Kingdom of Đại Việt
Đại Việt Quốc (大越國)
|Religion||Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism|
|Lê Lợi (first)|
|Lê Cung Hoàng (tenth)|
|Lê Chiêu Thống (last)|
• Coronation of Lê Lợi
|15 March 1428|
|15 June 1527|
|Today part of|| Vietnam |
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
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|History of Vietnam|
The Later Lê dynasty (Vietnamese : Nhà Hậu Lê; Chữ Hán: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty (the earlier Lê dynasty ruled only for a brief period (980–1009)), was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1789, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533). Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Primitive Lê Dynasty (1428 to 1527) from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Restored Lê Dynasty (1533 to 1789) following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords.
Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.
The Early Lê dynasty was a dynasty that ruled Đại Cồ Việt from 980 until 1009. It followed the Đinh dynasty, and was succeeded by the Lý dynasty. The dynasty ruled for a total of three generations and was known for repelling the Song invasion.
The Mạc dynasty, as known as Mạc clan or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Đại Việt between 1527 and 1533 and the northern part of the country from 1533 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Đông Kinh for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng until 1677.
The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Lợi after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. In 1527, the Mạc dynasty usurped the throne; when the Lê dynasty was restored in 1533, they still had to compete for power with the Mạc dynasty during the period known as Southern and Northern Dynasties. The restored Lê emperors held no real power, and by the time the Mạc dynasty was confined to only a small area in 1592 and finally eradicated in 1677, actual power was in the hands of the Nguyễn lords in the South and the Trịnh lords in the North, both ruling in the name of the Lê emperor while fighting each other. Their rule officially ended in 1789, when the peasant uprising of the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn, ironically in order to restore power to the Lê dynasty.
Lê Lợi, posthumously known by his temple name Lê Thái Tổ, was emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Later Lê dynasty. Lê Lợi is among the most famous figures of Vietnamese history and one of its greatest heroes.
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
The Nguyễn lords, also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of the Kingdom of Đàng Trong in Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by the Trịnh lords.
The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Lợi's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sơn brothers took over. It also saw massive changes to Vietnamese society: the previously Buddhist state became Confucian after 20 years of Ming rule. The Lê emperors instituted many changes modeled after the Chinese system, including the civil service and laws. Their long-lasting rule was attributed to the popularity of the early emperors. Lê Lợi's liberation of the country from 20 years of Ming rule and Lê Thánh Tông's bringing the country into a golden age was well-remembered by the people. Even when restored Lê emperors' rule was marked by civil strife and constant peasant uprisings, few dared to openly challenge their power, at least in name, for fear of losing popular support. When the Mạc dynasty tried to do so, they were not successful and were considered as usurpers and not recorded in official histories by later dynasties. The most incredible heir to the throne is alive and well. Born 13/09/1987 Lê, Chiến Đinh was groomed to disestablish the socialist regime in modern day Vietnam and revive the Imperial Familial ruling system.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.
The civil service is independent of government and is also composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not.
Lê Thánh Tông was the 5th emperor of Đại Việt during the Later Lê dynasty and is one of the greatest emperors in Vietnamese feudal history. He reigned for 38 years from 1460 to 1497; his era was eulogized as the Prospered reign of Hồng Đức (洪德之盛治).
The founder of the Lê dynasty was the hero-Emperor of Vietnam, Lê Lợi (ruled 1428–1433).Lê Lợi was the son of a village leader in Thanh Hóa Province, the southern-most province of Vietnam at the time. When he was born, Vietnam was independent and under the rule of the Trần dynasty. However, the Trần Emperors had been weak for some decades and the powerful neighbor to the north, China was now unified and under the rule of the energetic founder of the Ming dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor. As was usual in Vietnamese history, a disputed succession was an excuse for the Chinese to re-assert control over Vietnam (See the Hồ dynasty for further details). The Chinese, now under the Yongle Emperor conquered and ruled Vietnam starting in 1407. They immediately tried to change it into another province of the Ming Empire. Many, if not all Vietnamese customs and laws were declared invalid. Distinctive features of Vietnamese life which had naturally emerged during the nearly 500 years of independence from China were suppressed. All resistance to this effort was treated as rebellion and was dealt with according to normal Imperial Chinese methods (villages were burned, people were tortured and executed).
