La sonnambula

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La sonnambula
Opera by Vincenzo Bellini
Sonnambula atto 3.jpg
The sleepwalker in act 2, sc. 2,
(William de Leftwich Dodge, 1899)
Librettist Felice Romani
LanguageItalian
Based on La somnambule, ou L'arrivée d'un nouveau seigneur by Eugène Scribe and Jean-Pierre Aumer
Premiere6 March 1831 (1831-03-06)
Teatro Carcano, Milan
Ah! non credea mirarti / Si presto estinto, o fiore
("I did not believe you would fade so soon, oh flower").
This text from act 2, scene 2, of La sonnambula appears on Bellini's tomb in Catania Annoncredamirarti.JPG
Ah! non credea mirarti / Sì presto estinto, o fiore
("I did not believe you would fade so soon, oh flower").
This text from act 2, scene 2, of La sonnambula appears on Bellini's tomb in Catania

La sonnambula (The Sleepwalker) is an opera semiseria in two acts, with music in the bel canto tradition by Vincenzo Bellini set to an Italian libretto by Felice Romani, based on a scenario for a ballet-pantomime written by Eugène Scribe and choreographed by Jean-Pierre Aumer called La somnambule, ou L'arrivée d'un nouveau seigneur . The ballet had premiered in Paris in September 1827 at the height of a fashion for stage works incorporating somnambulism.

Opera semiseria is an Italian genre of opera, popular in the early and middle 19th century.

Bel canto —with several similar constructions —is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing.

Vincenzo Bellini Italian opera composer

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania". Many years later, in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi "praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody: 'there are extremely long melodies as no-one else had ever made before'."

Contents

The role of Amina was originally written for the soprano sfogato Giuditta Pasta and the tenor Giovanni Battista Rubini, but during Bellini's lifetime another soprano sfogato, Maria Malibran, was a notable exponent of the role. The first performance took place at the Teatro Carcano in Milan on 6 March 1831.

Soprano sfogato is a contralto or mezzo-soprano who is capable—by sheer industry or natural talent—of extending her upper range and being able to encompass the coloratura soprano tessitura. An upwardly extended "natural" soprano is sometimes called soprano assoluto.

Giuditta Pasta 19th-century Italian opera singer

Giuditta Angiola Maria Costanza Pasta was an Italian soprano opera singer. She has been compared to the 20th-century soprano Maria Callas.

Giovanni Battista Rubini Italian opera singer

Giovanni Battista Rubini was an Italian tenor, as famous in his time as Enrico Caruso in a later day. His ringing and expressive coloratura dexterity in the highest register of his voice, the tenorino, inspired the writing of operatic roles which today are almost impossible to cast. As a singer Rubini was the major early exponent of the Romantic style of the bel canto era of Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti.

The majority of twentieth-century recordings have been made with a soprano cast as Amina, usually with added top-notes and other changes according to tradition, although it was released in soprano sfogato voice (not be confused with the modern mezzo, nonexistent at the time) who sang soprano and contralto roles unmodified.

A mezzo-soprano or mezzo (, ; Italian: [ˈmɛddzo soˈpraːno] meaning "half soprano") is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range lies between the soprano and the contralto voice types. The mezzo-soprano's vocal range usually extends from the A below middle C to the A two octaves above (i.e. A3–A5 in scientific pitch notation, where middle C = C4; 220–880 Hz). In the lower and upper extremes, some mezzo-sopranos may extend down to the F below middle C (F3, 175 Hz) and as high as "high C" (C6, 1047 Hz). The mezzo-soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic mezzo-soprano.

A contralto is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type.

The phrase Ah! non credea mirarti / Sì presto estinto, o fiore ("I did not believe you would fade so soon, oh flower") from Amina's final aria is inscribed on Bellini's tomb in the Catania Cathedral in Sicily.

Catania Cathedral cathedral

Catania Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Agatha, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Catania, Sicily, southern Italy. It was the seat of the Bishops of Catania until 1859, when the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese, and since then has been the seat of the Archbishops of Catania.

