View from Swansea showing Pulbah Island
|Location||Hunter Region, New South Wales (Map )|
|Type||An open and trained youthful wave dominated barrier estuary|
|Primary inflows||Cockle Creek, Dora Creek|
|Primary outflows||Tasman Sea|
|Catchment area||604.4 km2 (233.4 sq mi)|
|Max. length||24 km (14.9 mi)|
|Max. width||7.9 km (4.9 mi)|
|Surface area||110 km2 (42.5 sq mi)|
|Average depth||8 m (26 ft)|
|Max. depth||15 m (49 ft)|
|Shore length1||174 km (108.1 mi)|
|Surface elevation||0 m (0 ft) AHD|
|Islands||Pulbah Island plus several small islands|
|Settlements||City of Lake Macquarie|
|Website||Lake Macquarie at the Office of Environment & Heritage|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
|Pulbah Island Nature Reserve|
New South Wales
Photo showing the northern side of Pulbah Island
|Nearest town or city||Lake Macquarie|
|Area||68 ha (168 acres)|
|Website||Pulbah Island Nature Reserve|
|See also|| Protected areas of|
New South Wales
Lake Macquarie or Awaba is Australia's largest coastal salt water lake. Located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, it covers an area of 110 square kilometres (42.5 sq mi) and is connected to the Tasman Sea by a short channel. Most of the residents of the City of Lake Macquarie live near the shores of the lake.
Lake Macquarie is twice as large as Sydney Harbour and is one of the largest salt water lagoons in the Southern Hemisphere. It is slightly smaller than Port Stephens, which is about 43 kilometres (27 mi) to the northeast of the lake.
Aboriginal people of the Awabakal nation lived in the area surrounding what is now known as Lake Macquarie for thousands of years. The name Awaba, which means "a plain surface" was used to describe the lake.
Lake Macquarie was first encountered by Europeans in 1800, when Captain William Reid was sent from Sydney to retrieve a load of coal from Newcastle Harbour. Reid took a wrong turn and found himself in a lake rather than a river, with no coal to be seen anywhere. The name "Reid's Mistake" was retained until 1826, when it was renamed in honour of Governor Lachlan Macquarie.
The lake is of irregular shape and the land separating it from the ocean is only a few kilometres wide along most of its length. While there are several small, sandy, low-level islets in the lake, some of which are grouped near the mouth, Pulbah Island, located south of Swansea is a large island offering views from rocky cliffs.
Lake Macquarie is connected to the sea by two channels, Swansea Channel and Lake Entrance. Swansea Channel is approximately 380 metres (1,247 ft) wide and 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) long. It joins Lake Entrance, which measures approximately 900 m (2,953 ft) wide by 2.2 km (1.4 mi) at the Swansea bridges. The bridges can lift to allow yachts and other larger pleasure craft into and out of the lake.
There is no point on the coast from which the entire expanse of the lake and its 174 km (108 mi) foreshore may be seen. However, a good view can be obtained from lookouts in the nearby Watagan Mountains.
The remnant and fragmented eucalypt forests on the southern margins of the lake have been identified by BirdLife International as a 121 km2 Important Bird Area (IBA) because they support significant numbers of endangered swift parrots and regent honeyeaters in years when the swamp mahoganies and other favoured trees are flowering. Masked owls and ospreys regularly nest within the IBA.
The Pulbah Island Nature Reserve is a protected 68-hectare (168-acre) nature reserve that is located in the southern part of the lake. Being approximately 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) long the island is, by far, the largest island in Lake Macquarie.
Pulbah Island is managed by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.There are no permanent structures on the island and it is uninhabited although in the past a maintenance cottage existed on the island. Pulbah is an Australian indigenous Awabakal word meaning "island".
Weed infestation on the island is problematic. Local efforts have been made to remove and control weeds species such as Bitou bush, Lantana and Wandering Jew. It also has native trees such as spotted gum.
Kangaroos and koalas were introduced to the island during the early 1900s, but they have been extirpated by illegal hunting. Goannas are common on the island.
|Pulbah Island photos|
From the island there are clear views of the Wangi Wangi peninsula as well as the Eraring, Munmorah and Vales Point power stations.
