Lý Thánh Tông

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Lý Thánh Tông
Emperor of Đại Việt
Ly Thanh Tong.JPG
A statue of emperor Lý Thánh Tông
Emperor of Đại Việt
Reign3 November 10541 February 1072
PredecessorKingdom of Đại Cồ Việt renamed to kingdom of Đại Việt
Successor Lý Nhân Tông
Monarch of Lý Dynasty
Reign3/11/10541/02/1072
Predecessor Lý Thái Tông
Successor Lý Nhân Tông
Born19 March 1023
Long Đức palace, Thăng Long
Died1 February 1072 (aged 48)
Hội Tiên palace, Thăng Long
Burial
Thọ Tomb
Spouse8 concubines, including Empress Thượng Dương
Empress Linh Nhân (靈仁皇太后)(Ỷ Lan)
IssueDuke Lý Càn Đức(Lý Nhân Tông)
Duke of Minh Nhân
Princess Động Thiên
Princess Thiên Thành
Princess Ngọc Kiều(adoptive)
Full name
Lý Nhật Tôn (李日尊)
Era dates
Long Thụy Thái Bình (龍瑞太平: 1054-1058)
Thiên Thánh Gia Khánh (彰聖嘉慶: 1059-1065)
Long Chương Thiên Tự (龍彰天嗣: 1066-1068)
Thiên Thống Bảo Tượng (天貺寶象: 1068-1069)
Thần Vũ (神武: 1069-1072)
Posthumous name
Ứng Thiên Sùng Nhân Chí Đạo Uy Khánh Long Tường Minh Văn Duệ Vũ Hiếu Đức Thánh Thần Hoàng Đế(應天崇仁至道威慶龍祥明文睿武孝德聖神皇帝)
Temple name
Thánh Tông (聖宗)
House
Father Lý Thái Tông
MotherEmpress Linh Cảm (Mai thị) (靈感皇后枚氏)
Religion Buddhism

Lý Thánh Tông (30 March 1023 - 1 February 1072), personal name Lý Nhật Tôn [lǐ ɲə̀t ton] , temple name Thánh Tông, was the third monarch of the Lý dynasty of Đại Việt. In his reign, Lý Thánh Tông promoted the agricultural development, reducing some harsh laws and building many Confucianist and Buddhist institutions, most notably the first Temple of Literature in Vietnam (1072). He also fought several successful wars with the Song empire and Champa, resulting in the expansion of Vietnamese territory to the areas which are Quảng Bình Province and Quảng Trị Province today.

Contents

Early life

Lý Nhật Tôn (chữ Hán: ) was the eldest son of the second monarch Lý Phật Mã of the House of Lý and Empress Mai Thị. He was born on February 25, 1023 (this date was followed the Lunar calendar, the official calendar of Vietnam during Vietnam's feudal period) at Càn Đức palace. In 1033, he was conferred crown prince after his father ascended the throne, often referred as Prince Khai Hoàng (開皇王).

As a crown prince

He was soon adept in all main fields at that time, such as history, literature, music, and also martial arts. Like his father, he was soon brought out of the capital citadel to touch the bottom class in society, following the tradition of this dynasty. Living among the masses, he soon profoundly understood the real conditions of the society, making him have a benevolent reign after his succession.

Just at the age of 15, he was dubbed as General Marshal, suppressed the revolt in Lam Tây (Lai Châu Province), and made some feat. When was 17 years old, his father allowed Thanh Tong to lead an army to conquest Nùng Tồn Phúc, he was in charge of the Regent to rule over the capital and to manage the affairs of court.

In 1040, when he was just 18, all important litigations over the nation were committed to him. One edifice known as Quảng Vũ palace was confided to him. (chữ Hán: )

Lý Thánh Tông
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Lý Thánh Tông
Hán-Nôm

In 1043, he was again conferred as General Marshal, taking charge of the suppression of rebellions in Châu Ái (Thanh Hóa Province). One year later, his father personally led troops in the invasion of Champa. While Thái Tông was absent, the crown prince acted as Regent Protector of the Imperial Capital. Late 1044, the emperor returned victoriously from Champa.

In January 1045, when he was ailing, Lý Thái Tông allowed him to hold court. Two months later, Lý Thái Tông died and then Lý Nhật Tôn officially ascended.

