Lüshunkou District

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Lüshunkou

旅顺口区
PortArthur.JPG
View of Lüshun's harbor and town from an old Japanese fortification
China Liaoning location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lüshunkou
Location in Liaoning
Coordinates: 38°51′12″N121°15′01″E / 38.8534°N 121.2502°E / 38.8534; 121.2502 Coordinates: 38°51′12″N121°15′01″E / 38.8534°N 121.2502°E / 38.8534; 121.2502 [1]
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Sub-provincial city Dalian
Area
[2]
  Total512.15 km2 (197.74 sq mi)
Population
(2010) [3]
  Total324,773
  Density630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Dalian district map
Division code 210212
Website www.dllsk.gov.cn

Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District; simplified Chinese :旅顺口区; traditional Chinese :旅順口區; pinyin :Lǚshùnkǒu Qū) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City (旅顺市; 旅順市; Lǚshùn Shì) or literally Lüshun Port (旅顺港; 旅順港; Lǚshùn Gǎng), it was formerly known as both Port Arthur (亚瑟港; 亞瑟港; Yàsè Gǎng; Russian : Порт-Артур, romanized: Port-Artur and Ryojun (Japanese : 旅順). The district's area is 512.15 square kilometres (197.74 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 324,773. [2] [3]

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Contents

Lüshunkou is located at the extreme southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. It has an excellent natural harbor, the possession and control of which became a casus belli of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05). Japanese and then Russian administration was established in 1895 and continued until 1905 when control was ceded to Japan. During the first decade of that period, it was world-famous and was more significant than the other port on the peninsula, Dalian proper. In Western diplomatic, news, and historical writings, it was known as Port Arthur, and during the period when the Japanese controlled and administered the Liaodong (formerly Liaotung) Peninsula it was called Ryojun(旅順), the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters in the city's name. After the Japanese defeat in World War II, the city was under the administration of the Soviet Union, which rented the port from China, until 1950. Although the Russians presented the port to China in 1950, Soviet troops remained in the city until 1955.

Liaodong Peninsula peninsula

The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria. Liaodong means "East of the Liao River"; referring to the Liao River which divided the Yan commanderies of Liaoxi and Liaodong during time of the Warring States period.

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war". A casus belli involves direct offenses or threats against the nation declaring the war, whereas a casus foederis involves offenses or threats against its ally—usually one bound by a mutual defense pact. Either may be considered an act of war.

Russo-Japanese War 20th-century war between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan

The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904–1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.

Geography

Dalian and vicinities, Landsat 5 satellite image, 2010-08-03 Dalian, China, satellite image, LandSat-5, 2010-08-03.jpg
Dalian and vicinities, Landsat 5 satellite image, 2010-08-03

Central Dalian is some 64 kilometres (40 miles) farther up the coast, sprawling around the narrowest neck of the Liaodong Peninsula (simplified Chinese :辽东半岛; traditional Chinese :遼東半島; pinyin :Liáodōng Bàndǎo), whereas Lüshun occupies its southern tip. (See Landsat Map below Zoomed – Lüshun City surrounds the lake-like structure clearly visible near the peninsular tip—the lake-like feature is the inner natural harbour of the port, a very well-sheltered and fortifiable harbour to 19th century eyes.)

Dalian Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China. It is the southernmost city of the Liaodong Peninsula. Dalian is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status. The Shandong Peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Strait and Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east.

Clearly seen on the map (above right) are the Liaodong Peninsula and its relation to Korea, the Yellow Sea (Chinese :黄海) to its southeast, the Korea Bay (Chinese :西朝鲜湾) to its due east, and the Bohai Sea (or Gulf) (Chinese :渤海) to its west. Beijing is almost directly (due west-northwest) across the Bo Hai Gulf from the port city.

Korea Region in East Asia

Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.

