Lachlan Macquarie

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Lachlan Macquarie

Ln-Governor-Lachlan macquarie.jpg
5th Governor of New South Wales
In office
1 January 1810 30 November 1821
Monarch George III
Preceded by William Bligh
Succeeded by Thomas Brisbane
Personal details
Born31 January 1762 (1762-01-31)
Ulva, Inner Hebrides, Scotland
Died1 July 1824(1824-07-01) (aged 62)
London, England
Spouse(s)Jane Jarvis (m. 1792–1796)
Elizabeth Campbell (1807–1835)
Military service
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Branch/service British Army
Rank Major General
Commands 73rd (Perthshire) Regiment of Foot
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
Napoleonic Wars
Australian Frontier Wars
Awards Companion of the Order of the Bath

Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB ( /məˈkwɒrɪ/ ; Scottish Gaelic : Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) [1] was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, [2] and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. [3] [4] In 1816 Macquarie gave orders that led to the Appin Massacre of Gundungurra and Dharawal people. [5] [6] [7]

Major general, is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank was also briefly used by the Royal Air Force for a year and a half, from its creation to August 1919. In the British Army, a major general is the customary rank for the appointment of division commander. In the Royal Marines, the rank of major general is held by the Commandant General.

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

Scotland Country in Northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.


Early life and career

Lachlan Macquarie was born on the island of Ulva off the coast of the Isle of Mull in the Inner Hebrides, a chain of islands off the West Coast of Scotland. He was a gentleman of the Scottish Highland family Clan MacQuarrie which possessed Ulva, Staffa, and a region of the Isle of Mull for over one thousand years, and his forebears were buried on Iona. Governor Macquarie's father, a "man of Intelligence, polite, and much of the world", supposedly attained the age of 103 years, dying on 4 January 1818. [8] His mother was the daughter of a Maclaine chieftain who owned a castle on the Isle of Mull. [9] Macquarie left the island at the age of 14. [10] If he did attend the Royal High School of Edinburgh, "as tradition has it", [11] it was only for a very brief period because, at the same age, he volunteered for the army. [12]

Ulva island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland

Ulva is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, off the west coast of Mull. It is separated from Mull by a narrow strait, and connected to the neighbouring island of Gometra by a bridge. Much of the island is formed from Cenozoic basalt rocks, which is formed into columns in places.

Isle of Mull island of the Inner Hebrides, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland

The Isle of Mull or just Mull is the second-largest island of the Inner Hebrides and lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute.

Inner Hebrides archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland

The Inner Hebrides is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate. The Inner Hebrides comprise 35 inhabited islands as well as 44 uninhabited islands with an area greater than 30 hectares. Skye, Islay and Mull are the three largest, and also have the highest populations. The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about 4,130 km2 (1,594 sq mi), and had a population of 18,948 in 2011. The population density is therefore about 4.6 per km2.

Macquarie joined the 84th Regiment of Foot on 9 April 1777, travelling with it to North America in 1777 to take part in the American War of Independence. As a recruit on the way to America he participated in the Battle of the Newcastle Jane. This battle was the first naval victory for a British merchant ship over an American privateer. He was initially stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was commissioned as an ensign five months after his arrival. On 18 January 1781, he was promoted to lieutenant and transferred to the 71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot, and served with them in New York City, Charleston, and Jamaica. [12] In June 1784 he returned to Scotland as a half-pay lieutenant. [12] Three years later, on Christmas Day 1787 he received his commission as lieutenant in the 77th Regiment, where he saw service with the army in India and Egypt. Macquarie became a Freemason in January 1793 at Bombay, in Lodge No. 1 (No. 139 on the register of the English "Moderns" Grand Lodge). [13] He was promoted Captain on 9 November 1789, Major on 12 March 1801. During 1801 he had accompanied Sir David Baird and the Indian Army to Egypt, with the rank of Deputy Adjutant General, and was present at the capture of Alexandria and the final expulsion of the French Army from Egypt. Two years later, 1803, he was in London, as Assistant Adjutant General to Lord Harrington, who commanded the London district. In 1803 and 1804 saw him on active service in India. He returned to London in 1807, commanding the 73rd Regiment of Foot.

