View of Lüshun's harbor and town from an old Japanese fortification
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||512.15 km2 (197.74 sq mi)|
|• Density||630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|Dalian district map|
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District; simplified Chinese :旅顺口区; traditional Chinese :旅順口區; pinyin :Lǚshùnkǒu Qū) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City (旅顺市; 旅順市; Lǚshùn Shì) or literally Lüshun Port (旅顺港; 旅順港; Lǚshùn Gǎng), it was formerly known as both Port Arthur (亚瑟港; 亞瑟港; Yàsè Gǎng; Russian : Порт-Артур, romanized: Port-Artur and Ryojun (Japanese : 旅順). The district's area is 512.15 square kilometres (197.74 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 [update] is 324,773.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Lüshunkou is located at the extreme southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. It has an excellent natural harbor, the possession and control of which became a casus belli of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05). Japanese and then Russian administration was established in 1895 and continued until 1905 when control was ceded to Japan. During the first decade of that period, it was world-famous and was more significant than the other port on the peninsula, Dalian proper. In Western diplomatic, news, and historical writings, it was known as Port Arthur, and during the period when the Japanese controlled and administered the Liaodong (formerly Liaotung) Peninsula it was called Ryojun(旅順), the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters in the city's name. After the Japanese defeat in World War II, the city was under the administration of the Soviet Union, which rented the port from China, until 1950. Although the Russians presented the port to China in 1950, Soviet troops remained in the city until 1955.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria. Liaodong means "East of the Liao River"; referring to the Liao River which divided the Yan commanderies of Liaoxi and Liaodong during time of the Warring States period.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war". A casus belli involves direct offenses or threats against the nation declaring the war, whereas a casus foederis involves offenses or threats against its ally—usually one bound by a mutual defense pact. Either may be considered an act of war.
The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904–1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.
Central Dalian is some 64 kilometres (40 miles) farther up the coast, sprawling around the narrowest neck of the Liaodong Peninsula (simplified Chinese :辽东半岛; traditional Chinese :遼東半島; pinyin :Liáodōng Bàndǎo), whereas Lüshun occupies its southern tip. (See Landsat Map below Zoomed – Lüshun City surrounds the lake-like structure clearly visible near the peninsular tip—the lake-like feature is the inner natural harbour of the port, a very well-sheltered and fortifiable harbour to 19th century eyes.)
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China. It is the southernmost city of the Liaodong Peninsula. Dalian is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status. The Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Strait and Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east.
Clearly seen on the map (above right) are the Liaodong Peninsula and its relation to Korea, the Yellow Sea (Chinese :黄海) to its southeast, the Korea Bay (Chinese :西朝鲜湾) to its due east, and the Bohai Sea (or Gulf) (Chinese :渤海) to its west. Beijing is almost directly (due west-northwest) across the Bo Hai Gulf from the port city.
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.
The Yellow Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Surrounded by ocean on three sides, this strategic seaport was originally known to the Chinese as Lüshun. It took its English name, Port Arthur, from a British Royal Navy Lieutenant named William C. Arthur who surveyed the harbor in the gunboat HMS Algerine in August 1860, during the Second Opium War. At that time Lüshun was an unfortified fishing village.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
William C. Arthur was a Royal Navy officer who was the namesake of the English name for Lüshunkou, Port Arthur, which changed hands between China, Imperial Russia, Japan, and the Soviet Union between 1894 and 1945.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
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In the late 1880s, the German company Krupp was contracted by the Chinese government to build a series of fortifications around Port Arthur. Reportedly, this was after local contractors had "made an extensive bungle of the job".
The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, is famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition and other armaments. The family business, known as Friedrich Krupp AG, was the largest company in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, and was important to weapons development and production in both world wars. One of the most powerful dynasties in European history, Krupp flourished for 400 years as the premier weapons manufacturer of Germany. From the Thirty Years' War until the end of the Second World War, it produced battleships, U-boats, tanks, howitzers, guns, utilities, and hundreds of other commodities.
Port Arthur first came into international prominence during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Following Japan's defeat of Chinese troops at Pyongyang in Korea in September 1894, the Japanese First and Second Armies converged on the Liaodong Peninsula by land and sea. Japanese war planners, ambitious for control of the Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur and also cognizant of that port's strategic position controlling the northern Yellow Sea routes and the passage to Tianjin, were determined to seize it.
