La Paz, Baja California Sur

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La Paz
Cathedral of La Paz, Baja California .jpg
Parque Acuatico El Coromuel.jpg
Catedral de nuestra senora de La Paz.JPG
Balandra.jpeg
Cathedral of La Paz, Baja California 02.jpg
La Paz coastline.jpg
From top to bottom and left to right: Cathedral of La Paz, El Coromuel Water Park, Cathedral of Our lady of La Paz, Stone in Playa Balandra, Inside the Cathedral of La Paz and Playa Balandra
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Coat of arms
La Paz en Baja California Sur.svg
Location of La Paz in Baja California Sur
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La Paz
Location of La Paz in Mexico
Coordinates: 24°08′32″N110°18′39″W / 24.14222°N 110.31083°W / 24.14222; -110.31083 Coordinates: 24°08′32″N110°18′39″W / 24.14222°N 110.31083°W / 24.14222; -110.31083
Country Mexico
State Baja California Sur
Municipality La Paz
FoundedMay 3, 1535
named La Paz1596
Government
  Municipal president Lic. Rubén Muñoz (Morena)
Elevation
27 m (89 ft)
Population
(2015 [1] )
   City 244,219 [1]
   Metro
290,286 [1]
 Data source: INEGI
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
Website www.lapaz.gob.mx
Source: Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México

La Paz (pronounced  [la ˈpas] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Peace) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur and an important regional commercial center. The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, [1] making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. It is in La Paz Municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size and reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants on a land area of 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi). [2]

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Baja California Sur State of Mexico

Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

El Centenario Place in Baja California Sur, Mexico

El Centenario is a small seaside town located in La Paz Municipality, Baja California Sur, Mexico, approximately 15 km west of La Paz, the capital city. El Centenario had a 2015 census population of 6,068 persons.

Contents

The population of La Paz has grown greatly since the 2000s. The growth is largely because the city has one of the highest standards of living and security in Mexico.[ citation needed ]

La Paz is served by the Manuel Márquez de León International Airport with flights to the most important cities of Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey. Airlines flying into La Paz include Aeroméxico Connect, Volaris and VivaAerobus. Two ferry services operate from the port of Pichilingue outside the city, connecting the Baja California peninsula to the mainland at Mazatlán and Topolobampo, near Los Mochis.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Guadalajara City in Jalisco, Mexico

Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,460,148 inhabitants, it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. The Guadalajara metropolitan area has a reported population of 5,002,466 inhabitants, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region.

Monterrey City in Nuevo León, Mexico

Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$ 123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is often regarded as its most "Americanized".

Business zone near the promenade Street Scene - La Paz - Baja California Sur - Mexico - 02 (23809196496).jpg
Business zone near the promenade

History

La Paz was first inhabited by Neolithic hunter-gatherers at least 10,000 years ago who left traces of their existence in the form of rock paintings near the city and throughout the Baja California Peninsula. Fortun Ximenez piloted the Concepcion into the bay in late 1533. He and twenty-two of his crew were killed by the native population. [3] On May 3, 1535, Hernán Cortés arrived in the bay by La Paz and named it "Santa Cruz"; he attempted to start a colony but abandoned his efforts after several years due to logistical problems. [4] In 1596, Sebastián Vizcaíno arrived, giving the area its modern name, La Paz.

Neolithic Archaeological period, last part of the Stone Age

The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact.

Hunter-gatherer human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals)

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

Baja California Peninsula peninsula of North America on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

The Baja California Peninsula is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km at its narrowest to 320 km at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

From January 10, 1854, to May 8, 1854, it served as the capital of William Walker's Republic of Sonora. The project collapsed due to lack of US support and pressure from the Mexican government to retake the region.

William Walker (filibuster) 19th-century American filibuster, physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary

William Walker was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering". Walker usurped the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856 and ruled until 1857, when he was defeated by a coalition of Central American armies. He returned in an attempt to reestablish his control of the region and was captured and executed by the government of Honduras in 1860.

Republic of Sonora

The Republic of Sonora was a short-lived, unrecognized federal republic ruled by filibuster William Walker in 1854. It was based in Baja California and also claimed Sonora. Walker's exploits generated interest back in San Francisco, where bonds for the Republic of Sonora were sold, and its flag was even raised in places. His enterprise, however, suffered from a lack of supplies and discontent from within; resistance by the Mexican government quickly forced Walker to retreat.