84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants)

The 84th Regiment of Foot was a British regiment in the American Revolutionary War that was raised to defend present day Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada from the constant land and sea attacks by American Revolutionaries. The 84th Regiment was also involved in offensive action in the Thirteen Colonies; including North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia and what is now Maine, as well as raids upon Lake Champlain and the Mohawk Valley. The regiment consisted of 2,000 men in twenty companies. The 84th Regiment was raised from Scottish soldiers who had served in the Seven Years' War and stayed in North America. As a result, the 84th Regiment had one of the oldest and most experienced officer corps of any regiment in North America. The Scottish Highland regiments were a key element of the British Army in the American Revolution. The 84th Regiment was clothed, armed and accoutred the same as the Black Watch, with Lieutenant Colonel Allan Maclean commanding the first battalion and Major General John Small of Strathardle commanding the second. The two Battalions operated independently of each other and saw little action together.

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Privateer private person or ship authorized by a government to attack foreign shipping

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. The commission, also known as a letter of marque, empowers the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Historically, captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was once common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors.

In 1793 he married Jane Jarvis, daughter of the late former Chief Justice of Antigua, Thomas Jarvis, who had owned slave plantations there. [14] Three years later she died of tuberculosis. [15] In November 1807, Macquarie married his cousin Elizabeth Henrietta Campbell.

Antigua island in Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua, also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies. It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981.

Tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

Elizabeth Macquarie was the second wife of Lachlan Macquarie, who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821. She played a significant role in the establishment of the colony and is recognised in the naming of many Australian landmarks including Mrs Macquarie's Chair and Elizabeth Street, Hobart. Governor Macquarie named the town of Campbelltown, NSW after his wife's maiden name and a statue of her now stands in Mawson Park, Campbelltown.

Governor of New South Wales

An illustration from 1888 Lachlanmacquarie.jpg
An illustration from 1888

On 8 May 1809 Macquarie was appointed captain-general and governor-in-chief of New South Wales and its dependencies. He left for the colony on 22 May 1809, on HMS Dromedary, accompanied by HMS Hindostan. The 73rd Regiment of Foot came with him on the two ships. He arrived on 28 December at Sydney Cove and landed officially on 31 December, taking up his duties on the following day. [8] In making this appointment, the British government changed its practice of appointing naval officers as governor and chose an army commander in the hope that he could secure the co-operation of the unruly New South Wales Corps. [16] Aided by the fact he arrived in New South Wales at the head of his own unit of regular troops, Macquarie was unchallenged by the New South Wales Corps, whose members had become settled in farming, commerce and trade. [17] He appointed John Campbell as his secretary. [18]

HMS Howe was originally a teak-built Indian mercantile vessel, the Kaikusroo, which Admiral Edward Pellew bought in 1805 to serve as a 40-gun frigate. In 1806 the Admiralty fitted her out as a 24-gun storeship and renamed her HMS Dromedary. She made numerous trips, including one notable one to Australia when she brought out Lachlan Macquarie and his family to replace William Bligh as governor of New South Wales. Later, she became a prison hulk in Bermuda. Her most recent contribution, however, is as the source of a rich archaeological site.

HMS <i>Hindostan</i> (1804)

HMS Hindostan was a 50-gun two-decker fourth rate of the Royal Navy. She was originally a teak-built East Indiaman named Admiral Rainier launched at Calcutta in 1799 that the Royal Navy brought into service in May 1804. Before the Royal Navy purchased her, Admiral Rainier made two trips to England for the British British East India Company (EIC), as an "extra ship", i.e., under charter. Perhaps her best known voyage was her trip to Australia in 1809 when she and Dromedary brought Governor Lachlan Macquarie to replace Governor William Bligh after the Rum Rebellion. In later years she became a store ship, and in 1819 was renamed Dolphin. She was hulked in 1824 to serve as a prison ship, and renamed Justitia in 1831. She was finally sold in 1855.

