|Prime Minister of Burundi|
13 September 1965 –8 July 1966
|Preceded by||Joseph Bamina|
|Succeeded by||Michel Micombero|
Prince Léopold Bihumugani or Biha (March 15,1919 –October 13,2003) was a Burundian politician. He was appointed Prime Minister 13 October 1965 following the 10 May 1965 legislative election. He was the personal secretary of Mwami Mwambutsa IV previous to his appointment as Prime Minister. He was Prime Minister until a coup on 8 July 1966 when Prince Charles Ndizeye overthrew his father and became Mwami. Mwami Ntare V installed Michel Micombero to the post of Prime Minister.
Léopold Bihumugani was born in 1919 to Burundian Chief Bagorikunda.Ethnically,he was a Ganwa of the Bezi lineage.
Biha was a close confidant of the court of Mwami Mwambutsa IV.On 13 September 1965 the Mwami appointed him Prime Minister of Burundi.
Late in the night on 18 October,Hutu gendarmes and soldiers led by Secretary of State for the Gendarmerie Antoine Serukwavu mounted a coup attempt against the Burundian government. While one contingent of putschists attacked the royal palace,a separate group of gendarmes drove to Biha's residence and beckoned him to step outside. Unsuspecting of their motives,Biha obliged and the putschists fired at him point-blank,striking his shoulder,abdomen,and leg. Though seriously wounded,he escaped. Loyalist troops eventually suppressed the coup. As a result of the coup,the Mwami fled to Europe while Biha went to Belgium for several weeks to be treated for his injuries. The remnants of his government set about repressing the perpetrators of the coup and suspected collaborators. Mwambutsa soon thereafter suspended the powers of the Biha government before restoring them on 20 November. However,with the Mwami outside of the country and the prime minister incapable of discharging his duties,de facto governance fell to the army and the civil service.
Biha returned to Burundi in February 1966.On 15 March his government was reformed and Biha assumed the portfolio for Civil Service,Sûretéand Immigration. On 24 March Mwambutsa issued a decree giving Crown Prince Charles Ndizeye "special powers to co-ordinate and control the activities of the government and the secretariats of state".
In 2001 Biha co-founded the Parliamentary Monarchist Party (Parti Monarchiste Parlementaire,PMP).
Louis Rwagasore was a Burundian prince and politician who served as Prime Minister of Burundi from 28 September 1961 until his assassination two weeks later. Within Burundi,Rwagasore's reputation enjoys nearly-universal acclaim,and his assassination is commemorated annually with large ceremonies. He remains relatively unknown internationally in comparison to other leaders of independence movements in the Great Lakes region.
Michel Micombero was a Burundian politician and army officer who ruled the country as its first president and dictator for the decade between 1966 and 1976.
Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge was king (mwami) of Burundi who ruled between 1915 and 1966. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Mutaga IV Mbikije. Born while Burundi was under German colonial rule,Mwambutsa's reign mostly coincided with Belgian colonial rule (1916–62). The Belgians retained the monarchs of both Rwanda and Burundi under the policy of indirect rule.
Pierre Ngendandumwe was a Burundian politician. He was a member of the Union for National Progress and was an ethnic Hutu. On 18 June 1963,about a year after Burundi gained independence and amidst efforts to bring about political cooperation between Hutus and the dominant minority Tutsis,Ngendandumwe became Burundi's first Hutu prime minister. He served as prime minister until 6 April 1964 and then became prime minister again on 7 January 1965,serving until his death. Eight days after beginning his second term,he was assassinated by a Rwandan Tutsi refugee.
The Kingdom of Burundi or Kingdom of Urundi was a Bantu kingdom in the modern-day Republic of Burundi. The Ganwa monarchs ruled over both Hutus and Tutsis. Created in the 17th century,the kingdom was preserved under European colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th century and was an independent state between 1962 and 1966.
