La Soufrière (volcano)

Last updated

La Soufrière
Soufriere.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 1,234 m (4,049 ft) [1]
Prominence 1,234 m (4,049 ft) [1]
Listing
Coordinates 13°20′N61°11′W / 13.333°N 61.183°W / 13.333; -61.183 Coordinates: 13°20′N61°11′W / 13.333°N 61.183°W / 13.333; -61.183
Naming
Native nameSoufray
Geography
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
La Soufrière
Location Saint Vincent, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano (active)
Volcanic arc/belt Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Last eruption April to October 1979
Climbing
Easiest route From the windward (Atlantic) side

La Soufrière (Vincentian Creole: Soufray) ("The Sulfurer") or Soufrière Saint Vincent is an active volcano on the island of Saint Vincent in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. Many volcanoes in the Caribbean are named Soufrière (French: "sulphur outlet"). These include Soufrière Hills on Montserrat and La Grande Soufrière on Guadeloupe, the subject of Werner Herzog's 1977 film La Soufrière .

Vincentian Creole is an English-based creole language spoken in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It contains elements of French and Antillean Creole, and various Iberian Romance languages. It has also been influenced by the indigenous Kalinago/Garifuna elements and by African language brought over the Atlantic Ocean by way of the slave trade. Over the years the creole has changed to be more English-based. It does not have the status of an official language

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Windward Islands Islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies

The Windward Islands, also known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands, approximately between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W. As a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados.

Contents

Geography and structure

At 1,234 m (4,049 ft), La Soufrière is the highest peak on Saint Vincent as well as the highest point in the island country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. [1] Soufrière is a stratovolcano with a crater lake and is the island's youngest and northernmost volcano.

Island country state whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands

An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 1996, 25.2% of all independent countries were island countries.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Country in the Caribbean

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a country in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean. The sovereign state is also frequently known simply as Saint Vincent.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Eruptive history

Volcanic dust from Mount Soufriere, 1902 Volcanic dust Mount Soufriere YORYM-TA0019.jpg
Volcanic dust from Mount Soufriere, 1902

La Soufrière violently erupted in 1718, 1812, 1902, 1971, and 1979. The Saint Vincent eruption of 6 May 1902, just hours before the eruption of Mount Pelée on Martinique, killed 1,680 people. The death zone, where almost all persons were killed, was close to entirely Carib. This last large remnant of Carib culture was destroyed, [2] the island of Dominica's Carib Territory being much smaller in comparison at that time.

Mount Pelée active volcano in the Lesser Antilles island

Mount Pelée is a volcano at the northern end of Martinique, an island and French overseas department in the Lesser Antilles island arc of the Caribbean. Its volcanic cone is composed of stratified layers of hardened ash and solidified lava. The volcano is currently in a quiescent state, which means it is not active, but still registering minor activity.

Martinique Overseas region and department in France

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres (436 sq mi) and a population of 376,480 inhabitants as of January 2016. Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, southeast of Greater Antilles, northwest of Barbados, and south of Dominica.

Island Caribs group of people who live in Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles islands

The Island Carib, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Greater and Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They have descended from the Mainland Caribs (Kalina) of South America as well as the Arawakan people of the Greater Antilles. The women and children spoke an Arawakan language known as Eyeri. Meanwhile the men spoke a carib pidgin language of Karina origins.

The last recorded eruption was in April 1979; due to advance warning there were no casualties.[ citation needed ]

A famous painting by J. M. W. Turner of the eruption on 13 April 1812 belongs to the Victoria Gallery & Museum, University of Liverpool. [3] [4] [5]

J. M. W. Turner 18th and 19th-century British painter, water-colourist, and printmaker

Joseph Mallord William Turner, known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist. He is known for his expressive colourisations, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.

Victoria Gallery & Museum art gallery and museum in Liverpool, UK

The Victoria Gallery & Museum (VG&M) is an art gallery and museum run by the University of Liverpool in Liverpool, Merseyside, England.

See also

Related Research Articles

Montserrat British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean

Montserrat is a British Overseas Territory (BOT) in the Caribbean. The island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies. Montserrat measures approximately 16 km (10 mi) in length and 11 km (7 mi) in width, with approximately 40 km (25 mi) of coastline. Montserrat is nicknamed "The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean" both for its resemblance to coastal Ireland and for the Irish ancestry of many of its inhabitants.

Saint Lucia country in the Caribbean

Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island was previously called Iyonola, the name given to the island by the native Amerindians and later, Hewanorra, the name given by the native Caribs. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique. It covers a land area of 617 km2 and reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries.

History of Saint Lucia aspect of history

According to some, Saint Lucia was first inhabited sometime between 1000 and 500 BC by the Ciboney people, but there is not a lot of evidence of their presence on the island. The first proven inhabitants were the peaceful Arawaks, believed to have come from northern South America around 200-400 AD, as there are numerous archaeological sites on the island where specimens of the Arawaks' well-developed pottery have been found. There is evidence to suggest that these first inhabitants called the island Iouanalao, which meant 'Land of the Iguanas', due to the island's high number of iguanas.