The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in 1789 as a permanent regiment to relieve the New South Wales Marine Corps, who had accompanied the First Fleet to Australia. It was disbanded in 1818.

Macquarie was promoted to Colonel in 1810, Brigadier in 1811 and Major-General in 1813, while serving as governor.

Colonel (Col) is a rank of the British Army and Royal Marines, ranking below brigadier, and above lieutenant colonel. British colonels are not usually field commanders; typically they serve as staff officers between field commands at battalion and brigade level. The insignia is two diamond-shaped pips below a crown. The crown has varied in the past with different monarchs; the current Queen's reign has used St Edward's Crown. The rank is equivalent to captain in the Royal Navy and group captain in the Royal Air Force.

Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel, equivalent to a brigadier general, typically commanding a brigade of several thousand soldiers. In other countries, it is a non-commissioned rank.

Macquarie's first task was to restore orderly, lawful government and discipline in the colony following the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against Governor William Bligh. Macquarie was ordered by the British government to arrest two of the leaders of the Rum Rebellion, John Macarthur and Major George Johnston. However, by the time that Macquarie arrived in Sydney, both Macarthur and Johnston had already sailed for England to defend themselves. [19] Macquarie immediately set about cancelling the various initiatives taken by the rebel governmentfor example, all "pardons, leases and land grants" made by the rebels were revoked (although many were later re-issued). [19]

Although the New South Wales Corps and its monopoly were soon ended, the military influence survived, with military officers having sway over the justice system. A great gulf existed between the officers and the colonists, who included both free settlers ("exclusives") and convicts who had completed their term of imprisonment and become settlers ("emancipists").

New South Wales suffered severe drought in 1812 and 1813, there was widespread loss of crops and livestock and by 1814 many farmers were close to insolvency because of the drought and ensuing depression. [20]

In 1814 a Second Charter of Justice was issued for New South Wales. It defined how the civil court system was to be structured. Three new Courts of Civil Judicature were to be established in New South Wales: the Governor's Court, the Lieutenant-Governor's Court and the Supreme Court. Jeffrey Hart Bent, the brother of the Judge Advocate, arrived in the colony as the first judge of the new Supreme Court. [21] [22]

Courts need lawyers and Macquarie's efforts to allow emancipist attorneys to appear before the Supreme Court were blocked by Jeffrey Bent, who, with his brother, had allegiances with the military and exclusive settlers. Later in 1814, two solicitors, Frederick Garling and William Henry Moore, arrived in New South Wales. English law was to be followed as far as it was possible. Where new ordinances or laws were needed, they were to be consistent with English laws as far as the particular circumstances of the colony would allow. Many of the settlers were discontented with this, because they questioned whether some of the governors' ordinances were valid. Claims were made in New South Wales and in England that governors were exceeding their authority by making ordinances that were in conflict with English laws.

Macquarie's relationship with the new Court was never harmonious. The brothers Bent, in their key legal positions, quickly became opponents of the Governor, and personal antipathy affected decisions on both sides. Like most of the governors before him, Macquarie's noble ideals were undermined by harsh realities and constant opposition. In 1816 he enforced his new proclamation against trespassing on the Government Domain by having three trespassers (all free settlers) flogged. This incident was one of several of which Bent and others complained to the British Government as examples of Macquarie's authoritarian excesses. As a result, Macquarie was censured by Lord Bathurst, the Secretary of State for Colonies, and in 1819 Commissioner John Thomas Bigge was sent to enquire into affairs in New South Wales. [23]

Macquarie took control of the colony, breaking the power of the Army officers such as John Macarthur, who had been the colony's de facto ruler since Bligh's overthrow. [24] He was "the last British proconsul sent to run New South Wales as a military autocracy". [25]

