Lal wa Sarjangal District

Last updated
La‘l wa Sar Jangal
لعل و سرجنگل
Afghanistan adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
La‘l wa Sar Jangal
Location within Afghanistan
Coordinates: 34°36′10″N66°16′36″E / 34.60278°N 66.27667°E / 34.60278; 66.27667 Coordinates: 34°36′10″N66°16′36″E / 34.60278°N 66.27667°E / 34.60278; 66.27667
Country Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan
Province Ghor Province
Population
 (2013) [1]
  Total108,900

Lal wa Sarjangal (La'l Wa Sarjangal), (Dari : لعل و سر جنگل) is a district in the north-east of Ghor Province, Afghanistan. The district center is the town of Lal wa Sarjangal. [2]

Early history

The early history of the district is clouded in myths and folklore including stories of how the Hazaras of southern Hazarastan took control of this Aimaq-inhabited province. However, the regions now known as Lal, Sar Jangal and Kirman have been documented in historic books. Ghobar states Lal & Kirman as the grazing land for the horses of Mongol army under the great conqueror Genghis Khan.

Traditionally, in the feudal Hazara society prior to the 1880-1890 massacre of the hazaras, Lal and Sar Jangal was part of the Greater Daizangi region ruled in parts by feudal chiefs known as Mirs and Baigs. The country's grazing land had historically proven to be useful for maintaining large armies by the Mirs. Prominent Mirs of the old days include Nauroz Baig and Yusuf Baig who hold considerable respect in the local folklore.

20th century

During the period that followed the genocide by Abdul Rahman and the failure of state following assassination of Nadir Khan, the hazara elite came to an uneasy settlement with the Kabul government. District governors almost always Pashtun were appointed by the central government who governed the area with the help of government-appointed arbabs like in most parts of the country. Over this period, the district oversaw the rise of many feudal chiefs turned politicians. This period was a harsh time for the hazaras, but the people of Lal with hard work and dedication survived through this phase and by the 1970s, the district had a reputation in the hazara community for large number of intellectuals, university graduates and prominent personalities.

Towering figures of this period included Member of Parliament Khadim Hussain Baig, Haji Sarwar and Haji Sayed Akbar. Similarly, local politicians of prominence well-respected by the people included names such as Kalbi Reza Baig, Sayed Nasir La'li, Mir Mohammad Amir Baig, Arbab Nadir Shah and other local leaders. The La'l elite proved to be well-respected because of their piety and understanding of the people's needs.

Communism and Lali educated elite

Lal Sar Jangal was a vibrantly changing and progressive society right before the revolution that struck in 1978. The district's educated elite however were generally massacred by the communist regime of Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafeezullah Amin, mostly under the allegation of being Maoists. Prominent student leaders from the district included Aziz Tughian and Mohammad Ranjbar.

On the other hand, the PDPA members from Lal Sar Jangal were also prominent and overwhelmingly successful. The first district governor of the Lal Sar Jangal from the local Hazara population was Ewaz Ali who was later on brutally murdered by members of the Mujahideen faction. The period of the PDPA rise also trained a number of talent Lal youth that later on took important positions in the Afghan government. Names such as General Murad Ali Murad commander of Afghanistan's ground forces and Mohammad Hussain Gharjistani the chief of staff of Vice Presidential office are part of a large number of officers and cadre coming from the province.

Mujahideen and the establishment of Hizb-e-wahdat

Lal Sar Jangal from 1979 to 2001 was controlled by the new rising Jihadi organisations mostly linked with Iran. These organisations have mixed reputation for engaging the people in local civil wars and imposing different sorts of illegal taxes. However, the shining point of the Jihadi organisations for Lal Sar Jangal was the establishment and unification of these local parties in 1988 under the banner of Hezb-e-wahdat. This party was formed by the hard-fought struggle of a respectable Mujahid leader Sayed Abdul Hameed Sajjadi. The first convention of unity was signed by all leaders of the hazara resistance in Lal including Mohammad Mohaqqiq who represented the Northern Hazaras led by late Abdul Ali Mazari.

Post 2001

Lal never fell to the Taliban. It continued to be a hub of resistance throughout the national resistance against the Taliban. Unlike most other districts, the people of Lal continued to harbour anti-Taliban resistance. With the fall of Taliban, the old rivalries of the two Hezb-e-Wahdat factions i.e. Akbari and Khalili continued to haunt the district. Even until today, the politics of the district is controlled by these Jihadi parties. A new elite of youth is on rise with prominent presence in universities both inside and outside Afghanistan. High schools are packed with students and women have an active role in the reconstruction of the district.