Following only token resistance during the day and night of November 20–21, 1894, Japanese troops entered the city on the morning of November 21. Several Western newspaper correspondents present at the time related the widespread massacre of Chinese inhabitants of the city by the victorious Japanese troops, apparently in response to the murderous treatment the Chinese had shown Japanese prisoners of war at Pyongyang and elsewhere.[ citation needed ] Foremost among the correspondents was James Creelman of the New York World . Though at least one American correspondent present completely contradicted Creelman's account,[ citation needed ] there is "little doubt" that the Japanese troops "indiscriminately killed" thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians, and the story of a Japanese massacre soon spread among the Western public, damaging Japan's public image and the movement in the United States to renegotiate the unequal treaties between that country and Japan. The event came to be known as the Port Arthur massacre.
An account of a US sailor who visited the port in the weeks prior to the attack commented that the Chinese soldiers were "ridiculous". They lacked any semblance of military bearing, their dress was unkempt and untidy, and they wandered about the place with little in the way of direction or smartness associated with professional soldiers. He stated that at the time, the garrison numbered approximately 20,000 soldiers, but from his estimation, it should have had between 30,000 and 40,000 men stationed there. He opined that the Japanese could have taken the port with one third of its force, but that against disciplined soldiers, the place should have been impenetrable.
Japan went on to occupy Port Arthur and to seize control of the whole Liaodong Peninsula as spoils of war. As part of the terms of the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki concluding the war, Japan was granted the Liaodong Peninsula but had to cede back the territory when threatened jointly with war by France, Germany and Russia in what is called the Triple Intervention of 1895. This was seen as a great humiliation in Japan.
Two years later, Russia coerced a lease of the Liaodong Peninsula from China and gained railroad right-of-way to join the Liaodong Peninsula to the Chinese Eastern Railway with a line running from Port Arthur and nearby Dalny (Dalian) to the Chinese city of Harbin (see Kwantung Leased Territory), and systematically began to fortify the town and harbor at Port Arthur. This railway from Port Arthur to Harbin became a southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway (not to be confused with the South Manchurian Railway, the name of a company that undertook its management during the later Japanese period after 1905). Tsar Nicholas II believed this acquisition of a Pacific port would enhance Russian security, and extend its economic influence. He was also falsely informed that the British were considering seizing the port.All this was an additional goad to an already seething Japan. It was a hard lesson in international geopolitics Japan would not soon forget.
The Russian town of Dalny (Dalien/Dalian) was undeveloped in this era prior to 1898 when the Russian Tsar Nicholas II founded the town of Dalny (sometimes Dalney). In 1902, the Russian viceroy de-emphasized Dalny (building a palace and cultural edifices instead at Port Arthur), except as a commercial port while continuing the development of manufacturing.
Ten years later, Port Arthur again played a central role in war in the Far East. After the Boxer Rebellion (1900–01) had been extinguished by an international coalition of troops, Russia refused to withdraw its reinforcements from Manchuria and instead began to fortify and garrison the entire route along the Southern Manchurian Railway. With this development, Japan proposed the two powers meet and discuss their respective roles in eastern Manchuria, as the area was considered a portion of their respective spheres of influence. Talks were conducted between 1902 and 1904. While numerous proposals and agreement papers were generated between the two powers, Russia continued the de facto annexation of territory through fortification and garrison, if not de jure ; while employing stalling tactics in its negotiations. In the end, with over two years of intensive bilateral negotiations having gotten nowhere in clarifying each country's rights, prerogatives, and interests in inner Manchuria, Japan declared war on Russia in February 1904.
The Battle of Port Arthur, the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought in the heavily fortified harbor of the town of Port Arthur/Lüshun on 9 February 1904 when the Japanese attacked at night with torpedoes, followed by a brief daylight skirmish by major surface combatants.
By the end of July 1904, the Japanese army had pushed down the Liaodong peninsula and was at the outer defenses of Port Arthur. The fact that Japanese forces had closed to within artillery range of the harbor in early August 1904 led directly to the naval Battle of the Yellow Sea which solidified Japan's command of the sea, where her fleets continued to blockade the harbor. Virtually all the battles of the war until July 1904 were strategic battles for territorial gain or position leading to the investment and siege of the port city.
The port eventually fell 2 January 1905 after a long train of battles on land and sea during which the Japanese occupied the whole of the Korean Peninsula, split the Russian Army, devastated the Russian Fleet, and cut off the source of supplies on the railway from Harbin, culminating in the bloody battle known as the Siege of Port Arthur (June–January; some sources place the siege start in late July, a technical difference due to definitions).