In 1812, the first detailed inquiry into the convict system in Australia by a Select Committee on Transportation, supported in general Macquarie's liberal policies. [26] However, the committee thought that fewer tickets of leave should be issued and opposed the governor having the power to grant pardons. The committee concluded that the colony should be made as prosperous as possible so as to provide work for the convicts and to encourage them to become settlers after being given their freedom. [27]

On a visit of inspection to the settlement of Hobart Town on the Derwent River in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in November 1811, Macquarie was appalled at the ramshackle arrangement of the town and ordered the government surveyor James Meehan to survey a regular street layout. This survey determined the form of the current centre of the city of Hobart. [28]

Memorial plaque to Governor Macquarie in St James' Church, Sydney Macquarie Memorial - St James' Church, Sydney.jpg
Memorial plaque to Governor Macquarie in St James' Church, Sydney

Macquarie is credited with producing the first official currency specifically for circulation in Australia. Foreign coins were common in the early years of the New South Wales colony but much of this coin left the colony as a result of trade with visiting merchant ships. To secure a reliable supply of coins, in 1812 Macquarie purchased 40,000 Spanish dollar coins and had a convicted forger named William Henshall cut the centres out of the coins and counter stamp them to distinguish them as belonging to the colony of New South Wales and prevent them being useful elsewhere. The central plug (known as a "dump") was valued at 15 pence and the rim (known as a holey dollar) became a five-shilling piece. [29] The new currency was proclaimed in the Sydney Gazette of 10 July 1813, with offences of forgery, utterance or exportation of the new currency being punishable by seven years in the Newcastle coal mines. [30]

The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 brought a renewed flood of both convicts and settlers to New South Wales, as the sea lanes became free and as the rate of unemployment and crime in Britain rose. [31] Macquarie presided over a rapid increase in population and economic activity. By the time of his departure for London on 15 February 1822, [32] the white population had reached an 'estimated' 36,969. [33]

As reformer and explorer

Central to Macquarie's policy was his treatment of the emancipists: convicts whose sentences had expired or who had been given conditional or absolute pardons. By 1810, emancipists outnumbered the free settlers, and Macquarie set the tone himself by appointing emancipists to government positions: Francis Greenway as colonial architect [34] and Dr William Redfern as colonial surgeon. [35] He scandalised settler opinion by appointing an emancipist, Andrew Thompson, as a magistrate, [36] and by inviting emancipists to tea at Government House. In exchange, Macquarie demanded that the ex-convicts live reformed (Christian) lives. He required that former convicts regularly attend church services, and in particular, strongly encouraged formal Christian (Anglican) marriages. [37]

Macquarie was the greatest sponsor of exploration the colony had yet seen. In 1813 he authorised Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson's successful crossing of the Blue Mountains where they found the great plains of the interior. [38] [39] There he ordered the establishment of Bathurst, Australia's first inland city. He appointed John Oxley as surveyor-general and sent him on expeditions up the coast of New South Wales and inland to find new rivers and new lands for settlement. Oxley discovered the rich Northern Rivers and New England regions of New South Wales, and in what is now Queensland he explored the present site of Brisbane.

The street layout of modern central Sydney is based upon a street plan established by Macquarie. [34] The colony's most prestigious buildings were built on Macquarie Street. Some of these still stand today. What has survived of the Georgian 'Rum Hospital' serves as the Parliament House of the state of New South Wales. [34] It is probable that the hospital was designed by Macquarie himself, in collaboration with his wife. The building's wide verandas were evidently inspired by Macquarie's familiarity with English colonial architecture in India. [40] The elaborate stables which Macquarie commissioned for Government House are part of the modern structure housing the Sydney Conservatorium of Music. [41] Both of these buildings were constructed by Macquarie in defiance of the British government's ban on expensive public building projects in the colony [40] and reflect the tension between Macquarie's vision of Sydney as a Georgian city and the British government's view of the colony as a dumping ground for convicts to be financed as cheaply as possible.