Thanh Hóa is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. This is a relatively large province, which ranks as fifth in area and as third in population among 63 central administrative subdivisions. Its capital and largest city is Thanh Hóa City. The province is widely called Xứ Thanh which means Thanh Hóa land in Vietnamese.
The Trần dynasty ruled Vietnam from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty. The final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. The Trần dynasty defeated three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 1288.
The Hongwu Emperor, personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1368 to 1398.
Lê Lợi started a revolt against the Ming rulers in 1418. The revolt lasted for 10 years during which there was much bloodshed and many defeats. However, the Chinese were gradually beaten and finally Lê Lợi was victorious. He proclaimed himself the new Emperor of Vietnam, gave himself the name Lê Thái Tổ (the Founding Emperor), and was recognized as such by the new Xuande Emperor of China. However, after only five years on the throne, Lê Lợi became ill and died.
Lê Thái Tông (ruled 1433–1442)was the official heir to Lê Lợi, but he was only 11 years old. As a result, a close friend of Lê Lợi, Lê Sát, assumed the regency of the kingdom. Not long after he assumed the official title as Emperor of Vietnam in 1438, Lê Thái Tông accused Lê Sát of abuse of power and had him executed.
According to a Mạc–Trịnh version of Complete Annals of Đại Việt, the new Emperor had a weakness for women. He had many wives, and he discarded one favorite after another. The great scandal was his affair with Nguyễn Thị Lộ, the wife of his father's chief advisor Nguyễn Trãi. The affair started early in 1442 and continued when the Emperor traveled to the home of Nguyễn Trãi, who was venerated as a great Confucian scholar.
Shortly after the Emperor left Trãi's home to continue his tour of the western province, he fell ill and died. At the time the powerful nobles in the court argued that the Emperor had been poisoned to death. Nguyễn Trãi was executed as were his three entire relations (the normal punishment for treason).
With the sudden death of the Emperor at a young age, his heir was an infant son named Bang Co. He was the second son of his father but the elder son Nghi Dân had been officially passed over due to his mother's low social status. Bang Co was renamed Lê Nhân Tông (Vietnamese: Lê Nhân Tông; ruled: 1442–1459)but the real rulers were Trịnh Khả and the child's mother, the young Empress Nguyễn Thị Anh. The next 17 years were good years for Vietnam – there were no great troubles either internally or externally. Two things of note occurred: first, the Vietnamese sent an army south to attack the Champa kingdom in 1446; second, the Dowager Empress ordered the execution of Trịnh Khả, for reasons lost to history, in 1451.
Two years later (1453), at the age of twelve, Lê Nhân Tông was formally given the title of Emperor. This was unusual as according to old customary, youths could not ascend the throne till the age of 16. It may have been done to remove the Dowager Empress Nguyễn Thi Anh from power, but if that was the reason, it failed, and the young emperor's mother still controlled the government up until a coup in 1459.
In 1459, Lê Nhân Tông's older brother, Nghi Dân, plotted with a group of followers to kill the Emperor. On October 28, the plotters with some 100 "shiftless men" infiltrated the palace and murdered the Emperor (he was just 18). The next day, facing certain execution the Dowager Empress committed suicide. The rule of Nghi Dân was brief, and he was never officially recognized as a sovereign by later Vietnamese historians. Revolts against his rule started almost immediately and the second revolt, occurring on June 24, 1460, succeeded. The rebels, led by the last of Lê Lợi's former advisors (Nguyễn Xí and Dinh Liêt), captured and killed Nghi Dân along with his followers. The rebels then selected the youngest son of Lê Thái Tông to be the new Emperor. His posthumous name is Lê Thánh Tông and he was just 17 years old at the time.