Mass killings of Tutsis were conducted by the majority-Hutu populace in Burundi from 21 October to December 1993,under an eruption of ethnic animosity and riots following the assassination of Burundian President Melchior Ndadaye in an attempted coup d'état. The massacres took place in all provinces apart from Makamba and Bururi,and were primarily undertaken by Hutu peasants. At many points throughout,Tutsis took vengeance and initiated massacres in response.
Joseph Bamina was a Burundian politician and member of the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) party. Bamina was Prime Minister from 26 January to 30 September 1965,and President of the Senate of Burundi in 1965. He and other leaders of the government were assassinated on 15 December 1965,by Tutsi soldiers during a reprisal effort to stop a coup by Hutu officers.
AndréMuhirwa was a Burundian politician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the third Prime Minister of Burundi from 19 October 1961 to 7 June 1963. His term coincided with Burundi's independence.
PiéMasumbuko is a Burundian retired politician and physician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the acting Prime Minister of Burundi from January 15 to January 26 of 1965.
On 18–19 October 1965,a group of ethnic Hutu officers from the Burundian military and gendarmerie attempted to overthrow Burundi's government in a coup d'état. The rebels were frustrated with Burundi's monarch,Mwami Mwambutsa IV,who had repeatedly attempted to cement his control over the government and bypassed parliamentary norms despite Hutu electoral gains. Although the prime minister was shot and wounded,the coup failed due to the intervention of a contingent of troops led by Captain Michel Micombero. The attempted putsch provoked a backlash against Hutus in which thousands of people,including the participants in the coup,were killed. The coup also facilitated a militant Tutsi backlash against the monarchy resulting in two further coups which culminated in the abolition of the monarchy in November 1966 and the proclamation of a republic with Micombero as President of Burundi.
On 8 July 1966,a coup d'état took place in the Kingdom of Burundi. The second in Burundi's post-independence history,the coup ousted the government loyal to the king (mwami) of Burundi,Mwambutsa IV,who had gone into exile in October 1965 after the failure of an earlier coup d'état.
Gilles Bimazubute was a Burundian politician.
Martin Ndayahoze was a Burundian military officer and government official who served variously as Minister of Information,Minister of Economy,and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Burundian National Army. He was the only Hutu military officer to serve in government under President Michel Micombero and frequently warned of the dangers of ethnic violence in his reports to the presidency. He was executed in 1972.
Artémon Simbananiye is a Burundian retired politician.
François Rukeba was a Rwandan politician and rebel leader.
Paul Mirerekano was a Burundian politician. Ethnically Hutu,he worked as an agronomist for the Belgian colonial administration in Ruanda-Urundi before starting a successful market garden in Bugarama. Politically,he was a nationalist,monarchist,and advocate for Hutu civil rights. He was a leading member of Louis Rwagasore's political party,the Union for National Progress (UPRONA),and in 1961 served as the organisation's interim president. Rwagasore's assassination in 1961 fueled a rivalry between Mirerekano and Prime Minister AndréMuhirwa,as both men claimed to be the heirs to Rwagasore's legacy and sought to take control of UPRONA. The controversy led to the coalescing of two factions in the party,with Mirerekano leading what became known as the Hutu-dominated "Monrovia group". His criticism of Muhirwa and his successor led him to be arrested on several occasions,but in 1965 he was elected to a seat in the National Assembly representing the Bujumbura constituency. The body subsequently elected Mirerekano its First Vice-President on 20 July. In October Hutu soldiers launched a coup attempt which failed,but led to the outbreak of ethnic violence. The government believed Mirerekano helped plan the coup attempt and executed him. His reputation remains a controversial subject in Burundi.
Gervais Nyangoma was a Burundian politician and diplomat.
Jean-Baptiste Ntidendereza was a Burundian politician.
The Definitive Constitution of the Kingdom of Burundi,sometimes called the "independence constitution",was the constitution of the independent Kingdom of Burundi from its promulgation in 1962 until its suspension in 1966.
Pierre-Claver Nuwinkware was a Burundian politician.