Climate

The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station. El Mogote peninsula is visible to the center left. Baiadelapaz.jpg
The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station. El Mogote peninsula is visible to the center left.

La Paz has a desert climate. The climate of La Paz is relatively consistent with generally little rainfall, with a year around average temperature of between 17 and 30 °C (63 and 86 °F). Summer months (July–September) typically see highs between 34 and 36 °C (93 and 97 °F) and dew points of 21–23 °C (70–73 °F). [5] The winter months (December–February) are the coldest with temperatures dropping below 15 °C (59 °F) at night, but mostly maxima are from 20 to 25 °C (68 to 77 °F). Breezes from Bahía de La Paz moderate the temperature. The bay also acts as a barrier against seasonal storms in the Gulf of California.

Desert climate deserts climate

The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth.

Gulf of California A gulf of the Pacific Ocean between the Baja peninsula and the Mexican mainland

The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa with a coastline of approximately 4,000 km (2,500 mi). Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Fuerte, Mayo, Sinaloa, Sonora, and the Yaqui. The gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi). Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) in the deepest parts.

Rainfall is minimal at most times of year, although erratic downpours can bring heavy rains. Rain tends to be concentrated in a short, slightly rainier season that peaks in August and September, following the pattern of the North American Monsoon. The driest season, where it is common to have no rain, occurs March through June. La Paz averages over 300 days of sunshine annually and an average of 3148 sunshine hours.

During the summer the cooling Coromuel winds, a weather phenomenon unique to the La Paz area, blow during the night from the Pacific over the Peninsula and into the Bay of La Paz.

As with most of the Gulf of California, the temperature of the water changes substantially over the course of the year, with temperatures around 68 °F (20 °C) during winter and around 85 °F (29 °C) during summer. [6] [7] [8] [9]

Climate data for La Paz (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.2
(95.4)
37.4
(99.3)
38.2
(100.8)
41.0
(105.8)
41.0
(105.8)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
43.0
(109.4)
43.5
(110.3)
38.5
(101.3)
36.0
(96.8)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F)23.6
(74.5)
24.9
(76.8)
27.3
(81.1)
30.3
(86.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
36.6
(97.9)
36.2
(97.2)
35.0
(95.0)
32.6
(90.7)
28.3
(82.9)
24.4
(75.9)
30.7
(87.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.4
(63.3)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.5
(76.1)
27.1
(80.8)
29.7
(85.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.3
(84.7)
26.2
(79.2)
22.0
(71.6)
18.6
(65.5)
23.7
(74.7)
Average low °C (°F)11.2
(52.2)
11.3
(52.3)
12.1
(53.8)
13.9
(57.0)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.9
(73.2)
24.1
(75.4)
23.5
(74.3)
19.9
(67.8)
15.7
(60.3)
12.8
(55.0)
16.8
(62.2)
Record low °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
2.5
(36.5)
3.0
(37.4)
4.5
(40.1)
8.5
(47.3)
10.0
(50.0)
11.5
(52.7)
13.0
(55.4)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50.0)
6.5
(43.7)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)14.2
(0.56)
5.3
(0.21)
2.3
(0.09)
0.8
(0.03)
0.9
(0.04)
1.3
(0.05)
14.5
(0.57)
37.2
(1.46)
58.4
(2.30)
12.1
(0.48)
7.4
(0.29)
14.8
(0.58)
169.2
(6.66)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.81.10.40.20.10.22.14.14.11.50.81.818.2
Average relative humidity (%)66605855555458616363646660
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2282412913053343342982682542792452103,287
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (humidity 1981–2000) [10] [11] [12]
Source #2: Ogimet (sun 1981–2010) [13]
Average Sea Temperature
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
68 °F
20 °C
66 °F
19 °C
68 °F
20 °C
72 °F
22 °C
75 °F
24 °C
79 °F
26 °C
82 °F
28 °C
84 °F
29 °C
86 °F
30 °C
84 °F
29 °C
79 °F
26 °C
72 °F
22 °C

Economy

The population of La Paz has grown greatly since the 2000s.

Eco-tourism is by far the most important source of tourism income in La Paz. Tourists also visit the city's balnearios. There are some 900 islands and inlets in the Gulf of California with 244 now under UNESCO protection as World Heritage Bio-Reserves and the Isla Espíritu Santo group, which borders the northeast portion of the Bay of La Paz, the primary tourist destination of the area.