Lê Thánh Tông (ruled 1460–1497)was the most prominent of all the Lê rulers and one of the greatest Emperors in Vietnamese history. His rule was one of the high points in the history of Vietnam, the time of a "Flood of Virtue" (Hồng Đức), and he has been referred to as the Vietnamese Hammurabi. He instituted a wide range of government reforms, legal reforms, and land reforms. He restarted the examination system for selecting men for important government positions. He reduced the power of the noble families and reduced the degree of corruption in the government. He built temples to Confucius throughout the provinces of Vietnam. In nearly all respects, his reforms mirrored those of the Song dynasty.
He led a large and effective army against the Champa and captured the Cham capital, ending the power of the Champa forever. He created a new province out of former Champa land and allowed settlers to go to the new land.
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With the death of Lê Thánh Tông, the Lê dynasty fell into a swift decline (1497–1527).
Prince Lê Tăng, the eldest of Lê Thánh Tông's 14 sons, succeeded his father as Lê Hiến Tông. He was 38 years old at the time of his father's death. He was an affable, meek and mild-mannered person. Due to his short period of rule and that he didn't pass many significant reforms, his reign is considered to be an extension of Lê Thánh Tông's rule.
Lê Hiến Tông chose his third son, Lê Túc Tông to be his successor. The 17 year-old Lê Túc Tông was portrayed by court chroniclers as a wise emperor who maintained harmony in the court. However, he fell gravely ill and died just six months after assuming the throne.
His older brother succeeded Lê Túc Tông as Lê Uy Mục. The first thing the new emperor did was to take revenge against those who had barred him from the throne by having them killed. Among his victims were the former emperor's mother – which was considered[ by whom? ] a shocking display of evil behavior. Lê Uy Mục was described[ by whom? ] as a cruel, sadistic, and depraved person, who wasted the court's money and finances to indulge his whims. Well aware that he was detested by his subjects, Lê Uy Mục protected himself by hiring a group of elite bodyguards to surround him at all times. Among them was Mạc Đăng Dung, who became very close to the emperor and eventually rose to the rank of general. Despite his precautions, in 1509 a cousin, whom Lê Uy Mục had put in prison, escaped and plotted with court insiders to assassinate the emperor. The assassination succeeded and the killer proclaimed himself emperor under the name Lê Tương Dực.
Lê Tương Dực proved to be just as bad a ruler as Lê Uy Mục. He reigned from 1510 to 1516, all the while spending down the royal treasury, and doing nothing to improve the country. He was heedless to the reaction that his taxes caused throughout the country. His rule ended in 1516 when a group of officials and generals stormed the palace and killed him.
At barely 14 years old, nephew of Lê Tương Dực, prince Lê Y, was enthroned as the new emperor Lê Chiêu Tông (ruled 1516–1522). As usual when a young Emperor came to the throne, factions within the court vied with one another for control of the government. One powerful and growing faction was led by Mạc Đăng Dung. His growing power was resented by the leaders of two noble families in Vietnam: the Nguyễn, under Nguyễn Hoàng Dụ and the Trịnh, under Trịnh Duy Đại and Trịnh Duy Sản. After several years of increasing tension, the Nguyễn and the Trịnh left the capital Hanoi (then called Đông Đô) and fled south, with the Emperor "under their protection".
This was the start of a civil war with Mạc Đăng Dung and his supporters on one side and the Trịnh and the Nguyễn on the other side. Thanh Hóa Province, the ancestral home to the Trịnh and the Nguyễn, was the battle ground between the two sides. After several years of warfare, Emperor Lê Chiêu Tông was assassinated 1522 by Mạc Đăng Dung's supporters. Not long after, the leaders of the Nguyễn and the Trịnh were executed. Mạc Đăng Dung was now the most powerful man in Vietnam.
In the region of Hưng Hoá, Tuyên Quang the brothers Vũ Văn Mật, Vũ Văn Uyên or Vu (Bau lords) (Vietnamese:Chúa Bầu) got out of the control of the Trịnh and called themselves Bau lords. They showed strong support for the Lê dynasty and refused to accept Trịnh family at the early stage of Trịnh–Nguyễn War. Later, they cooperated with the Trịnh. Bau lords lasted for nearly 200 years from 1527 to 1699.