Composition history

Vincenzo Bellini
by Natale Schiavoni Belini-young-in colour.gif
Vincenzo Bellini
by Natale Schiavoni
Giuditta Pasta as Amina, May 1831 premiere Giuditta Pasta-Amina-La sonnambula.jpg
Giuditta Pasta as Amina, May 1831 premiere
Tenor Giovanni
Battista Rubini
sang Elvino Giovanni Battista Rubini Portrait.jpg
Tenor Giovanni
Battista Rubini
sang Elvino
Maria Malibran as Amina - London 1833 Maria Malibran-London 1833 as Amina.jpg
Maria Malibran as Amina – London 1833
Jenny Lind in La sonnambula, 1840s Jenny Lind-La sonambula-1831.png
Jenny Lind in La sonnambula, 1840s

Returning to Milan after the I Capuleti e i Montecchi performances in March 1830, little occurred until the latter part of April when Bellini was able to negotiate a contracts with both the Milan house for the autumn of 1831 and another for the 1832 Carnival season at La Fenice in Venice; these operas were to become Norma for La Scala and Beatrice di Tenda for Venice. [1] Writing to his uncle in Sicily, the composer reported that "I shall earn almost twice as much as if I had composed [only for the Venetian impresario]". [2]

<i>I Capuleti e i Montecchi</i> opera by Vincenzo Bellini

I Capuleti e i Montecchi is an Italian opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini. The libretto by Felice Romani was a reworking of the story of Romeo and Juliet for an opera by Nicola Vaccai called Giulietta e Romeo and based on the play of the same name by Luigi Scevola written in 1818, thus an Italian source rather than taken directly from William Shakespeare.

<i>La Fenice</i> Opera house in Venice, Italy

Teatro La Fenice is an opera house in Venice, Italy. It is one of "the most famous and renowned landmarks in the history of Italian theatre", and in the history of opera as a whole. Especially in the 19th century, La Fenice became the site of many famous operatic premieres at which the works of several of the four major bel canto era composers – Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi – were performed.

<i>Norma</i> (opera) opera by Vincenzo Bellini

Norma is a tragedia lirica or opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with libretto by Felice Romani after the play Norma, ou L'infanticide by Alexandre Soumet. It was first produced at La Scala in Milan on 26 December 1831.

However, there was also a contract for a second Milan house for the following winter season for as-yet an unnamed opera, but it had already been agreed that Giuditta Pasta, who had achieved success in Milan in 1829 and 1830 appearing in several major operas, would be the principal artist.

Then Bellini experienced the re-occurrence of an illness which had emerged in Venice due to pressure of work and the bad weather, and which consistently recurred after each opera. The gastro-enteric condition—which he described as "a tremendous inflammatory gastric bilious fever"— [3] resulted in his being cared for by friends. It was not until the summer, when he went to stay near Lake Como, that the pressure to decide upon a subject for the following winter's opera became more urgent. That Pasta owned a house near Como and would be staying there over the summer was the reason that Felice Romani traveled to meet both her and Bellini.

By 15 July they had decided on a subject for early 1831, but it was uncertain as to whether Pasta was interested in singing a trousers role, that of the protagonist, Ernani, in an adaptation of Victor Hugo's Hernani , later set to music by Giuseppe Verdi in 1844. With both men having various other commitments, by the end of November 1830 nothing had been achieved in the way of writing either the libretto or the score of Ernani [4] but, by January, the situation and the subject had changed. Bellini wrote that "[Romani] is now writing La sonnambula, ossia I Due Fidanzati svezzeri....It must go on stage on 20 February at the latest." [5]

That music which he was beginning to use for Ernani was transferred to Sonnambula is not in doubt, and, as Weinstein comments, "he was as ready as most other composers of his era to reuse in a new situation musical passages created for a different, earlier one". [6]

During Bellini's lifetime another sfogato, Maria Malibran, was to become a notable exponent of the role of Amina.

Performance history

19th century

With its pastoral setting and story, La sonnambula was an immediate success and is still regularly performed. The title role of Amina (the sleepwalker) with its high tessitura is renowned for its difficulty, requiring a complete command of trills and florid technique, [7] but it fitted Pasta's vocal capabilities, her soprano also having been described as a soprano sfogato , one which designates a contralto who is capable—by sheer industry or natural talent—of extending her upper range and being able to encompass the coloratura soprano tessitura.

