|Comune di La Maddalena|
|• Mayor||Luca Carlo Montella|
|• Total||52.01 km2 (20.08 sq mi)|
|Elevation||27 m (89 ft)|
|Population (31 July 2017)|
|• Density||220/km2 (560/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||07020, 07024|
|Patron saint||St. Mary Magdalene|
|Saint day||July 22|
La Maddalena (Gallurese: Madalena or La Madalena, Sardinian : Sa Madalena) is a town and comune located on the island with the same name, in the province of Sassari, northern Sardinia, Italy.
Sardinian or Sard is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia. Many Romance linguists consider it the closest genealogical descendant to Latin. However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political membership of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.
The comune is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
The Province of Sassari is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital is the city of Sassari. As of 2017, the province had a population of 493,357 inhabitants.
La Maddalena is the largest town in the Maddalena archipelago, just 2 kilometres (1 mile) from the northeastern shore of Sardinia and sitting in the Straits of Bonifacio, between it and Corsica.
The 'Maddalena Archipelago' is a group of islands in the Strait of Bonifacio between Corsica (France) and north-eastern Sardinia (Italy).
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island.
The focal-point of pedestrian activity is around Piazza Umberto I (formerly known as Piazza Comando-the older generation of natives in town still commonly refer to the piazza by its original name). There is an adjacent via (Garibaldi) that connects the port (Banchina Commerciale I) facing the Island of Santo Stefano and Piazza Umberto I with city hall. Via Garibaldi is surrounded by commercial shops, restaurants, and bars.
La Maddalena now derives much of its income from tourism. The only method of traveling to La Maddalena is by boat, with car ferries travelling from nearby Palau and from the Italian mainland.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes".
Palau is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Sassari in the Italian region Sardinia, about 220 kilometres (140 mi) north of Cagliari and about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Olbia. It was a frazione of the comune of Tempio Pausania until 1959.
The natives of La Maddalena speak a Sardo-Corsican dialect known as Maddalenino.
The island of Maddalena has several beaches, including Bassa Trinita and Spalmatore. It is characterized by rocky granitic terrain and has some ancient fortifications. It is connected by causeway with the nearby island of Caprera, known as the residence of the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Caprera is an island in the Maddalena archipelago off the coast of Sardinia, Italy. In the area of La Maddalena island in the Strait of Bonifacio, it is a tourist destination and the place to which Giuseppe Garibaldi retired from 1854 until his death in 1882.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini.
La Maddalena has undergone many name changes: the Romans named it Ilva, Fussa and Bucina and in the Middle Ages the island was known as "Bicinara" before being given the name of Santa Maria Magdalena in the 16th century. After this it finally became known as La Maddalena.
The Maddalena archipelago is known from archaeological evidence to have been occupied in prehistoric times, but its written history begins with the Roman Empire.
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication. It contrasts with other narratives of the past, such as mythological, oral or archeological traditions. For broader world history, recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC, and coincides with the invention of writing. For some geographic regions or cultures, written history is limited to a relatively recent period in human history because of the limited use of written records. Moreover, human cultures do not always record all of the information relevant to later historians, such as the full impact of natural disasters or the names of individuals; thus, recorded history for particular types of information is limited based on the types of records kept. Because of this, recorded history in different contexts may refer to different periods of time depending on the topic.
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the islands were completely abandoned until the 12th century, when they were chosen by Benedictine monks founding small communities there. The islands were the object of a dispute between the Republics of Pisa and Genoa in the 12th century.
In 1584 all the monasteries on the islands were destroyed by one of the Ottoman raids. In the 17th century shepherds began to bring their flocks to the islands in the winter months.
Its location in the Strait of Bonifacio, through which much maritime traffic must pass, has turned the archipelago into a strategic military position. In 1767 it was occupied by the Savoy-Piedmontese. The nucleus of the present town of La Maddalena emerged then.
In 1793 a French expedition, in which Napoleon Bonaparte took part, unsuccessfully tried to occupy the island. It was the first combat experience of Napoleon Bonaparte. During all the Napoleonic Wars Admiral Horatio Nelson used the archipelago of La Maddalena as a base for his fleet in actions against the French.
A base was established here by the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in 1887. In 1943, during World War II, Benito Mussolini was briefly held prisoner here.
From 1972 through 2008, there was a U.S. Naval Support Activity base as well as a NATO base on the nearby island of Santo Stefano. The NATO base housed an Italian Navy barracks and it served as the home port for several US Navy submarine tenders over the years, beginning in 1972 with the arrival of the USS Fulton (AS-11) and ending with the departure of the USS Emory S. Land, which set sail for its new home port of Bremerton,Washington. The US Naval Support Activity officially closed in January 2008, ending the 35 year US presence in La Maddalena.