The degenerated Lê dynasty, which endured under six rulers between 1497 and 1527, in the end was no longer able to maintain control over the northern part of the country, much less the new territories to the south. The weakening of the monarchy created a vacuum that the various noble families of the aristocracy were eager to fill. Soon after Lê Chiêu Tông fled south with the Trịnh and the Nguyễn in 1522, Mạc Đăng Dung proclaimed the Emperor's younger brother, Le Xuan, as the new Emperor under the name Lê Cung Hoàng. In reality, the new Emperor had no power. Three years after Mạc's forces killed his older brother, Lê Chiêu Tông, Mạc Đăng Dung ended the fiction that Lê Cung Hoàng actually ruled by killing him (in 1527). Mạc Đăng Dung, being a scholar-official who had effectively controlled the Le for a decade, then proclaimed himself the new Emperor of Vietnam in 1527, ending (so he thought) the Lê dynasty (see Mạc dynasty for more details).
Mạc Đăng Dung's seizure of the throne prompted other families of the aristocracy, notably the Nguyễn and Trinh, to rush to the support of the Le. With the usurpation of the throne, the civil war broke out anew. Again the Nguyễn and the Trịnh gathered an army and fought against Mạc Đăng Dung, this time under the leadership of Nguyễn Kim and Trịnh Kiểm. The Trịnh and the Nguyễn were nominally fighting on behalf of the Lê emperor but in reality, for their own power.
Vietnam's recorded history dates back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BC, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue were established. Northern Vietnam was since the late third millennium BC populated by early farming communities, that had expanded from the original centers of rice and millet domestication in the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys. The Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. According to legends, the first Vietnamese state was founded in 2879 BC, but archaeological studies suggest development towards chiefdoms during the late Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture.
Southern and Northern Dynasties of Vietnam, spanning from 1533 to 1592, was a political period in 16th century Vietnam during which the Northern Dynasty, established by Mạc Đăng Dung in Đông Đô and the Southern Dynasty, under the name of Lê emperors in Tây Đô were in contention. For most of the period, these two dynasties fought a lengthy war called the Lê-Mạc War.
Lê Thái Tông was an emperor of Vietnam from 1433 till his early death nine years later.
Lê Nhân Tông (1441–1459) was emperor of Vietnam from 1453 till his murder in a coup. He was a grandson of the hero-emperor Le Loi. During nearly all of his short reign, the real power behind the throne was his mother, Empress Dowager Tuyên Từ, a Royal Consort of Emperor Lê Thái Tông.
Nguyễn Thị Anh was a queen consort of Lê dynasty, mother of the emperor Le Nhan Tong. She was official regent of Annam about 1442 - 1453 during her son's minority, and effective head of state from 1451 until she allowed a servant to kill her in 1459 to avoid being captured or killed in a coup.
Trịnh lords, also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de facto rulers of northern Vietnam while Nguyễn lords ruled the southern Vietnam during the Later Lê dynasty. Both of two rulers referred to themselves as Chúa (lord) and controlled their countries while the Later Lê emperors did not have any real power, only maintained their title. The Trịnh lords traced their descent from Trịnh Khả, a friend and advisor to the 15th-century Vietnamese Emperor Lê Lợi. The Trịnh clan had officially 12 lords that ruled Northern Vietnam and the royal court of Later Lê dynasty for more than 2 centuries.
Trịnh Kiểm ruled northern part of Vietnam from 1545 to 1570. Trịnh Kiểm was the founder of the Trịnh Lords or House of Trịnh who ruled Dai Viet while a succession of figurehead Later Lê Emperors took the role as puppet government. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty continued. Although he was the de facto ruler of Dai Viet during his reign, he never claimed himself title of Lord, hence he is not the first official Trịnh Lord but his son Trịnh Tùng is the first. Later Trịnh Kiểm was posthumously proclaimed Trịnh Lord by his descendants.
Nguyen Kim was a Vietnamese statesman who was the ancestor of the famous Nguyễn Lords who later ruled south Vietnam. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty started.