The opera's premiere performance took place on 6 March 1831, a little later than the original date. Its success was partly due to the differences between Romani's earlier libretti and this one, as well as "the accumulation of operatic experience which both [Bellini] and Romani had brought to its creation." [8] Press reactions were universally positive, as was that of the Russian composer, Mikhail Glinka, who attended and wrote overwhelmingly enthusiastically:

Pasta and Rubini sang with the most evident enthusiasm to support their favourite conductor [sic]; the second act the singers themselves wept and carried the audience along with them. [9]

After its premiere, the opera was performed in London on 28 July 1831 at the King’s Theatre and in New York on 13 November 1835 at the Park Theatre. [10] Herbert Weinstock provides a comprehensive year-by-year listing of performances following the premiere and then, with some gaps, all the way up to 1900. [11]

Later, it was a vehicle for showcasing Jenny Lind, Emma Albani and—in the early 20th century—for Lina Pagliughi and Toti Dal Monte.

20th and 21st centuries

Weinstein's account of performances given charts those in the 20th century beginning from 1905. Stagings were presented as frequently as every two years in one European or North American venue or another, and they continued through the 1950s bel canto revivals up to the publication of his book in 1971. [11] The opera was rescued from the ornamental excesses and misrepresentations more similar to the baroque style than the bel canto of Bellini when it was sung by Maria Callas [ citation needed ] in the now-famous 1955 production by Luchino Visconti at La Scala.

Contributing to the revivals were Joan Sutherland's taking the role of Amina at Covent Garden in 1961 [12] and at the Metropolitan Opera in 1963, where the role become one of her most significant successes.

While not part of the standard repertory, La sonnambula is performed reasonably frequently in the 21st century. It has been given in three productions with Natalie Dessay, the first at The Santa Fe Opera in 2004, secondly in Paris during the 2006/07 season, and thirdly at the Metropolitan Opera in 2009, a production which was revived in Spring 2014 with Diana Damrau singing the role of Amina. A production was mounted by The Royal Opera in London in 2011, by the Salzburger Landestheater in Salzburg 2015, [13] and by the Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz in Munich in 2015/2016. [14] The first mezzo-soprano to record the role was Frederica von Stade in 1980, followed by Cecilia Bartoli. [15]

As can be seen in the list in the "Recordings" section, live performances in the 1950s (there being two by Callas in those years) and from the 1990s have been recorded on CD and DVD. Additionally in the 21st century, Operabase, the database of upcoming (and some past) performances, shows 127 performances of 21 productions in 16 cities presented since 1 August 2012 as well as those planned to be staged up to 2015. [16]

Roles

Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani as Amina by Karl Bryullov, 1834 Karl Brullov 04.jpeg
Fanny Tacchinardi Persiani as Amina by Karl Bryullov, 1834
RoleVoice typePremiere cast, 6 March 1831
(Conductor: Nicola Zamboni Petrini) [17]
Count Rodolfo bass Luciano Mariani
Amina soprano Giuditta Pasta
Elvino tenor Giovanni Battista Rubini
LisasopranoElisa Taccani
Teresa mezzo-soprano Felicita Baillou-Hilaret
AlessiobassLorenzo Biondi
NotarytenorAntonio Crippa
Villagers – Chorus

