Lambda

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Lambda ( /ˈlæmbdə/ ; [1] uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; Greek : λάμ(β)δα, lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound /l/. In the system of Greek numerals lambda has a value of 30. Lambda is derived from the Phoenician Lamed Phoenician lamedh.svg . Lambda gave rise to the Latin L and the Cyrillic El (Л). The ancient grammarians and dramatists give evidence to the pronunciation as [laːbdaː] (λάβδα) in Classical Greek times. [2] In Modern Greek the name of the letter, Λάμδα, is pronounced [ˈlam.ða] .

Contents

In early Greek alphabets, the shape and orientation of lambda varied. [3] Most variants consisted of two straight strokes, one longer than the other, connected at their ends. The angle might be in the upper-left, lower-left ("Western" alphabets) or top ("Eastern" alphabets). Other variants had a vertical line with a horizontal or sloped stroke running to the right. With the general adoption of the Ionic alphabet, Greek settled on an angle at the top; the Romans put the angle at the lower-left.

The HTML 4 character entity references for the Greek capital and small letter lambda are Λ and λ respectively. [4] The Unicode code points for lambda are U+039B and U+03BB.

The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Phoenician-lamed-shaped lambda. The gamma has the shape of modern lambda. NAMA Alphabet grec.jpg
The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Phoenician-lamed-shaped lambda. The gamma has the shape of modern lambda.

Symbol

Upper-case letter Λ

Examples of the symbolic use of uppercase lambda include:

Lower-case letter λ

Lower-case lambda Greek lc lamda thin.svg
Lower-case lambda

Examples of the symbolic use of lowercase lambda include:

Litra symbol

The Roman libra and Byzantine lítra (λίτρα), which served as both the pound mass unit and liter volume unit, were abbreviated in Greek using lambda with modified forms of the iota subscript (as λͅ). These are variously encoded in Unicode. The Ancient Greek Numbers Unicode block includes 10183 GREEK LITRA SIGN (𐆃) as well as 𐅢, which is described as 10162 GREEK ACROPHONIC HERMIONIAN TEN [15] but was much more common as a form of the litra sign. A variant of the sign can be formed from 0338 COMBINING LONG SOLIDUS OVERLAY and either 039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA (Λ̸) or 03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA (λ̸). [16]

Character encodings

Unicode uses the spelling "lamda" in character names, instead of "lambda", due to "preferences expressed by the Greek National Body". [17]

Character information
PreviewΛλ
Unicode nameGREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDAGREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDAGREEK LETTER SMALL CAPITAL LAMDACOPTIC CAPITAL LETTER LAULACOPTIC SMALL LETTER LAULA
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 923U+039B955U+03BB7463U+1D2711414U+2C9611415U+2C97
UTF-8 206 155CE 9B206 187CE BB225 180 167E1 B4 A7226 178 150E2 B2 96226 178 151E2 B2 97
Numeric character reference ΛΛλλᴧᴧⲖⲖⲗⲗ
Named character reference Λλ
DOS Greek 1388A162A2
DOS Greek-2 182B6229E5
Windows-1253 203CB235EB
TeX \Lambda\lambda
  • Mathematical Lambda
Character information
Preview𝚲𝛌𝛬𝜆𝜦𝝀
Unicode nameMATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL LAMDA
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 120498U+1D6B2120524U+1D6CC120556U+1D6EC120582U+1D706120614U+1D726120640U+1D740
UTF-8 240 157 154 178F0 9D 9A B2240 157 155 140F0 9D 9B 8C240 157 155 172F0 9D 9B AC240 157 156 134F0 9D 9C 86240 157 156 166F0 9D 9C A6240 157 157 128F0 9D 9D 80
UTF-16 55349 57010D835 DEB255349 57036D835 DECC55349 57068D835 DEEC55349 57094D835 DF0655349 57126D835 DF2655349 57152D835 DF40
Numeric character reference 𝚲𝚲𝛌𝛌𝛬𝛬𝜆𝜆𝜦𝜦𝝀𝝀
Character information
Preview𝝠𝝺𝞚𝞴
Unicode nameMATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL LAMDA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL LAMDA
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode 120672U+1D760120698U+1D77A120730U+1D79A120756U+1D7B4
UTF-8 240 157 157 160F0 9D 9D A0240 157 157 186F0 9D 9D BA240 157 158 154F0 9D 9E 9A240 157 158 180F0 9D 9E B4
UTF-16 55349 57184D835 DF6055349 57210D835 DF7A55349 57242D835 DF9A55349 57268D835 DFB4
Numeric character reference 𝝠𝝠𝝺𝝺𝞚𝞚𝞴𝞴

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Omega is the 24th and final letter in the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system/Isopsephy (Gematria), it has a value of 800. The word literally means "great O", as opposed to Ο ο omicron, which means "little O".