Yellow Sea Sea in Northeast Asia between China and Korea

The Yellow Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Earlier history

Surrounded by ocean on three sides, this strategic seaport was originally known to the Chinese as Lüshun. It took its English name, Port Arthur, from a British Royal Navy Lieutenant named William C. Arthur who surveyed the harbor in the gunboat HMS Algerine in August 1860, during the Second Opium War. At that time Lüshun was an unfortified fishing village.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

William C. Arthur was a Royal Navy officer who was the namesake of the English name for Lüshunkou, Port Arthur, which changed hands between China, Imperial Russia, Japan, and the Soviet Union between 1894 and 1945.

Gunboat naval watercraft designed for bombardment of coastal targets

A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.

Late-19th century colonial era

Artillery battery at a fortress in Lushunkou. PA065379Qing Dai Hai Fang Pao Tai .jpg
Artillery battery at a fortress in Lüshunkou.

In the late 1880s, the German company Krupp was contracted by the Chinese government to build a series of fortifications around Port Arthur. Reportedly, this was after local contractors had "made an extensive bungle of the job". [4]

Krupp German family dynasty

The Krupp family, a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, is famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition and other armaments. The family business, known as Friedrich Krupp AG, was the largest company in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, and was important to weapons development and production in both world wars. One of the most powerful dynasties in European history, Krupp flourished for 400 years as the premier weapons manufacturer of Germany. From the Thirty Years' War until the end of the Second World War, it produced battleships, U-boats, tanks, howitzers, guns, utilities, and hundreds of other commodities.

Port Arthur first came into international prominence during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Following Japan's defeat of Chinese troops at Pyongyang in Korea in September 1894, the Japanese First and Second Armies converged on the Liaodong Peninsula by land and sea. Japanese war planners, ambitious for control of the Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur and also cognizant of that port's strategic position controlling the northern Yellow Sea routes and the passage to Tianjin, were determined to seize it.

Following only token resistance during the day and night of November 20–21, 1894, Japanese troops entered the city on the morning of November 21. Several Western newspaper correspondents present at the time related the widespread massacre of Chinese inhabitants of the city by the victorious Japanese troops, apparently in response to the murderous treatment the Chinese had shown Japanese prisoners of war at Pyongyang and elsewhere.[ citation needed ] Foremost among the correspondents was James Creelman of the New York World . Though at least one American correspondent present completely contradicted Creelman's account,[ citation needed ] there is "little doubt" that the Japanese troops "indiscriminately killed" thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians, [5] and the story of a Japanese massacre soon spread among the Western public, damaging Japan's public image and the movement in the United States to renegotiate the unequal treaties between that country and Japan. The event came to be known as the Port Arthur massacre.

A Japanese propaganda block print of the night attack on Port Arthur by the Japanese Navy. Shinohara Kiyooki - 1904 - A Righteous War to Chastise the Russians The Destroyer Force's Night Attack (Cho Ro gisen, kichiku tai yashu).jpg
A Japanese propaganda block print of the night attack on Port Arthur by the Japanese Navy.

An account of a US sailor who visited the port in the weeks prior to the attack commented that the Chinese soldiers were "ridiculous". They lacked any semblance of military bearing, their dress was unkempt and untidy, and they wandered about the place with little in the way of direction or smartness associated with professional soldiers. He stated that at the time, the garrison numbered approximately 20,000 soldiers, but from his estimation, it should have had between 30,000 and 40,000 men stationed there. He opined that the Japanese could have taken the port with one third of its force, but that against disciplined soldiers, the place should have been impenetrable. [6]

Japan went on to occupy Port Arthur and to seize control of the whole Liaodong Peninsula as spoils of war. As part of the terms of the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki concluding the war, Japan was granted the Liaodong Peninsula but had to cede back the territory when threatened jointly with war by France, Germany and Russia in what is called the Triple Intervention of 1895. This was seen as a great humiliation in Japan.

Two years later, Russia coerced a lease of the Liaodong Peninsula from China and gained railroad right-of-way to join the Liaodong Peninsula to the Chinese Eastern Railway with a line running from Port Arthur and nearby Dalny (Dalian) to the Chinese city of Harbin (see Kwantung Leased Territory), and systematically began to fortify the town and harbor at Port Arthur. This railway from Port Arthur to Harbin became a southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway (not to be confused with the South Manchurian Railway, the name of a company that undertook its management during the later Japanese period after 1905). Tsar Nicholas II believed this acquisition of a Pacific port would enhance Russian security, and extend its economic influence. He was also falsely informed that the British were considering seizing the port. [7] All this was an additional goad to an already seething Japan. It was a hard lesson in international geopolitics Japan would not soon forget.