Synopsis

Place: Switzerland
Time: Indeterminate

Act 1

Scene 1: A village, a mill in the background

As the betrothal procession of Amina and Elvino approaches, the villagers all proclaiming joy for Amina, Lisa, the proprietress of the inn, comes outside expressing her misery: Tutto è gioia, tutto è festa...Sol per me non non v'ha contento / "All is joy and merriment... I alone am miserable". She is consumed with jealousy for she had once been betrothed to Elvino and had been abandoned by him in favour of Amina. The lovelorn Alessio arrives, but she rejects his advances. All assembled proclaim the beauty of Amina: In Elvezia non v'ha rosa / fresca e cara al par d'Amina / "In Switzerland there is no flower sweeter, dearer than Amina". Then Amina comes out of the mill with her foster-mother, Teresa. She is the owner of the mill and had adopted Amina many years before. Amina thanks her, also expressing her thanks to her assembled friends for their kind wishes. (Aria: Come per me sereno / oggi rinacque il di! / "How brightly this day dawned for me".) Additionally, she thanks Alessio, who tells her that he has composed the wedding song and organised the celebrations; she wishes him well in his courtship of Lisa, but Lisa cynically rejects the idea of love. Elvino arrives, exclaiming Perdona, o mio diletta / "Forgive me my beloved", and explaining that he had to stop on his way at his mother's grave to ask her blessing on Amina. As they exchange vows, the notary asks what she brings to the partnership: "Only my heart" she answers at which Elvino's exclaims: "Ah the heart is everything!". (Elvino's aria, then Amina, then all express their love and their joy: Prendi: l'anel ti dono / che un dì recava all'ara / "Here, receive this ring that the beloved spirit who smiled upon our love wore at the altar".)

The sound of horses' hooves and a cracking whip is heard. A stranger arrives, asking the way to the castle. Lisa points out that it is getting late and he will not reach it before dark and she offers him lodging at her inn. When he says that he knows it, all are surprised. (Rodolfo's aria: Vi ravviso, o luoghi ameni, / in cui lieti, in cui sereni / "O lovely scenes, again I see you, / where in serenity I spent the calm and happy days of my earliest youth".) The newcomer, who surprises the villagers by his familiarity with the locality, asks about the celebrations and admires Amina, who reminds him of a girl he had loved long ago. (Tu non sai con quei begli occhi / come dolce il cor mi tocchi / "You can't know how those dear eyes gently touch my heart, what adorable beauty".) He admits to having once stayed in the castle, whose lord has been dead for four years. When Teresa explains that his son had vanished some years previously, the stranger assures them that he is alive and will return. As darkness approaches the villagers warn him that it is time to be indoors to avoid the village phantom: A fosco cielo, a notte bruna,/ al fioco raggio d'incerta luna / "When the sky is dark at night, and the moon's rays are weak, at the gloomy thunder's sound [....] a shade appears." Not being superstitious, he assures them that they will soon be free of the apparition. Elvino is jealous of the stranger's admiration of Amina; he is jealous even of the breezes that caress her, but he promises her he will reform. (Duet finale, Elvino and Amina: Son geloso del zefiro errante / che ti scherza col crin e col velo / "I envy the wandering breeze that plays with your hair, your veil..")

Scene 2: A room in the inn

Lisa enters Rodolfo's room to see if all is well. She reveals that his identity is known to all as Rodolfo, the long-lost son of the count. She advises him that the village is preparing a formal welcome; meanwhile she wishes be the first to pay her respects. She is flattered when he begins a flirtation with her, but runs out at the sound of people approaching, dropping her handkerchief which the Count picks up. He sees the approaching phantom who he recognises as Amina. She enters the room, walking in her sleep, all the while calling for Elvino and asking where he is. Realising that her nocturnal wanderings have given rise to the story of the village phantom, Rodolfo is about to take advantage of her helpless state. But then he is struck by her obvious innocence and refrains: (Scene: first Rodolfo: O ciel! che tento / "God! What am I doing?"; then, separately, Amina: Oh! come lieto è il popolo / "How happy all the people are, accompanying us to the church"; then together.) As Amina continues her sleepwalk, Rodolfo hears the sound of people approaching and, with no other way out, he climbs out of the window.

Amina continues to sleep on the sofa as the villagers arrive at the inn. Lisa enters and points to Amina, who wakes up at the noise. Elvino, believing her faithless, rejects her in fury. Only Teresa believes in her innocence: Ensemble finale, first Amina D'un pensiero e d'un accento / "In my thought or in my words never , never have I sinned"; then Elvino: Voglia il cielo che il duol ch'io sento / "Heaven keep you from feeling ever the pain that I feel now!"; then the people and Teresa, the former proclaiming her treachery, Teresa pleading for her to be allowed to explain. Elvino then exclaims that there will be no wedding, and each expresses his or her emotional reaction to this discovery.