Another fundamental reform initiated by Macquarie of enduring significance was made on 15 August 1820, shortly before his return to England, when he ordered all traffic on New South Wales roads to keep to the left. [42]

The origin of the name "Australia" is closely associated with Macquarie. "Australia", as a name for the country which we now know by that name, was suggested by Matthew Flinders, but first used in an official despatch by Macquarie in 1817. [43]

Macquarie's policies, especially his championing of the emancipists and the lavish expenditure of government money on public works, aroused opposition both in the colony and in London, where the government still saw New South Wales as fundamentally a penal colony. His statement, in a letter to the Colonial Secretary, that "free settlers in general... are by far the most discontented persons in the country" and that "emancipated convicts, or persons become free by servitude, made in many instances the best description of settlers", was much held against him. [ citation needed ]

Despite opposition from the British government, Macquarie encouraged the creation of the colony's first bank, the Bank of New South Wales, in 1817. [44]

Aboriginal-settler relations

Brass breast-plate presented to the Aboriginal leader Coborn Jackey of the Burrowmunditory tribe by the squatter James White in the district of present-day Young, New South Wales BreastplateCobornJackey.jpg
Brass breast-plate presented to the Aboriginal leader Coborn Jackey of the Burrowmunditory tribe by the squatter James White in the district of present-day Young, New South Wales

Macquarie's policy toward Aboriginal Australians consisted of co-operation and assimilation, backed by military coercion. When dealing with friendly tribes, he developed a strategy of nominating a 'chief' to be responsible for each of the clans, identified by the wearing of a brass breast-plate engraved with his name and title. Although this was a typically European way of negotiation, it often did not reflect the actual status of elders within tribes. [45] Macquarie also pioneered the concept of returning land to Aboriginal control, commencing with areas surrounding Broken Bay and Georges Head. [46]

In 1814 Macquarie founded the Native Institution in Parramatta for the education of Aboriginal children. Aboriginal children were enrolled in the school, sometimes forcibly, and were brought up in accordance with European education and culture. Although the children in the School were well treated, modern social analysis indicates their forced enrolment and subsequent Europeanised social education as a conscious attempt to reduce the influence and future of indigenous culture. [47] [46] Modern historians have identified the forced taking of children for the School as a cause of the outbreak of open conflict between the Indigenous population and Macquarie's administration, commencing in 1814 and continuing for at least two years. [46]

Where there was Aboriginal resistance, Macquarie ordered punitive expeditions, [48] writing in his diary in April 1816:

I have this Day ordered three Separate Military Detachments to march into the Interior and remote parts of the Colony, for the purpose of Punishing the Hostile Natives, by clearing the Country of them entirely, and driving them across the mountains; as well as if possible to apprehend the Natives who have committed the late murders and outrages, with the view of their being made dreadful and severe examples of, if taken alive. — I have directed as many Natives as possible to be made Prisoners, with the view of keeping them as Hostages until the real guilty ones have surrendered themselves, or have been given up by their Tribes to summary Justice. — In the event of the Natives making the smallest show of resistance – or refusing to surrender when called upon so to do – the officers Commanding the Military Parties have been authorized to fire on them to compel them to surrender; hanging up on Trees the Bodies of such Natives as may be killed on such occasions, in order to strike the greater terror into the Survivors. [49]

In 1816 Macquarie ordered a punitive expedition that led to the Appin massacre. Macquarie sent soldiers against the Gundungurra and Dharawal people on their lands along the Cataract River in reprisal for violent conflicts with white settlers. [5] Soldiers used their horses to drive an unknown number of men, women and children over cliffs to their deaths at two separate locations. [6] [7] 14 people were shot dead. [50]

Return to Scotland, death, and legacy

Macquarie Mausoleum on the Isle of Mull in western Scotland. Macquarie Mausoleum, Gruline (geograph 4532349).jpg
Macquarie Mausoleum on the Isle of Mull in western Scotland.