In common with other mountainous districts, Lal Wa Sarjangal suffers from low rainfall and severe and long winters, both of which affect agriculture, the most important source of income. Very less attention is paid in the education system at the district therefore most basic elements are not provided for the students such as proper school buildings, furniture schools books etc...

Prominent personalities

Health

There are 11 health centers in Lal wa Sar e Jangal district. it's consist of Lal district health center, Safid-Ab, Daimirdad, Khame-e-Shur, Qala-e-Pechi, Kerman, Talkhak and Garmab basic health centers, Ghighanace health sub-center, Afghan red crescent society health center in Talkhak valley and LEPCO special health clinic for the treat of Tubercles and Leprosy patients. All of the health centers are funded by the MoPH through implementing Afghan NGOs which significantly provides poor health services, except ARCS and LAPCO clinics that's funded by national and international organizations. Luck of qualified medical doctors, specialists, obstetricians and medical technicians are a big challenge for provision of health services to the community. Bad quality of road, isolation of district from capital city and center of the province, unqualified medical staff, lack of proper training for the existing staff and lack of interests of medical staff to come for work from outside Lal wa Sar e Jangal adds to challenges and health problems. The mothers and children mortality rate is high in this province due to lack of proper maternal health, post-natal and ante-natal care, bad roads creates problem to get easy access to the health facilities and also low level of knowledge of the existing health staff. Acute respiratory infections and other respiratory diseases are common in the winter time and Acute Castro Enteritis is common in the summer time due to lack of access to the clean drinking water. Some, other sickness such as urinary tract infections, malnutrition in children and women and Joint pain are also common in this district during all seasons.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hazaras Persian-speaking people native to central Afghanistan

The Hazaras are a Persian-speaking ethnic group native to, and primarily residing in, the mountainous region of Hazarajat, in central Afghanistan. They speak the Hazaragi dialect of Persian which is mutually intelligible with Dari, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Hazarajat Region in the central highlands of Afghanistan

Hazarajat, or Hazaristan, is a mountainous region in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Koh-i-Baba mountains in the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. It is the homeland of the Hazara people who make up the majority of its population. "Hazarajat denotes an ethnic and religious zone."

Abdul Ali Mazari Afghan Hazara politician (1946–1995)

Abdul Ali Mazari (Dari: عبدالعلی مزاری‎‎) was an ethnic Hazara militia and political leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat party during and following the Soviet–Afghan War. Mazari believed that the solution to the internal divisions in Afghanistan was in a federal system of governance, with each ethnic group having specific constitutional rights and able to govern their own land and people. He was allegedly tortured and murdered by the Taliban in 1995, and posthumously given the title ‘Martyr Of National Unity’ in 2016 by Ashraf Ghani government. He supported equal representation of all ethnic groups of Afghanistan, especially Hazaras, who are still being persecuted in Afghanistan.

This index list around 14% of all Afghanistan-related articles on Wikipedia.

Islamic Dawah Organisation of Afghanistan Afghan political party

The Islamic Dawah Organization of Afghanistan is a political party in Afghanistan led by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. Founded in the early 1980s as the Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan, it was originally an attempt to bring unity amongst Islamist opposition forces in Afghanistan. However, the creation of the new umbrella organization effectively created a split and the organization became a political party of its own. The organization was part of the 'Peshawar Seven', the coalition of mujahedin forces supported by the United States, Pakistan and various Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the war against the PDPA government, Soviet forces and Ba'athist Iraq. Through the financial aid received from Saudi sources, the organization was able to attract a considerable military following. Arab volunteers fought in the militia forces of the organisation.

Muhammad Mohaqiq

Haji Muhammad Mohaqiq is a current politician in Afghanistan, serving as a member of the Afghanistan Parliament. He is also the founder and chairman of the People's Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan. During the 1980s, he served with the mujahideen rebel forces fighting against the Soviet-backed Afghan government. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union in 1989, Mohaqiq was appointed as the leader of the Hezb-e Wahdat for northern Afghanistan.

Northern Alliance 1996–2001 anti-Taliban military front in Afghanistan

The Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, was a military alliance of groups that operated between late 1996 to 2001 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul. The United Front was originally assembled by key leaders of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, particularly president Burhanuddin Rabbani and former Defense Minister Ahmad Shah Massoud. Initially it included mostly Tajiks but by 2000, leaders of other ethnic groups had joined the Northern Alliance. This included Karim Khalili, Abdul Rashid Dostum, Abdullah Abdullah, Mohammad Mohaqiq, Abdul Qadir, Asif Mohseni, Amrullah Saleh and others.

Malestan District District in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan

Malistan is a district in the west of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population, which is 100% Hazara, was estimated at 350,000 in 2009. The district capital is Mir Adina.