Act 2

Scene 1: A wood

Alessandro Sanquirico's set design for act 2 scene 1 La sonnambula-Sanquirico set design-act 2-sc2.jpg
Alessandro Sanquirico's set design for act 2 scene 1
Alessandro Sanquirico's set design for the act. 2 scene 2 sleepwalking scene for the premiere production La-Sonnambula-Alessandro-Sanquirico-2.jpg
Alessandro Sanquirico's set design for the act. 2 scene 2 sleepwalking scene for the premiere production

On their way to ask the count to attest to Amina's innocence, the villagers rest in the woods and consider how they will express their support to him: (Chorus: Qui la selva è più folta ed ombrosa / "Here the wood is thick and dark"). Amina and Teresa arrive and are on a similar mission, but Amina is despondent, although Teresa encourages her daughter to continue. They then see Elvino coming in the wood looking downcast and sad. He continues to reject Amina, even when the townspeople come in with the news that the count says that she is innocent. Elvino is not convinced and takes back the ring, though he is unable to tear her image from his heart: (Aria, then chorus: Ah! Perché non posso odiarti, infedel, com'io vorrei! / "Why cannot I despise you, faithless, as I should?")

Scene 2: The village, as in act 1

Lisa, Alessio, Elvino and the villagers are in the square. Elvino declares that he will renew his vows and proceed to marry Lisa. She is delighted. As they are about to go to the church, Rodolfo enters and tries to explain that Amina is innocent because she did not come to his room awake – she is a somnambulist, a sleepwalker: (Duet, first Elvino Signor Conte, agli occhi miei / negar fede non poss'io / "I cannot deny, my lord, what my eyes have seen"; then Rodolfo V'han certuni che dormendo / "Certain people when they sleep go about as if awake".) Elvino refuses to believe him and calls upon Lisa to leave, but at that moment Teresa begs the villagers to be quiet, because Amina has at last fallen into an exhausted sleep.

Learning of the impending marriage, Teresa confronts Lisa, who says that she has never been found alone in a man's room. Teresa produces the handkerchief Lisa had dropped. The Count is unwilling to say what he thinks of this, but continues to insist on Amina's virtue. Elvino demands proof and Rodolfo, seeing the sleeping Amina walking across the high, dangerously unstable mill bridge, warns that to wake her would be fatal. All watch as she relives her betrothal and her grief at Elvino's rejection, taking the withered flowers in her hand. (Aria: Amina Ah! non credea mirarti / sì presto estinto, o fiore / "I had not thought I would see you, dear flowers, perished so soon".) Then as she reaches the other side safely, the distraught Elvino calls to her and she is taken into his arms. Rodolfo hands him the ring which he places on her finger, at which time she awakens and is amazed by what has happened. All rejoice. In an aria finale, Amina expresses her joy: Ah! non giunge uman pensiero / al contento ond'io son piena / "Human thought cannot conceive of the happiness that fills me".