The island has cliff faces on the west and south sides as well as the south east side. The rest of the island is edged by sandy beaches although the density of vegetation ensures that there is minimal beach at high tide. The east side of the island has a slight bay that is commonly frequented by leisure boats. Camping on the island is not permitted. Bushwalking and picnicking are permitted.
Pulbah Island is also a sacred site in Aboriginal culture for the Awabakal people and was declared an Aboriginal place in 1982.
In 1983, the State Pollution Control Commission undertook an investigation into the causes of poor water quality in the lake. The final report of this investigation, known as "The Environmental Audit of Lake Macquarie", identified the primary causes of concern, highlighting the major problems of sedimentation and nutrient enrichment. Accelerated sedimentation levels were estimated at 75,000 tonnes (73,815 long tons ) per annum and nutrient levels had shown a substantial increase as a result of urbanisation. A study prepared for Lake Macquarie City Council in 1995 estimated that sediment loads to Lake Macquarie were 57,000 t (56,100 long tons) per annum, which was very different from the sediment loads prior to European development, estimated at 6,600 t (6,496 long tons) per annum. Two creek systems, Cockle and Dora Creeks, were estimated to be contributing 23,900 t (23,523 long tons) and 11,000 t (10,826 long tons) per annum respectively.
In 1998, the then NSW Premier, Bob Carr, announced the formation of a task force under the chairmanship of Clean Up Australia founder, Ian Kiernan. The report of the task force, known as the "Integrated Estuary and Catchment Management Framework" was accepted by the NSW State Cabinet in February 1999. The report recommended a unique institutional arrangement for implementation through the creation of the Office of the Lake Macquarie and Catchment Coordinator. This cooperative-based arrangement was a joint initiative of Lake Macquarie City Council, Wyong Shire Council, and the NSW Government, with major funding provided by these partners. To oversee the implementation process, a committee known as the Lake Macquarie Project Management Committee was appointed by the then Minister of Land and Water Conservation. The Committee would consist of representatives of both councils; community; regional directors of relevant government departments and three ex-officio members.
The action plan, known as the Lake Macquarie Improvement Plan has an emphasis on integration, both physically and administratively, as well as promoting a whole of government approach and strong community involvement. The physical works concentrated on treating the cause of the water problems in the lake by tackling stormwater runoff within the catchment. Again, the emphasis adopted included the use of soft engineering and the restoration of natural ecological processes where possible. After six years in operation, the Lake Macquarie Project Management Committee entered its third project phase in 2006.
A series of water quality indicators are used to monitor and quantify the water quality improvements observed by the community. The lake body generally has low nutrient concentrations, good water clarity and excellent dissolved oxygen levels.Activities that reduce the amount of sediments and nutrients washing into the Lake via stormwater run-off have assisted in improving water quality in Lake Macquarie. These activities include the construction of wetlands, the installation of stormwater treatment devices, bush regeneration and an increased awareness by the local community.
Recreational fishing is improving as fish stocks respond to the recent removal of commercial fishing and the significant increase in water quality that has come from a concerted environmental program undertaken by the state government and council. Since settlement lake-bed silt has increased in some areas due to unsealed roads, road shoulders and diffuse effects of urbanisation, however the quantity is far less than in nearby Lake Munmorah, and swimming is quite tolerable. Average water depth is approximately 8 m (26 ft), reaching a maximum depth of approximately 15 m (49 ft) east of Pulbah Island.
Recreational fishing, boating, kayaking and water skiing are all popular recreational activities on the lake. The popularity of kayaking is increasing. Sailing and yacht racing are also popular with the lake boasting many yacht clubs including:
The City of Lake Macquarie is a local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia and was proclaimed a city from 7 September 1984. The area is situated adjacent to the city of Newcastle and is part of the Greater Newcastle Area. The city is approximately 150 km (93 mi) north of Sydney. One of its major tourist attractions is its lake, also named Lake Macquarie.
Toronto is a lakeside suburb within the city of Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Newcastle's central business district and is a commercial hub for the sprawling suburbs on the western shore of the lake. It is one of the major centres in the City of Lake Macquarie LGA.