The Japanese-controlled Ryojun City had 40 districts. The Chinese Lüshun City was established on November 25, 1945 to replace Ryojun. The city was a subdivision of a larger Lüda City and contained 40 villages in 3 districts: Dazhong (大众区; 大眾區), Wenhua (文化), and Guangming (光明). In January 1946, Wenhua was merged into Dazhong, and the 40 villages were reduced to 23 communes ( 坊 ). In January 1948, the remaining two districts were merged into one: Shinei (市内区; 市內區), with 12 communes.
On January 7, 1960, Lüshun City was renamed Lüshunkou District, still under Lüda. In 1981, Lüda was renamed Dalian, with Lüshunkou remaining a constituent district. In 1985, 7 of Lüshunkou's 9 townships were upgraded to towns.
Lüshunkou District administers 12 subdistricts; all of the former towns were either abolished, merged or converted into subdistricts themselves.
The district's southern half along Lüshun South Road, central Lüshun and the Naval Port zone continue to be off-limits to foreigners, although Lüshunkou District is thoroughly modernized. World Peace Park opened on the western coast of Lüshun, on the Bohai Sea, and is a new sightseeing spot. North of the Park were established the Lüshun Development Zone, and Lüshun New Port (on Yangtou Bay) where the railroad ferry across the Yellow Sea to Yantai is being planned.
The universities in downtown Dalian are being relocated to Lüshunkou. Dalian Jiaotong University (formerly Dalian Railroad University) moved its Software School to the area near the new port, and Dalian University of Foreign Languages and Dalian Medical University relocated their main campuses to the eastern slope of Baiying Mountain, on Lüshun South Road. Dalian Fisheries University is in the process of moving its English and Japanese language schools to Daheishi, on Lüshun North Road. From late 2006, Sinorail has operated Bohai Train Ferry between Lüshun, Dalian, and Yantai, Shandong.
The historic and modern names, translated into English, of landmark facilities in Lüshun are as follows:
|Under Russian rule||Under Japanese rule||Under Chinese rule|
|The Old Town|
|Unknown||Lüshun City Hall||Commercial Bldg. on right of New Mart Supermarket|
|Unknown||Public Welfare Office||Naval Hotel|
|--||Lüshun Branch, Korean Bank||Lüshun Branch, Commercial Bank of China|
|--||Lüshun No. 1 Primary School||A Naval Facility (on left of Zhangjian Rd. South 3rd Alley)|
|Red Cross Hospital||Lüshun Hospital & Medical School||A Naval Facility (Lüshunkou Hospital on north side)|
|--||Kwantung High Court||Old Kwantung High Court (inside Hospital premises)|
|Lüshun Jail (Gray Walled Bldgs.)||Lüshun Jail (Extended with Red Walled Bldgs.)||Russo-Japanese Jail (Anti-Imperialist Propaganda Facility)|
|--||Lüshun Danish Lutheran Church||Lüshunkou Christian Church|
|--||Hyochu (Showing Loyalty) Tower||White Jade Tower|
|--||Asahi (Morning Sun) Plaza||Friendship Park|
|The New Town|
|Unknown||Japan Bridge (over the Long He)||Liberation Bridge|
|Russian Marines Hqs.||Lüshun Institute of Technology||Navy Hospital No. 406|
|Unknown||Lüshun High School||A Naval Facility (Lüshun command)|
|A German Merchant's Store||Lüshun (No. 1) Middle School||A Naval facility (No. 58 Stalin Rd.）|
|Meeting Place of Sniper Unit's Non-commissioned Officers||Lüshun No. 2 Primary School||Dalian City No. 56 Middle School|
|Ji Fengtai's Shop||The Lüshun Yamato Hotel||Shop & Hostel|
|Unknown||Lüshun No. 2 Middle School||Not Used|
|Photoshop/Town Hall/Restaurant||Lüshun Girls' High School||Navy Related Families' Living Quarters|
|Unknown||Kodama Ground||Ground for Navy|
|Unknown||Korakuen Park||Lüshun Museum Park|
Source: "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (in Japanese; Lüshun Library, 1936), as quoted in "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (Abridged)" in "Journal Commemorating the 95th Anniversary of Lüshun Institute of Technology" (in Japanese; Tokyo, 2006).
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in the Qing Empire and later the Republic of China which existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the territorial concessions that the Chinese government under the Qing Dynasty was compelled to award to foreign countries during the second half of the 19th century. The territory included the militarily and economically significant ports of Lüshunkou and Dalian.