Chi is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet.

Phi is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.

Tau is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 300.

Xi is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. It is pronounced [ksi] in Modern Greek, and generally or in English. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 60. Xi was derived from the Phoenician letter samekh .

Nu is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 50. It is derived from the ancient Phoenician language nun . Its Latin equivalent is N, though the lowercase resembles the Roman lowercase v.

Mu or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40. Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water, which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to become 𐤌 (mem). Letters that derive from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М.

Sigma is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. In general mathematics, uppercase is used as an operator for summation. When used at the end of a letter-case word, the final form (ς) is used. In Ὀδυσσεύς (Odysseus), for example, the two lowercase sigmas (σ) in the center of the name are distinct from the word-final sigma (ς) at the end.

Kappa Letter in the Greek alphabet

Kappa is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the [] sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, has a value of 20. It was derived from the Phoenician letter kaph . Letters that arose from kappa include the Roman K and Cyrillic К.

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Psi (Greek)

Psi is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 700. In both Classical and Modern Greek, the letter indicates the combination /ps/.

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today.

Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. In these contexts, the capital letters and the small letters represent distinct and unrelated entities. Those Greek letters which have the same form as Latin letters are rarely used: capital A, B, E, Z, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, T, Y, X. Small ι, ο and υ are also rarely used, since they closely resemble the Latin letters i, o and u. Sometimes font variants of Greek letters are used as distinct symbols in mathematics, in particular for ε/ϵ and π/ϖ. The archaic letter digamma (Ϝ/ϝ/ϛ) is sometimes used.

Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters. These are pairs of single Unicode code points that are canonically equivalent. The reason for this are compatibility issues with legacy systems.

L Letter of the Latin alphabet

L, or l, is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el, plural els.

In mathematical logic and computer science the symbol has taken the name turnstile because of its resemblance to a typical turnstile if viewed from above. It is also referred to as tee and is often read as "yields", "proves", "satisfies" or "entails".

Lambda is the eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet that is λ, and capital form Λ.

References

  1. "lambda" . Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. Herbert Weir Smyth. A Greek Grammar for Colleges. I.1.c
  3. "Epigraphic Sources for Early Greek Writing". Poinikastas.CSAD.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  4. "HTML 4.01 Specification. 24. Character entity references in HTML 4". World Wide Web Consortium.
  5. Nelkon, Michael (1977). Fundamentals of Physics. St. Albans, Hertfordshire: Hart-Davis Educational. p. 329.
  6. "Encyclopedia Astronautica: Lambda". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  7. Wankat Separation Process Engineering 2nd ed, Prentice Hall
  8. "Half-Life on Steam". store.steampowered.com. Valve. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  9. "Half-Life 2 on Steam". store.steampowered.com. Valve. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  10. Rapp, Linda (2004). "Gay Activists Alliance" (PDF). glbtq.com.
  11. "1969, The Year of Gay Liberation". The New York Public Library. June 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  12. Goodwin, Joseph P. (1989). "It Takes One to Know One". More Man Than You'll Ever Be: Gay Folklore and Acculturation in Middle America . Indiana University Press. p.  26. ISBN   978-0253338938.
  13. Rapp, Linda (2003). "Symbols" (PDF). glbtq.com.
  14. Haggerty, George E., ed. (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia (Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures, Volume II) (1 ed.). London: Garland Publishing. p.  529. ISBN   0-8153-1880-4. OCLC   750790369.
  15. Unicode Ancient Greek Numbers block.
  16. "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae" (PDF). Stephanus.TLG.UCI.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  17. https://www.unicode.org/mail-arch/unicode-ml/y2010-m06/0063.html