Saint Vincent (Antilles) Island of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean. It is the largest island of the country Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It is located in the Caribbean Sea, between Saint Lucia and Grenada. It is composed of partially submerged volcanic mountains. Its largest volcano and the country's highest peak, La Soufrière, is active, having last erupted in 1979.

Leeward Islands group of islands in the West Indies

The Leeward Islands are a group of islands situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. Starting with the Virgin Islands east of Puerto Rico, they extend southeast to Guadeloupe and its dependencies. In English, the term Leeward Islands refers to the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles chain. The more southerly part of this chain, starting with Dominica, is called the Windward Islands. Dominica was originally considered part of the Leeward Islands, but was transferred from the British Leeward Islands to the British Windward Islands in 1940.

Black Carib ethnic group descended from Island Caribs and enslaved Africans

Black Caribs are an ethnic group native to the island of St. Vincent. Black Carib were historically referred to as zambos, since they are descendants of Island Caribs and enslaved Africans who mixed among themselves in the 18th century. This population retains Caribbean culture and makes up a very small population in the archipelago, representing the 2.0% of the current population of St. Vincent and Grenadines. There are also black Caribs in Dominica and Trinidad. The history of the Black Caribs is known due to reports that the British governor William Young sent to the British crown, in which he explained that the Black Caribs were a mix of Caribs and enslaved Africans from Spanish ships wrecked near its shores. These reports were read and taken as reference by many chroniclers and later historians. However, researchers of history and Garifuna language of the 20th and 21st centuries, such as Itarala, have their own conception of the origin of the Black Caribs. According to them, the African ancestors of the Black Caribs come from other Caribbean islands and migrated to Saint Vincent as refugees to escape slavery and as slaves bought by the Carib Amerindians. The Black Caribs are the people who originated the Garifuna people, when part of their community was expelled from St. Vincent in 1797 and exported to the island of Roatán, Honduras, from where they migrated to the coast of the mainland of Central America, spread as far as Belize and Nicaragua.

Soufrière Hills mountain, a volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean

The Soufrière Hills volcano is an active, complex stratovolcano with many lava domes forming its summit on the Caribbean island of Montserrat. Many volcanoes in the Caribbean are named Soufrière. These include La Soufrière or Soufrière Saint Vincent on the island of Saint Vincent and La Grande Soufrière on Guadeloupe. After a long period of dormancy, the Soufrière Hills volcano became active in 1995 and has continued to erupt ever since. Its eruptions have rendered more than half of Montserrat uninhabitable, destroying the capital city, Plymouth, and causing widespread evacuations: about two thirds of the population have left the island.

Soufrière may refer to:

La Grande Soufrière active stratovolcano located on the French island of Basse-Terre, in Guadeloupe

La Grande Soufrière,, is an active stratovolcano on the French island of Basse-Terre, in Guadeloupe. It is the highest mountain peak in the Lesser Antilles, and rises 1,467 m high.

Chateaubelair Place in Saint Vincent, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Chateaubelair is a large fishing village on the Leeward (west) coast of the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent, the main island of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It is located just south of the volcano of Soufrière. Commonly referred to as just "Chateau", it is the focus and largest community in the North Leeward constituency of St. Vincent, and the fourth largest town in the country.

Rose Hall, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Place in Saint Vincent, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Rose Hall at 1142 feet is the highest settlement in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. It is located in Saint David Parish on the island of Saint Vincent in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It is located to the east of Westwood, south of Rose Bank, just to the north of Spring Village and far west of Byera on the windward coast. It is uniquely positioned for pictures of La Soufriere volcano. St Lucia across the ocean. The mountain range and ships in the Caribbean Sea. It has a rich cultural heritage,organic farms with and it is one area that any plant in the hemisphere grows. It has a strong communal spirit and it hospitality knows no boundaries. It is one,if not the most safest stop to visit on the island

Afro-Vincentian people of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines of African descent

Vincentians or Vincentians, are residents of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines whose ancestry lies within Africa, especially West Africa. Most Vincentians are the descendants of African people brought to the island as slaves to work on plantations.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "La Soufrière" on Peakbagger.com Retrieved 1 October 2011
  2. Frederick Albion Ober, Our West Indian Neighbors: The Islands of the Caribbean Sea, " America's Mediterranean", 2010 republish of 1908 book by Nabu Press ISBN   978-1-145-31194-7 book
  3. Victoria Art Gallery Archived 21 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine on view July 2015
  4. ‘The Eruption of the Souffrier Mountains, in the Island of St Vincent, at Midnight, on the 30th of April, 1812, from a Sketch Taken at the Time by Hugh P. Keane, Esqre’, Joseph Mallord William Turner, exhibited 1815 | Tate
  5. The Eruption of the Soufrière Mountains in the Island of St Vincent, 30 April 1812 | Art UK