Zhuanghe is one of the two "northern county-level cities", the other being Wafangdian, under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its area is 3,655.70 square kilometres (1,411.47 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 841,321, making it Dalian's most spacious county-level division.
The Battle of Lüshunkou was a land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War. It took place on 21 November 1894 in Lüshunkou, Manchuria between the forces of the Empire of Japan and the Empire of China. It is sometimes referred to archaically in western sources as the Battle of Port Arthur.
Dalian University of Foreign Languages is a public university in Dalian, Liaoning, China and one of the top foreign language institutes in mainland China. Formerly known as Dalian School of Japanese Language, DLUFL was founded in 1964 with the help of the late Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. It is now under the administration of the Education Commission of Liaoning Province. Through 40 years of development, DLUFL has fledged into a multi-disciplinary foreign language university which also offers programs in other fields like arts, economics, management, engineering and law.
Zhongshan District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the urban core. Its area is 40.10 square kilometres (15.48 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 339,527.
Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre and facing the Bohai Sea to the west as well as the Korea Bay to the east and has a longer history than Dalian itself, and used to be a thriving walled city where the officials of this area were dispatched from the central government. Recently, it is again a thriving town, having Dalian Development Area within its area as well as becoming a bedroom community to downtown Dalian. Its area is 1,352.54 square kilometres (522.22 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,102,773.
Shahekou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the urban core. It is located in the western portion of the city. Its area is 34.71 square kilometres (13.40 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 693,140, making it Dalian's most densely populated county-level division. Its postal code is 116021.
Lushun South Road is one of the three highways connecting the Naval Port in Lushun, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, with downtown Dalian. It is the last part of China National Highway 202, which runs from Hegang to Lushun via Jiamusi, Tonghua and Dandong, and is about 32 kilometers long..
Shuishiying were the camp sites or office buildings of the Naval Forces during the later days of the Qing Dynasty of China.
Shuncheng District, is one of the four districts under the administration of the city of Fushun, in Liaoning Province, China. It has a population of about 420,000, covering an area of 277 square kilometres (107 sq mi).
Xinfu District, is one of the four districts under the administration of the city of Fushun, Liaoning Province, China. It has a population of about 290,000, covering an area of 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi).
The Ryojun Guard District was the major navy base for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Kwantung Leased Territory before and during Second Sino-Japanese War. Located in at Ryojun), (present-day Lüshunkou, China, The Ryojun Guard District was responsible for control of the strategic seaward approaches to Manchukuo and to north China and for patrols in the Yellow Sea and along the China coastlines. It was disbanded in 1943.
Kuancheng District is one of six districts of Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It is part of Changchun's main urban area, located north of downtown. It borders Dehui to the northeast, Jiutai to the east, Erdao District to the southeast, Nanguan and Chaoyang Districts to the south, Luyuan District to the southwest, and Nong'an County to the northwest.
Bayuquan District is a district of the city of Yingkou, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Located on the northeast coast of the Bohai Sea and in the northwest part of the Liaodong Peninsula, it is 46 kilometres (29 mi) south-southwest of Yingkou city centre. This small city is known for its seafood like fish and crabs which are shipped to all parts of the world. This District is also a tourism spot because in the summer.
Located at the southernmost point of the Liaodong Peninsula, the city of Dalian came under the territorial control of the Russian Empire from 1898 until that country's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. The Russians called the city Dalniy, which means “distant” or "remote", describing the city's location relative to the Russian heartland. The modern Chinese name, Dalian, comes from a Chinese reading of the Japanese colonial name Dairen, which itself was a loose transliteration of Dalniy. Under Russian control, Dalniy grew into a vibrant port city and before its loss in 1905 was one terminus of the Russian-controlled Chinese Eastern Railway.
Qingniwaqiao is the downtown area of Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, located front of the Dalian Railway Station. The area gives its name to a subdistrict in Zhongshan District, Qingniwaqiao Subdistrict.
Lüshun railway station is located in Lüshunkou District of Dalian City, China, and is the final stop of the Dalian-Lushun branch of the Dalian-Harbin railway. It sits on the east side of the Long River, within a hundred meters of the Lüshun Naval Port, its building being of the Russian-style wooden architecture.
Lüshun Port in Lüshunkou District, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, refers to the original Lüshun Naval Port for military use or the New Lüshun Port for commercial use. This is the Port known in colonial times as Port Arthur.