Leaders of the free settler community complained to London about Macquarie's policies, and in 1819 the government appointed an English judge, John Bigge, to visit New South Wales and report on its administration. Bigge generally agreed with the settlers' criticisms, and his reports on the colony led to Macquarie's resignation in 1821; he had, however, served longer than any other governor. Bigge also recommended that no governor should again be allowed to rule as an autocrat, and in 1824 the New South Wales Legislative Council, Australia's first legislative body, was appointed to advise the governor. [51]

Macquarie returned to Scotland, and died in London in 1824 while busy defending himself against Bigge's charges. But his reputation continued to grow after his death, especially among the emancipists and their descendants, who were the majority of the Australian population until the gold rushes. Today he is regarded by many as the most enlightened and progressive of the early governors who sought to establish Australia as a country, rather than as a prison camp. [52]

The nationalist school of Australian historians have treated him as a proto-nationalist hero. Macquarie formally adopted the name Australia for the continent, the name earlier proposed by the first circumnavigator of Australia, Matthew Flinders. As well as the many geographical features named after him in his lifetime, he is commemorated by Macquarie University in Sydney.

Macquarie was buried on the Isle of Mull in a mausoleum near Salen with his wife, daughter and son. The grave is maintained by the National Trust of Australia and is inscribed "The Father of Australia". [53] [54]


A statue of Macquarie stands in Hyde Park in the centre of Sydney, near an inscription that begins: "He was a perfect gentleman, a Christian and supreme legislator of the human heart." The appropriateness of the statue and the inscription have been questioned in view of the punitive expeditions. [55] [56] [57]


Macquarie coat of arms Macquarie Coat of Arms.jpeg
Macquarie coat of arms
Major-General Lachlan Macquarie monument at Hyde Park, Sydney Major-General Lachlan Macquarie monument.jpg
Major-General Lachlan Macquarie monument at Hyde Park, Sydney

Many places in Australia have been named in Macquarie's honour (some of these were named by Macquarie himself). They include:

At the time of his governorship or shortly thereafter:

Many years after his governorship:

Institutions named after Macquarie:

See also

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Joseph Lycett Australian artist

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The Lieutenant Governor's Court was a court established in the early 19th century in the colony of Van Diemen's Land which subsequently became Tasmania, a state of Australia. The court had jurisdiction to deal with civil disputes where the amount in dispute was not more than £50 sterling in the colony. The establishment of the court was the first practical civil court in the settlement. This was an important first step in improving the resolution of civil disputes in the settlement. The Supreme Court of Van Diemen's Land eventually replaced it in 1823 when the court's charter was revoked by the Third Charter of Justice.

Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars

The Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars (1794–1816) were a series of incidents between settlers and New South Wales Corps and the Indigenous clans of the Hawkesbury river in west of Sydney that began in 1794, when the British established farms along the river. A minority of these settlements were established by soldiers.

Macquarie Arms Hotel

Macquarie Arms Hotel is a heritage-listed hotel at Thompson Square, Windsor, City of Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia. It is also known as the Royal Hotel. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.



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  29. National Museum of Australia collection highlights: Holey dollar
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  41. Sharpe 2000, p. 41.
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  45. "Teaching Heritage website". Archived from the original on 2 July 2005. Retrieved 2 October 2005.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
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  54. "Macquarie's Influence". Macquarie University. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  55. Taylor, Andrew (23 August 2017). "Clover Moore refers concerns about Macquarie statue to Indigenous panel". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  56. Mee, Cameron; Robertson, James (26 August 2017). "Vandals deface Hyde Park statues in Australia Day protest". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  57. Koziol, Michael (26 August 2017). "Vandalism of Hyde Park statues is a 'deeply disturbing' act of Stalinism, says Malcolm Turnbull". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
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Further reading

Government offices
Preceded by
William Bligh
Governor of New South Wales
Succeeded by
Thomas Brisbane