Afghan Civil War (1992–1996) 1992–1996 civil war in Afghanistan

This article covers the part of contemporary Afghan history between 28 April 1992, the day that a new interim Afghan government was supposed to replace the Republic of Afghanistan of President Mohammad Najibullah, and the Taliban's conquest of Kabul establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996.

Lal wa Sarjangal town in Ghor Province, Afghanistan

Lal wa Sarjangal, also called La'l Wa Sar Jangal or simply Lal (لعل), is a town in and the administrative center of Lal wa Sarjangal District, Ghor Province, Afghanistan.

The Afshar Operation was a military operation in Afghanistan that took place on February 11–12, 1993 during the Afghan Civil War (1992-96). The operation was launched by Ahmad Shah Massoud and Burhanuddin Rabbani's Islamic State of Afghanistan government and the allied Abdul Rasul Sayyaf's Ittehad-i Islami paramilitary forces against Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezbe Islami and Abdul Ali Mazari's Hezbe Wahdat militias in the densely populated Afshar district in west Kabul. The Hazara-Hezbe Wahdat together with the Pashtun-Hezbe Islami of Hekmatyar had been shelling densely populated areas in northern Kabul from their positions in Afshar, killing thousands. To counter the shelling, government forces attacked Afshar in order to capture the positions of Wahdat and its leader Mazari, and to consolidate parts of the city controlled by the government.

Battle of Kabul (1992–1996) Series of intermittent battles during the Afghan Civil War

Battle of Kabul refers to a series of intermittent battles and sieges over the city of Kabul during the period of 1992–1996.

Daizangi (Hazara tribe)

Daizangi also spelled as Dai Zangi,, is one of the major tribe of the Hazaras of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan. They inhabit the Bamyan, Yakawlang, Panjab and Waras districts of Bamyan Province, the Shahristan in Daikundi Province, Lal Wa Sarjangal District in Ghor Province and the Gizab District in Uruzgan Province. They are said to be the largest tribe of the Hazaras. The 19th-century Hazara Mir Elkhani, Mir Naser Beg, Mir (Chieftain) Mir Azeem Beg was the mir of the Daizangi who led the final battle of the Hazaras against Abdur Rahman Khan in the battle of Urozgan. He was exiled to Bokhara in present day Uzbekistan, where he wrote his memoirs "Yad e Guzishta", Memories of the past. Most Notable person from the Daizangi tribe is General Khudadad Khan.Their subtribes include the Bubali, Gedi, Kamyaba, Kut-daghi, Khushamadi, Kirigu, Miramur, Qaraqul Daghi, Sag Deh, Sag Jui, Sag-Pae, Sehpai, Takana, Takash, Urarus, and Yangur.

Daikundi also spelled as Dai Kundi, is one of the major tribes of the Hazara people of Hazarajat, located in central Afghanistan. They live in Daikundi Province and the Lal Wa Sarjangal, Chaghcharan, Dawlatabad, Charsadda and Pasaband districts of Ghor Province. Daikundis remained secluded and unhinged from the devastation and the resulting uprooting of different Hazara tribes, after the Battle of Uruzgan.

Hezbe Wahdat Afghan political party

Hezb-e Wahdat-e Islami Afghanistan, shortened to Hezb-e Wahdat, is an Afghan political party founded in 1989. Like most contemporary major political parties in Afghanistan, Hezb-e Wahdat is rooted in the turbulent period of the anti-Soviet resistance movements in Afghanistan in the 1980s. It was formed to bring together nine separate and mostly inimical military and ideological groups into a single entity.

The persecution of Hazara people refers to discrimination against the Hazaras, who are mostly from Afghanistan, primarily from the central regions of Afghanistan, known as Hazarajat. Significant communities of Hazara people also live in Quetta, Pakistan, and in the city of Mashad, Iran, as part of the Hazara and Afghan diasporas.

The Tehran Eight was a political union of Shi'a Afghan Mujahideen mainly of the Hazara ethnic group during the Soviet–Afghan War. They were supported by Iran, hence the name Tehran Eight.

Commander Shafi Hazara

Commander Shafi Hazara General Of Brigade 2 Hezbe Wahdat, was an ethnic Hazara military commander in Afghanistan. He was a senior commander during the resistance of west Kabul and Hazarajat between 1991 and 1996. In the 1990s he led Hezbe Wahdat Brigade 2 military wing against rival militias and, against the Taliban takeover.

Abdul Samad Amiri was an Afghan human rights activist, whose 2019 murder at the hands of the Taliban was widely reported in the country's media.

References

  1. "Settled Population of Ghor Province" (PDF). Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  2. Lal wa Sarjangal District can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link , by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "10536915" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".