142nd7th52nd
2012-20132nd7th54th
2011-20122nd5th52nd
2010-20112nd8th57th

The QS World University Rankings [note 1] ranked the Kyoto University as follows:

YearJapanAsiaWorld
2015/163rd14th38th
2014/152nd12th36th
20132nd10th35th
20122nd10th35th
20112nd7th32nd
20102nd8th23rd
20092nd5th25th
20082nd3rd25th

The URAP ranked the Kyoto University as follows:

YearJapanAsiaWorld
20112nd2nd24th
University rankings
Toyo Keizai National [11] General 3
Kawaijuku  [ ja ] National [12] General 2
T. Reuters National [13] Research 2
WE  [ ja ] National [14] Employment 10
NBP Kansai [15] Reputation 1
Shimano National [16] Selectivity SA
QS Asia
(Asian Ranking version) [17]
General 7
ARWU Asia [18] Research 2
THE World [19] General 74
QS World [20] General 32
ARWU World [18] Research 24
ENSMP World [21] Alumni 5
Program rankings
Social Sciences & Humanities

LAW

Asahi National [22] Research6
BE Success National [23] Qualification4
BE Pass rate National [24] Qualification4

ECONOMICS

RePec National [25] Research3

BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT

Eduni MBA National [26] General5
Eduni MBA World [27] General124
Natural Sciences & Technology

Engineering

Kawaijuku  [ ja ] National [28] General2~3
QS World [29] General20

MATERIALS SCIENCE

T.Reuters National [30] Research4
T.Reuters World [30] Research22

PHYSICS

T.Reuters National [30] Research4
T.Reuters World [30] Research25

CHEMISTRY

T.Reuters National [30] Research1
T.Reuters World [30] Research4

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

T.Reuters National [30] Research2
T.Reuters World [30] Research23

MATHEMATICS

ARWU National [31] Research1
ARWU World [31] Research19
Life Sciences

IMMUNOLOGY

T.Reuters National [30] Research3
T.Reuters World [30] Research25

PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY

T.Reuters National [30] Research2
T.Reuters World [30] Research30
* T. Reuters World rankings include non-educational institutions

General rankings

The university was ranked 3rd in 2008 and 2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai. [11] In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Kyodai as the 2nd best university in Japan. [12]

Kyodai is also one of the top universities in the world. The following rankings are examples of Kyodai's positions in world rankings.

Research performance

Kyodai is usually considered as one of the top research institution in Japan. In fact, it has the second largest number of investment from Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, which is the national grants program for research institutions.

This financial support from the Japanese government has a direct effect on Kyodai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Kyodai is the No.1 research university in Japan. [13] Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Chemistry (1st in Japan, 4th in the world), Biology & Biochemistry (2nd in Japan, 23rd in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (2nd in Japan, 30th in the world), Immunology (3rd in Japan, 25th in the world), Material Science (4th in Japan, 22nd in the world), and Physics (4th in Japan, 25th in the world). [37]

In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to the heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers. Kyodai was placed in the 10th position (research planning ability 6th) in this ranking. [38]

Kyodai also has a high research standard in Social Sciences & Humanities. Repec in January 2011 ranked Kyodai's Institute of Economic Research as Japan's 3rd best economic research institution. [39] Kyodai has provided 6 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, which is the 3rd largest number. [40]

Asahi Shimbun summarized the number of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Kyodai was ranked 6th for the period between 2005 and 2009. [22]

Graduate school rankings

Kyodai Law School is considered one of the top law schools in Japan. From 2007 to 2017, it was ranked 2nd out of the 74 law schools in Japan for bar examination pass ratio, at 79.93%. [41] In 2019, Kyodai Law School became 1st out of the 72 law schools in Japan, with a pass ratio of 62.69%. [42] [43]

Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools, and the Faculty of Economics in Kyodai is placed 4th in Japan (111th in the world). [44]

Alumni rankings

Kyodai alumni are distinctively successful in Japanese industries such as shown below.

According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings, graduates from Kyodai have the 10th best employment rate in 400 major companies in Japan. [45] However, it has to be noted that this lower ranking position is because of the large number of alumni who become government bureaucrats, which is 2nd largest among Japanese universities. [46] In fact, alumni of Kyodai's average salary is the 5th best in Japan, according to the PRESIDENT. [47]

Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities ranks Kyodai as 5th in the world in 2011 in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. [21]

Popularity and selectivity

Kyodai is one of the most selective universities in Japan. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as one of the top among 180 national and public universities. [48] [49] [50]

Evaluation from Business World

The university ranking according to the ratio of "president and chief executive officer of listed company" in Japan
Ranking
all universities in Japan 4th [51]  out of all the 744 [52] universities which existed as of 2006
Source2006 Survey [51] by Weekly Diamond 〈ja〉 on the ranking of the universities which produced the high ratio of the graduates who hold the position of "president and chief executive officer of listed company" to all the graduates of each university
The university ranking according to the ratio of the number of the officers & managers produced by each university to the number of graduates in Japan
Ranking
all universities in Japan 13th [53]  out of all the 778 [54] universities which existed as of 2010
Source2010 Survey [55] by Weekly Economist 〈ja〉 on the ranking of universities according to the ratio of the number of the officers & managers produced by each university to the number of graduates
The university ranking according to the evaluation by Personnel Departments of Leading Companies in Japan
Ranking
Kinki region 1st [56]  (155 universities existed in Kinki region as of 2018 [57] )
Japan 4th [58] (out of 781 [59]  universities in Japan as of 2020)
Source2020 Nikkei Survey [56] to all listed (3,714 [60] ) and leading unlisted (1,100), totally 4,814 companies [56]

Athletics

Kyoto University competes in 48 sports. The university is a member of the Kansai Big Six Baseball League.

Controversy

Members of the university's American football team, the Kyoto University Gangsters, were arrested in 2006 for gang rape, which had been recently added to the Penal Code in January 2005 following the Super Free rape controversy. The three students had forced a female university student to drink liquor to the point of unconsciousness, at which point they gang-raped her. They were all convicted. [61] [62]

Notable people

Notable people from academic are eleven Nobel Prize winners, Fields Medal winners Heisuke Hironaka (1970) and Shigefumi Mori (1990) and one Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize winner Kiyosi Itô. [63] In addition, the lecturer against vaccine conspiracies received the John Maddox Prize: Riko Muranaka, winner in 2017 for her combat of anti-HPV vaccination. [64]

See also

Notes

  1. The results for Japan and Asia are ranked separately by the QS Asian University Rankings

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  56. 2018 Basic survey of schools (in Japanese)
  57. Survey on the image seen from human resources personnel:Ranking of the ability to get jobs|Nikkei HR 2020.06.03 release
  58. The number of universities in Japan is 781 as of April 1, 2020. About 80% are private universities.|Ōbun Sha
  59. Number of listed companies & listed shares of stock|JPX
  60. "Kyoto University trio held in suspected gang rapes". January 27, 2006 via Japan Times Online.
  61. "Kyoto U. students admit gang rape". February 7, 2006 via Japan Times Online.
  62. "Dr. Kiyoshi Ito receives Gauss Prize". Kyoto University. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
  63. editor, Ian Sample Science (November 30, 2017). "Doctor wins 2017 John Maddox prize for countering HPV vaccine misinformation". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on November 30, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017. “Her courageous challenge in demonstrating the safety of the HPV vaccine, despite insult, litigation and attempts to undermine her professional status, epitomises the core spirit of the Maddox prize.”CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)

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