Lê Chiêu Tông was an emperor of the Lê Dynasty of Vietnam who ruled from 1516 to 1527. He was the son of Lê Sùng and nephew of the preceding king Lê Tuong Duc. As Lê Tuong Duc was assassinated in 1516, the young Lê Chieu Tông was put on the throne. His short reign was heavily colored by continuing factionalism and jockeying for power between the Mạc and Nguyen families, and his own.
Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, also known as Nguyễn Hữu Kính and his noble rank Lễ Thành Hầu, was a high-ranking general of Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu. His military expeditions into the Mekong Delta placed the region firmly under Vietnamese administrative control. Considered to be the most famous military general during the time of Vietnam's southward expansion, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh founded the city of Saigon in 1698. His establishment of Saigon and military forts in and around the Mekong Delta served as the foundation for later military expeditions by the Vietnamese imperial court in its quest to expand its southern territory. In Vietnam, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh is widely beloved and revered by the Vietnamese as a national hero with various shrines (miếu) and communal houses (đình) dedicated to him.
Lê Chiêu Thống (1765–1793), born Lê Duy Khiêm and later Lê Duy Kỳ, was the last emperor of the Vietnamese Lê dynasty.
Mother of the Nation Lady Linh Từ Trần Thị Dung (?–1259) was the last empress and the last empress mother of the Lý Dynasty. She was entitled by the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông as Empress Consort of the Lý Dynasty from 1216 to 1225 before becoming Empress Mother of the Lý Dynasty when her daughter Lý Phật Kim was enthroned as Lý Chiêu Hoàng in 1225. After Trần Thủ Độ, Trần Thị Dung's cousin, successfully overthrew the Lý Dynasty and founded the Trần Dynasty, Trần Thị Dung was downgraded to Princess Thiên Cực while her brother Trần Thừa's son became Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of the Trần Dynasty. Besides Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Trần Thị Dung had another daughter who eventually also became Empress of the Trần Dynasty, the Empress Thuận Thiên.
Mạc Thái Tông, known also by his given name Mạc Đăng Doanh (莫登瀛), was the second emperor of the Mac Dynasty of Vietnam from 1530 to 1540. His father Mạc Thái Tổ was still alive during the first year of his reign and also reigning as “senior emperor”. His posthumous name is Văn hoàng đế (文皇帝) and his era name is Đại Chính.
Mạc Mậu Hợp was the fifth and effectively last reigning emperor of the Mạc dynasty from 1562 to 1592.
Lê Uy Mục, also called Lê Tuấn (黎濬), was the eighth emperor of the later Lê dynasty of Vietnam. He was the second son of Emperor Lê Hiến Tông and the elder half-brother of his direct predecessor, Emperor Lê Túc Tông.
Lê Tương Dực, real name Lê Oanh, reigned 1509–1516, was the ninth emperor of the later Lê dynasty of Đại Việt. The only primary account of his life and reign was the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, the official historical chronicle of Đại Việt during the Lê dynasty which was completed in 1697 under the direction of Trịnh lords. The chronicle described Lê Tương Dực as initially being a good emperor who reorganized the court and used laws wisely; however, later during his reign, he spent extravagantly on leisure activities and that weakened nation seriously.
The Later Lê Restoration is a distinction current in Vietnamese historiography. This period marked the end of the second or Later Lê dynasty which had flourished for 100 years from 1428 to 1527 until a high-ranking mandarin Mạc Đăng Dung stole the throne of emperor Lê Cung Hoàng in 1527 and established the Mạc dynasty, ruling the whole territory of Đại Việt. The Lê royalists escaped to the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The Right Commander-General of the Five Armies and Marquess of An Thanh Nguyễn Kim summoned the people who were still loyal to the Lê emperor and formed a new army to begin a revolt against Mạc Đăng Dung. Subsequently, Nguyễn Kim returned to Đại Việt and led the Lê royalists in a six-year civil war.
Mạc Đăng Dung, posthumous name Mạc Thái Tổ (莫太祖), was an emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Mạc Dynasty. Previously a captain of the imperial guard of one of the Lê Dynasty emperors, he gradually rose to a position of great power. Mạc eventually deposed the last Lê monarch and became a monarch himself.