Emperor

Just after succession, Lý Thánh Tông shortened the kingdom's name from Đại Cồ Việt to Đại Việt (literally "Great Viet") [1] , initiating the most prosperous epoch throughout the history of Vietnam under that name. Lý Thánh Tông ably managed the nation through his reign and was regarded as a relatively benevolent emperor. According to the official histories, in one year, when it underwent an extraordinarily cold and long winter, he told his confidants that even he, being in the palace with enough clothing, still felt cold, so that prisoners are likely to be not sufficiently supplied with either food or clothing, and easily deceased. Thus, he commanded his servants to bring food, mats, and blankets to these prisoners.

Birth name
Vietnamese alphabet Lý Nhật Tôn
Hán-Nôm

He practiced Buddhism so during his reign, Lý Thánh Tông built many tower-pagodas and cast some large and impressive bells. However, he also had a comparative respect to Confucianism, and in order to educate the people, he operated Văn Miếu, the Temple of Literature, and commanded workmen to carve some large sculptures of Confucius and 72 sages. Since that, Đại Việt has had Văn Miếu, the site to commemorate all people who have achieved the title Tiến sĩ (doctor). [1]

His success was contributed to notably by his Noble Consort Ỷ Lan, who displayed great competence in administration. As Lý Thánh Tông did not soon produce an heir, when he went to war, she herself was left in charge of administering the nation.

Conflict with the Song Empire and Champa

After stabilizing the nation, he attended to the extension of his realm. He rearrayed the army and made army titles for each part of it. He totally divided his main cohort into 100 small groups and those were arrayed into four large groups: left, right, front, and rear, with supports of cavalries and catapults. The allotted army was assembled in another part. The tactical factor of the Vietnamese army at that time was an advance which was respected by its rivals.

In 1060, he commanded the exarch of Lạng Châu (Lạng Sơn) to combat the Song army along the border between two nations. The Vietnamese infantry won and captured the Song general (Vietnamese: Dương Bảo Tài). After some more failed conflict with Đại Việt, the Song sent an envoy to negotiate with the Vietnamese court. The negotiator was treated well, but Đại Việt peremptorily did not free that general.

As Champa constantly harassed the area near the border between the two nations and sometimes intruded deeply to loot, in 1069 Lý Thánh Tông himself led an army to defeat Champa. He defeated the Cham army, burned Vijaya, and captured the King of Champa, Rudravarman III. Rudravarman III implored Lý Thánh Tông to release him in exchange for three areas, known as Địa Lý, Ma Linh, and Bố Chính. These now form part of Quảng Bình Province and Quảng Trị Province. [2] :62,186

Nhật Tôn’s victorious army brought back thousands more Cham prisoners and resettled them near capital Thăng Long. These captives included Tao Tang, a Chinese monk who had been living at the Cham court. Under the guidance of his new royal patron Nhật Tôn, he established Đại Việt’s third Thiền Buddhist sect. Alongside the popular Vinītaruci sect that Lý Công Uẩn had favored and the more ascetic and scholarly Võ Ngôn Thông sect of Lý Phật Mã, the kingdom acquired a princely order that was patronized by later Lý monarchs and catered to court interests, but also incorporated more cosmopolitan influences, including elements of Chinese Buddhism. [3]

Era name

In January 1072, he suddenly died at the age of 50, having ruled for 17 years. During his rule, he used 5 era names:

Family

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Ỷ Lan Empress Mother Linh Nhân

Ỷ Lan or Empress Mother Linh Nhân was a Vietnamese regent, the imperial concubine of Lý Thánh Tông, the third emperor and the natural mother of Lý Nhân Tông, the fourth emperor of the Lý Dynasty. She served as regent during the absence of her spouse in 1066-68, and as co-regent during the reign of her son in 1073-1117.

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References

  1. 1 2 Kiernan 2019, p. 156.
  2. Maspero, G., 2002, The Champa Kingdom, Bangkok: White Lotus Co., Ltd., ISBN   9747534991
  3. Kiernan 2019, p. 154.
Preceded by
Lý Thái Tông
Emperor of the Lý Dynasty
1054–1072
Succeeded by
Lý Nhân Tông
Lý royal family (notable members)
Colour note
Lý Thái Tổ
Lý Thái Tông
Lý Thánh Tông Ỷ Lan
Sùng Hiền hầu Lý Nhân Tông
Lý Thần Tông
Lý Anh Tông
Lý Long Tường Lý Nguyên vương Lý Cao Tông Empress Đàm
Lý Thẩm Lý Huệ Tông Trần Thị Dung
Trần Thái Tông Lý Chiêu Hoàng Princess Thuận Thiên Trần Liễu
Notes:
    Family tree of Vietnamese monarchs
    Overall Early independence Lý dynasty Trần dynasty Lê dynasty Trịnh lords and Mạc dynasty Nguyễn lords and dynasty