The Russian town of Dalny (Dalien/Dalian) was undeveloped in this era prior to 1898 when the Russian Tsar Nicholas II founded the town of Dalny (sometimes Dalney). In 1902, the Russian viceroy de-emphasized Dalny (building a palace and cultural edifices instead at Port Arthur), except as a commercial port while continuing the development of manufacturing.

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)

Ten years later, Port Arthur again played a central role in war in the Far East. After the Boxer Rebellion (1900–01) had been extinguished by an international coalition of troops, Russia refused to withdraw its reinforcements from Manchuria and instead began to fortify and garrison the entire route along the Southern Manchurian Railway. With this development, Japan proposed the two powers meet and discuss their respective roles in eastern Manchuria, as the area was considered a portion of their respective spheres of influence. Talks were conducted between 1902 and 1904. While numerous proposals and agreement papers were generated between the two powers, Russia continued the de facto annexation of territory through fortification and garrison, if not de jure ; while employing stalling tactics in its negotiations. In the end, with over two years of intensive bilateral negotiations having gotten nowhere in clarifying each country's rights, prerogatives, and interests in inner Manchuria, Japan declared war on Russia in February 1904.

The Battle of Port Arthur

The Battle of Port Arthur, the opening battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought in the heavily fortified harbor of the town of Port Arthur/Lüshun on 9 February 1904 when the Japanese attacked at night with torpedoes, followed by a brief daylight skirmish by major surface combatants.

By the end of July 1904, the Japanese army had pushed down the Liaodong peninsula and was at the outer defenses of Port Arthur. The fact that Japanese forces had closed to within artillery range of the harbor in early August 1904 led directly to the naval Battle of the Yellow Sea which solidified Japan's command of the sea, where her fleets continued to blockade the harbor. Virtually all the battles of the war until July 1904 were strategic battles for territorial gain or position leading to the investment and siege of the port city.

The port eventually fell 2 January 1905 after a long train of battles on land and sea during which the Japanese occupied the whole of the Korean Peninsula, split the Russian Army, devastated the Russian Fleet, and cut off the source of supplies on the railway from Harbin, culminating in the bloody battle known as the Siege of Port Arthur (June–January; some sources place the siege start in late July, a technical difference due to definitions).

After World War II

The Japanese-controlled Ryojun City had 40 districts. The Chinese Lüshun City was established on November 25, 1945 to replace Ryojun. The city was a subdivision of a larger Lüda City and contained 40 villages in 3 districts: Dazhong (大众区; 大眾區), Wenhua (文化), and Guangming (光明). In January 1946, Wenhua was merged into Dazhong, and the 40 villages were reduced to 23 communes ( ). In January 1948, the remaining two districts were merged into one: Shinei (市内区; 市內區), with 12 communes.

On January 7, 1960, Lüshun City was renamed Lüshunkou District, still under Lüda. In 1981, Lüda was renamed Dalian, with Lüshunkou remaining a constituent district. In 1985, 7 of Lüshunkou's 9 townships were upgraded to towns.

Administrative divisions

Lüshunkou District administers 12 subdistricts; all of the former towns were either abolished, merged or converted into subdistricts themselves. [8]

Today

The district's southern half along Lüshun South Road, central Lüshun and the Naval Port zone continue to be off-limits to foreigners, although Lüshunkou District is thoroughly modernized. World Peace Park opened on the western coast of Lüshun, on the Bohai Sea, and is a new sightseeing spot. North of the Park were established the Lüshun Development Zone, and Lüshun New Port (on Yangtou Bay) where the railroad ferry across the Yellow Sea to Yantai is being planned.

