Kyushu

Last updated
Kyushu
Native name:
九州
Terra Kyushu 20091028.jpg
Satellite image of Kyushu
Kyushu Region in Japan (extended).svg
Kyushu region of Japan and the current prefectures on the island of Kyushu
Geography
Location East Asia
Archipelago Japanese Archipelago
Area36,782 km2 (14,202 sq mi)
Area rank 37th
Coastline12,221 km (7593.8 mi)
Highest elevation1,791 m (5876 ft)
Highest point Mount Kujū [1]
Administration
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Prefectures Flag of Fukuoka Prefecture.svg  Fukuoka Prefecture
Flag of Kagoshima Prefecture.svg  Kagoshima Prefecture
Flag of Kumamoto.svg  Kumamoto Prefecture
Flag of Miyazaki Prefecture.svg  Miyazaki Prefecture
Flag of Nagasaki Prefecture.svg  Nagasaki Prefecture
Flag of Oita Prefecture.svg  Ōita Prefecture
Flag of Okinawa Prefecture.svg  Okinawa Prefecture
Flag of Saga.png  Saga Prefecture
Largest settlement Fukuoka
Demographics
Population14,311,224 (2018)
Pop. density307.13/km2 (795.46/sq mi)
Ethnic groups Japanese, Ryukyuan

Kyushu (九州, Kyūshū, pronounced  [kʲɯꜜːɕɯː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), literally "Nine Provinces") is the third largest island of Japan's five main islands and the most southerly of the four largest islands (excluding Okinawa). [2] [3] In the past, it has been known as Kyūkoku (九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei (鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area") and Tsukushi-no-shima (筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō (西海道, lit. West Sea Circuit) referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

Contents

In the 8th-century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region. [4]

As of 2018, Kyushu has a population of 14,311,224 and covers 36,782 square kilometres (14,202 sq mi). [5]

Geography

Kyushu from the International Space Station. Kyushu-Japan-ISS-Space.png
Kyushu from the International Space Station.
Geofeatures map of Kyushu Geofeatures map of Kyushu Japan ja.svg
Geofeatures map of Kyushu

The island is mountainous, and Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres (5,220 ft), is on Kyushu. There are many other signs of tectonic activity, including numerous areas of hot springs. The most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, and around Mt. Aso in central Kyushu. The island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. Being the nearest island to the Asian continent, historically it is the gateway to Japan. [6]

The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Chikugo, Hizen, Higo, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Osumi, and Satsuma. [7]

Today's Kyushu Region (九州地方, Kyūshū-chihō) is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu (which also includes the former Tsushima and Iki as part of Nagasaki), plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south:

Population

Kyushu has 10.3 percent of the population of Japan. [8] Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Except for Oita and Miyazaki, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population.

Politically, Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the Liberal Democratic Party. [9]

Per Japanese census data, [10] [11] the Kyushu region's population with Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa and Kagoshima Prefectures) has experienced a large population decline since around 2000 whose population decline has softened mainly due to relatively high birth rate of Ryukyuans both within the Ryukyuan lands (Okinawa and Kagoshima) and throughout the Kyushu region. The Ryukyuans are an indigenous minority group in Japan.

Historical populations with Ryukyu Islands

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1873 5,163,730    
1920 8,730,000+69.1%
1930 9,647,000+10.5%
1940 10,511,000+9.0%
1950 13,011,000+23.8%
1960 13,787,000+6.0%
1970 13,016,000−5.6%
1980 14,073,000+8.1%
1990 14,518,000+3.2%
2000 14,763,781+1.7%
2010 14,596,783−1.1%
2018 14,311,224−2.0%
Includes Okinawa and Kagoshima prefecture populations.

Historical populations without Ryukyu Islands

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1873 4,776,363    
1920 6,742,000+41.2%
1930 7,512,000+11.4%
1940 8,347,000+11.1%
1950 10,292,000+23.3%
1960 10,941,000+6.3%
1970 10,342,000−5.5%
1980 11,181,000+8.1%
1990 11,498,000+2.8%
2000 11,659,367+1.4%
2010 11,497,723−1.4%
2018 11,249,154−2.2%
In 1873, Ōsumi Province represents portion of Kagoshima with Ryukyu islands

Designated cities

Core cities

Economy and environment

Map of Kyushu region with prefectures. Kyushumap-en.png
Map of Kyushu region with prefectures.
JMSDF District Forces, including the Sasebo District Force. JMSDF major fleets en.JPG
JMSDF District Forces, including the Sasebo District Force.

Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate, particularly Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tea, tobacco, sweet potatoes, and soy; also, silk is widely produced. The island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari, Satsuma, and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Nagasaki, and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles, semiconductors, metal processing, shipbuilding...etc. [12]

In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. [13]

Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu. The springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile microorganisms, which are capable of surviving in extremely hot environments. [14]

Education

Major universities and colleges in Kyushu:

Transportation

The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic. The Kanmon Bridge also connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, and Nishitetsu Railway.

Several passenger and car ferry services connect both northern and southern Kyushu with main port cities on the main island of Honshu (Kobe, Osaka, Tokyo) and Shikoku. [15]

See also

Notes

  1. "Kujū-san, Japan". Peakbagger.com.
  2. "離島とは(島の基礎知識) (what is a remote island?)". MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) (in Japanese). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original (website) on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 9 August 2019. MILT classification 6,852 islands(main islands: 5 islands, remote islands: 6,847 islands)
  3. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kyūshū" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 588 , p. 588, at Google Books
  4. Nussbaum, "Dazaifu" in p. 150 , p. 150, at Google Books; Dazaifu
  5. "Discover the Geography of the 4 Main Islands of Japan". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  6. Cobbing, Andrew (2009). Kyushu, gateway to Japan : a concise history. Global Oriental. p. 157. ISBN   9789004213128. OCLC   754792858.
  7. Cobbing, Andrew (2009). Kyushu, gateway to Japan : a concise history. Global Oriental. p. 3. ISBN   9789004213128. OCLC   754792858.
  8. Boquet, Yves (2017). The Philippine Archipelago. Springer. p. 16. ISBN   9783319519265.
  9. "Japanese voters want a plan to handle a declining population". The Economist . 5 October 2017.
  10. Fukuoka 1995-2020 population statistics
  11. Kyushu 1920-2000 population statistics
  12. "JAPAN PRODUCTS: Business Directory of Japanese Companies" . Retrieved 2020-05-28.
  13. "Grads landing jobs near all-time low". The Japan Times . May 22, 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  14. C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Extremophile. eds. E.Monosson and C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
  15. https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2355.html

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The Hichiku dialect is a group of the Japanese dialects spoken in western Kyushu. The name Hichiku (肥筑) is constructed by extracting a representative kanji from Hizen (前), Higo (後), Chikuzen (前) and Chikugo (後), names of old provinces in there.

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The 2017 Northern Kyushu floods was a disaster caused by a cloudburst that occurred in northern Kyushu in July 2017. On July 5, a heavy torrential rain, followed by a debris flow, hit Asakura, Fukuoka Prefecture and Hita, Oita Prefecture. According to an official of the Japan Fire and Disaster Management Agency, 36 people died, with 21 injured.

References

Coordinates: 33°N131°E / 33°N 131°E / 33; 131