Recordings

Audio

YearCast
(Amina, Elvino,
Rodolfo, Lisa,
Teresa)
Conductor
Opera house and orchestra
Label [18]
1952 Lina Pagliughi,
Ferruccio Tagliavini,
Cesare Siepi,
Wanda Ruggeri,
Anna Maria Anelli
Franco Capuana,
RAI Torino Orchestra and Chorus
CD: Preiser Records
Cat: 20038
1955 - recording of a performance at La Scala on March 5th Maria Callas,
Cesare Valletti,
Giuseppe Modesti,
Eugenia Ratti,
Gabriella Carturan
Leonard Bernstein,
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
CD: Warner Classics
1957 Maria Callas,
Nicola Monti,
Nicola Zaccaria,
Eugenia Ratti,
Fiorenza Cossotto
Antonino Votto,
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus,
(Recorded at the Basilica di Sant'Eufemia, Milan, 3-9 March)
CD: EMI Classics
Cat: B000002RXR
1962 Joan Sutherland,
Nicola Monti,
Fernando Corena,
Sylvia Stahlman,
Margreta Elkins
Richard Bonynge,
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino Orchestra and Chorus
CD: Decca
Cat: 448 966-2; 455 823-2 (France)
1980 Joan Sutherland,
Luciano Pavarotti,
Nicolai Ghiaurov,
Isobel Buchanan,
Della Jones
Richard Bonynge,
National Philharmonic Orchestra
London Opera Chorus
CD: Decca
Cat: 417 424-2
1987Jana Valášková,
Josef Kundlák,
Peter Mikuláš,
Eva Antolicová,
Ján Gallo
Ondrej Lenárd,
Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra
Slovak Philharmonic Chorus
CD: Opus
Cat: 9356 1928/29
1990 ("live") Lucia Aliberti,
John Aler,
Francesco Ellero d'Artegna,
Jane Giering,
Iris Vermillion
Jesús López Cobos,
Deutschen Oper Berlin
CD: Eurodisc
Cat: RD 69242
1992 Ľuba Orgonášová,
Raúl Giménez,
Francesco Ellero d'Artegna,
Dilber Yunus
Alexandra Papadjiakou
Alberto Zedda,
Netherlands Radio Chamber Orchestra
(Recording of a concert performance in the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam)
CD: Naxos
Cat: 8.660042/43
1998 Edita Gruberová,
José Bros,
Roberto Scandiuzzi,
Dawn Kotoski,
Gloria Banditelli
Marcello Viotti,
Munchner Rundfunkorchester
CD: Nightinggale
2006 Natalie Dessay,
Francesco Meli,
Carlo Colombara,
Sara Mingardo,
Jael Azzaretti
Evelino Pido,
Orchestra and Chorus of the Opéra de Lyon
CD: Virgin Classics
Cat: 3 95138 2
2008 Cecilia Bartoli,
Juan Diego Flórez,
Ildebrando D'Arcangelo,
Gemma Bertagnolli,
Liliana Nikiteanu
Alessandro De Marchi,
Orchestra La Scintilla
CD: L'Oiseau-Lyre (Decca)
Cat: 478 1084

Video

YearCast
(Amina, Elvino,
Rodolfo, Lisa,
Teresa)
Conductor,
Opera house and orchestra
Label [18]
1956 Anna Moffo,
Danilo Vega,
Plinio Clabassi,
Gianna Galli,
Anna Maria Anelli
Bruno Bartoletti
RAI Milano Orchestra and Chorus
Directed by Mario Lanfranchi
(Video recording of a black and white television film)
DVD: Video Artists International
Cat: 4239
2004Eva Mei,
José Bros,
Giacomo Prestia,
Gemma Bertagnolli,
Nicoletta Curiel
Daniel Oren
RAI Maggio Musicale Fiorentino
Directed by Federico Tiezzi
(Video recording made at performances in January)
DVD: TDK DVWW
Cat: 4239
2009 Natalie Dessay,
Juan Diego Flórez,
Michele Pertussi,
Jennifer Black,
Jane Bunnell
Evelino Pidò,
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, Chorus and Ballet.
Directed by Mary Zimmerman
(Video recording made at performances in March)
DVD: Decca
Cat: B002Y5FKUE

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References

Notes

  1. Weinstock 1971, p. 89
  2. Bellini to Vincenzo Ferlito [his uncle], April 1830, in Weinstock 1971, pp. 87–88
  3. Bellini to Vincenzo Ferlito [his uncle], late May/early June 1830, in Weinstock 1971, p. 88
  4. Weinstock 1971, pp. 93–94
  5. Bellini to his Venetian friend Giovanni Battista Peruchinni, 3 January 1831, in Weinstock 1971, p. 94
  6. Weinstock 1971, p. 94
  7. Eaton, p. 135
  8. Weinstock 1971, p. 95
  9. Glinka, Memoires, in Weinstock 1971, p. 97
  10. Kimbell 1994, in Holden, p. 50
  11. 1 2 "Performance data", in Weinstock 1971, pp. 327–332
  12. A.P.,"London Music": reviews, including La sonnambula, The Musical Times (London), Vol. 102, No. 1415, January 1961, p. 36 JSTOR   948692 (by subscription)
  13. Site of the Salzburger Landestheater
  14. Site of the Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz
  15. Notes in literature accompanying the Bartoli CD recording. Retrieved on 3 June 2010.
  16. Operabase list of performances given since 1 August 2012 on operabase.com
  17. worldcat.org (accessed 27 December 2011)
  18. 1 2 Recordings on La sonnambula on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk

Cited sources

Other sources