During the period in which the American military had a presence on the island, it was twice used as a repair base for submarines after undersea collisions. In 1977 USS Ray collided with a coral reef off Tunisia and suffered damage to the sonar dome and cracking to the hull. Ray had immediate repairs here, then made a surface transit back to the US. On 25 October, 2003 USS Hartford ran aground with sufficient force to substantially damage its rudders, sonar and electronics.
La Maddalena now lends its name to a National Park located in the archipelago.
The 35th G8 Summit, chaired by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, was going to be held in La Maddalena in 2009, but later it was moved to L'Aquila.
Ajaccio is a French commune, prefecture of the department of Corse-du-Sud, and head office of the Collectivité territoriale de Corse. It is also the largest settlement on the island. Ajaccio is located on the west coast of the island of Corsica, 210 nautical miles (390 km) southeast of Marseille.
Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park, and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica.
Gallura is a region in the northeast of the island of Sardinia, Italy.
Bertoleoni is the self-proclaimed ruling family of the self-styled "Kingdom of Tavolara", which claimed to be "the smallest kingdom of the world". The members of this family were also the only inhabitants of this island that had been abandoned in the 1730s because of North-African piracy in the area. They sustained themselves by goat farming and fishing. Currently, the mock-kingdom is a tourist attraction for the 50 or so native inhabitants of the island, where the current "king" and "crown princess" run its two restaurants and sell souvenirs to visitors of the Natural Park.
USS Hartford (SSN-768), a Los Angeles-class submarine, is the second ship of the Navy to be named for Hartford, Connecticut. The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut on 30 June 1988 and her keel was laid down on 22 February 1992. She was launched on 4 December 1993 sponsored by Laura O'Keefe, wife of former Secretary of the Navy Sean O'Keefe, and commissioned on 10 December 1994, with Commander George Kasten in command.
The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea, west of Tuscany, Italy.
On 25 October 2003, USS Hartford, a United States Navy nuclear-powered Los Angeles-class submarine ran aground while performing routine maneuvers in the harbor of La Maddalena, Sardinia. Approximately nine million dollars' worth of damage was done to the submarine, and it was out of service for seven months. An investigation into the accident revealed that basic navigational errors combined with equipment failures were to blame for the submarine running into the rocky shallows.
Santo Stefano is an island in the Maddalena archipelago of northern Sardinia, Italy, and part of the Maddalena National Park. It is largely uninhabited and it is mainly known for its hosting of a NATO Naval Base and Italian Navy munitions magazines Apart from the military, the only residences on the island is a tourist resort, Club valtur, which is largely occupied only during the summer months. Public access to the island is made by ferry either from La Maddalena or nearby Palau, on Sardinia.
The Corsicans are a Romance ethnic group. They are native to Corsica, a Mediterranean island and a territorial collectivity of France.
The Archipelago of Lavezzi is a collection a small of granite islands and reefs in the Strait of Bonifacio that separates Corsica from Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. They are administered from the town of Bonifacio on Corsica.
Budelli is an island in the Maddalena archipelago, near the strait of Bonifacio in northern Sardinia, Italy. It is part of the La Maddalena National Park.
Arcipelago di La Maddalena National Park is a geomarine national park on the coast of Sardinia. The park was established on 1 April 1994, followed by the change of DPR on 17 May 1996. It covers an area on land and sea of over 12,000 hectares and 180 kilometers of coasts. This region includes all the islands and islets within the territory of the Municipality of La Maddalena, Italy. The territory of the National Park will also represent an important part of the Bocche di Bonifacio international marine park which will soon be established.
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.
Domenico Millelire, pseudonym of Domenico Leoni, was an Italian patriot, and officer of Regia Marina Sarda. He is recognised to have gained the first Gold Medal of Military Valor in the Italian history. Millelire gave the first defeat to Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Expédition de Sardaigne was a short military campaign fought in 1793 in the Mediterranean Sea in the first year of the War of the First Coalition, during the French Revolutionary Wars. The operation was the first offensive by the new French Republic in the Mediterranean during the conflict, and was directed at the island of Sardinia, part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Sardinia was neutral at the time, but immediately joined the anti-French coalition. The operation was a total failure, with attacks directed at Cagliari in the south and La Maddalena in the north both ending in defeat.
Isola Razzoli Lighthouse is an active lighthouse located on an islet, 2.45 kilometres (1.52 mi) long, in the Maddalena archipelago. The lighthouse is the northernmost in Sardinia, on the eastern approach to the Strait of Bonifacio, and is at 7.42 kilometres (4.61 mi) from the French Lavezzi archipelago. The island is in the municipality of La Maddalena on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Punta Filetto Lighthouse is an active lighthouse located on the Isola Santa Maria, which makes part of the Maddalena archipelago, on the northern point of the island facing Barrettinelli di Fuori Lighthouse from which it is 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) away. The island is in the municipality of La Maddalena on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Spargi is an island of Italy. It is situated in the Maddalena archipelago, in the Strait of Bonifacio between Corsica and Sardinia. It is the third largest island in the archipelago, and is uninhabited. It is within the Arcipelago di La Maddalena National Park.
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