The Parramatta River is an intermediate tide-dominated, drowned valley estuary located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. With an average depth of 5.1 metres (17 ft), the Parramatta River is the main tributary of Sydney Harbour, a branch of Port Jackson. Secondary tributaries include the smaller Lane Cove and Duck rivers.
Lake Illawarra, an open and trained intermediate wave dominated barrier estuary or large coastal lagoon, is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, situated about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Sydney, Australia.
Mount Sugarloaf, also known as Great Sugar Loaf, is a mountain in the lower Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, overlooking the cities of Newcastle, Lake Macquarie, Cessnock and Maitland. The summit of the mountain is in the Lake Macquarie suburb of West Wallsend and access to the summit is gained via this suburb. However, the mountain itself is also part of the city of Cessnock suburbs Mulbring and Richmond Vale. It is home to television transmitters that broadcast to the lower Hunter region. On 18 and 19 July 1965, the mountain received 10 centimetres (4 in) of snow. It also snowed on the summit in the winter of 1975.
Belmont is a suburb in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, located 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Newcastle's central business district on the eastern side of Lake Macquarie and is part of the City of Lake Macquarie.
Glenrock Lagoon, an intermediate freshwater small coastal creek, is located within the Lake Macquarie local government area in the Newcastle and Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia. The lake is located near the Newcastle suburbs of Adamstown and Dudley and is situated about 153 kilometres (95 mi) north of Sydney.
The Awabakal people, are those Aboriginal Australians who identify with or are descended from the Awabakal tribe and its clans, Indigenous to the coastal area of what is now known as the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales. Their traditional territory spread from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north.
Awaba railway station is located on the Main Northern line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the City of Lake Macquarie town of Awaba opening on 15 August 1887.
Speers Point is a suburb within, and the location of the council seat of the City of Lake Macquarie local government area in New South Wales, Australia. It is 17 kilometres (10.6 mi) west-southwest of the city of Newcastle on the northern shore of Lake Macquarie, in Cockle and Warners Bays, between the suburbs of Cardiff and Warners Bay.
Lake Munmorah or Munmorah Lake, a lagoon that is part of the Tuggerah Lakes, is located within the Central Coast Council local government area in the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. The lake is located near the settlement of Lake Munmorah and is situated about 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of Sydney.
Dora River is a watercourse that is located in the Upper Central Coast/Lower Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia.
Wangi Wangi is a suburb of the City of Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, which forms a peninsula jutting eastwards into Lake Macquarie. Wangi Wangi is a well known holiday spot, that was frequented in the early days by families from the coalfields. It is known for its beautiful views, bush-walking, and fishing spots.
Awaba is a town and locality in the City of Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, inland from Toronto. The name Awaba is of Aboriginal origins, and means "flat or plain surface", referring to Lake Macquarie.
Kilaben Bay is a suburb of the city of Lake Macquarie in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. The Aboriginal people, in this area, the Awabakal, were the first people of this land. It is named for the bay of the same name that lies to the south of the suburb. The suburb's western boundary is heavily forested. Kilaben Bay is one of many suburbs that ring Lake Macquarie, Lake Munmorah, and Tuggerah Lake. Kilaben Bay is part of the West Ward of the City of Lake Macquarie local government area. For telephone call charges, Kilaben Bay is within the local call zone of the City of Newcastle.
Newcastle bus routes connect suburbs in and around Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, about 100 kilometres north of Sydney.
Barnard River, a perennial river of the Manning River catchment, is located in the Northern Tablelands and Mid North Coast districts of New South Wales, Australia.
Lake Macquarie State Conservation Area is a 761-hectare (1,880-acre) conservation area in New South Wales Australia, approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Newcastle. It is made up of six separate land sections around the coastal saltwater Lake Macquarie, covering 16 kilometres (10 mi) of the lake's foreshore. Though most of the area was declared in 1996 one section, the Morisset area, was added in January 1999.
The Avoca Lake, formerly known as Avoca Lagoon and as Bulbararing Lagoon, is an intermittently closed intermediate saline coastal lagoon that is located on the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. Avoca Lake is located between the beachside settlements of North Avoca and Avoca Beach, and adjacent to the east coast, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) north of Sydney.