Industries include silver mining, agriculture, fishing and pearls. Tourism is also an important source of employment for this coastal community.

Along with the area's marinas, new developments are emerging because of the proximity to the United States.[ citation needed ]

When Aero California existed, its headquarters were in La Paz. [14]

Transportation

La Paz is served by Manuel Márquez de León International Airport with flights to the most important cities of Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey. Airlines flying into La Paz include Aeroméxico Connect, Volaris and VivaAerobus. Two ferry services operate from the port of Pichilingue outside the city, connecting the Baja California peninsula to the mainland at Mazatlán and Topolobampo, near Los Mochis.

Roads

Running along the coast in front of La Paz is 5 km (3.1 mi) long Malecon Road. The main purpose of this road is to allow easy movement across the city. However, it quickly became the focal point of tourist related activities with a large number of bars, restaurants and shops opening along its length. Since 2004 extensive development has taken place which included a large sidewalk which offers safety for large numbers of people to walk along the coastal front of La Paz.

In September 2011, a bicycle lane was added to Malecon Road, providing cyclists protection from cars and pedestrians.

La Paz is served mainly by two highways; Mexican Federal Highway 1 that links the south of the state from Cabo San Lucas to the north of the peninsula to Tijuana, and Mexican Federal Highway 19, that connects La Paz with the population of the south pacific towns such as Todos Santos and El Pescadero. It is also served by two secondary roads, the Los Planes highway (286) that connects La Paz with towns such as La Ventana, Ensenada de los Muertos and Los Planes. The other is the Pichilingue highway which links La Paz with its maritime port.

Demographics

The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, [1] making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. Its surrounding municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size, reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 24,253    
1970     
1980     
1990 136,759    
1995 154,314+12.8%
2000 162,954+5.6%
2005 189,178+16.1%
2010 215,178+13.7%
2015 244,219+13.5%
Sources: [15] [16]

Education

La Paz is the state capital and center of commerce, as well as the home of the three leading marine biology institutes in Latin America (UABCS, CIBNOR & CICIMAR), largely because it sits on the Gulf of California, which is home to exceptional marine biodiversity. It also supports several other university-level institutes of learning, such as the Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur.

John Steinbeck visited La Paz in 1940. He describes the town in his 1947 novel The Pearl and mentions it extensively in his 1951 travelogue The Log from the Sea of Cortez . [17]

The city is also the setting of the 1967 Scott O'Dell children's novel The Black Pearl , chosen as a Newbery Honor Book in 1968; [18] La Paz is the home of the main character.

Sister cities

See also

Notes

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    References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Data" (PDF). www.saludbcs.gob.mx.
    2. (in Spanish) Los Municipios con Mayor y Menor Extensión Territorial Archived 2007-03-03 at the Wayback Machine , Instituto Nacional Para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal, SEGOB (Mexico.) Accessed 15 February 2008.
    3. P.38 footnote 12 "The Land of Sunshine Vol. 11 No. 1"
    4. Chapter 2, vol. 1, History of California, Theodore Henry Hittell, San Francisco: N. J. Stone & Company, 1897.
    5. "La Paz, Baja California Sur Travel Weather Averages" . Retrieved 16 June 2017.
    6. "The Gulf of California - A Physical, Geological and Biological Study" By Rebekah K. Nix
    7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-21. Retrieved 2012-06-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    8. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/html/479/47942204/47942204.html%5B%5D
    9. Ltd, Copyright Global Sea Temperatures - A-Connect. "La Paz Sea Temperature January Average, Mexico - Sea Temperatures". World Sea Temperatures. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
    10. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010". Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
    11. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for La Paz (DGE) 1940-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
    12. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
    13. "CLIMAT summary for 76405: La Paz, Bcs (Mexico) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
    14. "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International . 2007-03-27. p. 46.
    15. "MEXICO: Baja California Sur". Citypopulation.de. 2012-01-08. Retrieved June 1, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
    16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-15. Retrieved 2014-09-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
    17. Steinbeck, John (2000). The Log from the Sea of Cortez. London: Penguin. pp. 84–105. ISBN   978-0-14-118607-8.
    18. Newbery Medal and Honor Books, 1922-Present Archived 2008-02-18 at the Wayback Machine , ALSC, American Library Association. Accessed on line 15-II-2008.