The universities in downtown Dalian are being relocated to Lüshunkou. Dalian Jiaotong University (formerly Dalian Railroad University) moved its Software School to the area near the new port, and Dalian University of Foreign Languages and Dalian Medical University relocated their main campuses to the eastern slope of Baiying Mountain, on Lüshun South Road. Dalian Fisheries University is in the process of moving its English and Japanese language schools to Daheishi, on Lüshun North Road. From late 2006, Sinorail has operated Bohai Train Ferry between Lüshun, Dalian, and Yantai, Shandong.

Old and new names of main facilities

The historic and modern names, translated into English, of landmark facilities in Lüshun are as follows:

Under Russian ruleUnder Japanese ruleUnder Chinese rule
The Old Town
UnknownLüshun City HallCommercial Bldg. on right of New Mart Supermarket
UnknownPublic Welfare OfficeNaval Hotel
--Lüshun Branch, Korean BankLüshun Branch, Commercial Bank of China
--Lüshun No. 1 Primary SchoolA Naval Facility (on left of Zhangjian Rd. South 3rd Alley)
Red Cross HospitalLüshun Hospital & Medical SchoolA Naval Facility (Lüshunkou Hospital on north side)
-- Kwantung High CourtOld Kwantung High Court (inside Hospital premises)
Lüshun Jail (Gray Walled Bldgs.)Lüshun Jail (Extended with Red Walled Bldgs.)Russo-Japanese Jail (Anti-Imperialist Propaganda Facility)
--Lüshun Danish Lutheran Church Lüshunkou Christian Church
--Hyochu (Showing Loyalty) TowerWhite Jade Tower
--Asahi (Morning Sun) PlazaFriendship Park
The New Town
UnknownJapan Bridge (over the Long He)Liberation Bridge
Russian Marines Hqs.Lüshun Institute of TechnologyNavy Hospital No. 406
UnknownLüshun High SchoolA Naval Facility (Lüshun command)
A German Merchant's StoreLüshun (No. 1) Middle SchoolA Naval facility (No. 58 Stalin Rd.)
Meeting Place of Sniper Unit's Non-commissioned OfficersLüshun No. 2 Primary SchoolDalian City No. 56 Middle School
Ji Fengtai's ShopThe Lüshun Yamato Hotel Shop & Hostel
UnknownLüshun No. 2 Middle SchoolNot Used
Photoshop/Town Hall/RestaurantLüshun Girls' High SchoolNavy Related Families' Living Quarters
UnknownKodama GroundGround for Navy
UnknownKorakuen ParkLüshun Museum Park

Source: "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (in Japanese; Lüshun Library, 1936), as quoted in "Lüshun under Russian Rule" (Abridged)" in "Journal Commemorating the 95th Anniversary of Lüshun Institute of Technology" (in Japanese; Tokyo, 2006).

See also

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References

  1. Google (2 July 2014). "Shuishiying Sub-district" (Map). Google Maps . Google. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  2. 1 2 Dalian Statistical Yearbook 2012 (《大连统计年鉴2012》). Accessed 8 July 2014.
  3. 1 2 2010 Census county-by-county statistics (《中国2010年人口普查分县资料》). Accessed 8 July 2014.
  4. James Allen (1898). Under the dragon flag: My experiences in the Chino-Japanese war. Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 39. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  5. Chushichi Tzusuki, The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 1825–1995, OUP, 2003 (reprint of 2000 ed), p. 128
  6. James Allen (1898). Under the dragon flag: My experiences in the Chino-Japanese war. Frederick A. Stokes Company. pp. 41–42. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  7. Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2016). The Romanovs. United Kingdom: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 503–504.
  8. 2011年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:旅顺口区 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 30 December 2012.

Sources

  • F.R. Sedwick, (R.F.A.), The Russo-Japanese War, 1909, The Macmillan Company, N.Y.
  • Colliers (Ed.), The Russo-Japanese War, 1904, P.F. Collier & Son, New York
  • Dennis and Peggy Warner, The Tide at Sunrise, 1974, Charterhouse, New York
  • William Henry Chamberlain, Japan Over Asia, 1937, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston
  • Tom McKnight,PhD, et al.; Geographica (ATLAS), Barnes and Noble Books and Random House, New York, 1999–2004, 3rd revision, ISBN   0-7607-5974-X