Last updated

Lambeth Bridge, SW1 - - 911013.jpg
Lambeth beyond Lambeth Bridge
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Greater London
Population9,675 (Bishop's ward 2011 census)
OS grid reference TQ305785
  Charing Cross 1 mi (1.6 km)  N
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Historic county
  • Surrey
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE1
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
51°29′25″N0°07′09″W / 51.4903°N 0.1193°W / 51.4903; -0.1193 Coordinates: 51°29′25″N0°07′09″W / 51.4903°N 0.1193°W / 51.4903; -0.1193

Lambeth ( /ˈlæmbəθ/ [1] ) is a district in South London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth, historically in the County of Surrey. It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross. The population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. [2] The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization.



The origins of the name of Lambeth come from its first record in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning 'landing place for lambs', and in 1255 as Lambeth. In the Domesday Book, Lambeth is called "Lanchei", likely in error. [3] The name refers to a harbour where lambs were either shipped from or to. It is formed from the Old English 'lamb' and 'hythe'. [4] South Lambeth is recorded as Sutlamehethe in 1241 and North Lambeth is recorded in 1319 as North Lamhuth. [4]

The manor of Lambeth is recorded as being under ownership of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least 1190. [5] The Archbishops led the development of much of the manor, with Archbishop Hubert Walter creating the residence of Lambeth Palace in 1197. [6] Lambeth and the palace were the site of two important 13th-century international treaties; the Treaty of Lambeth 1217 and the Treaty of Lambeth 1212. [7] Edward, the Black Prince lived in Lambeth in the 14th century in an estate that incorporated the land not belonging to the Archbishops, which also included Kennington (the Black Prince road in Lambeth is named after him). [6] As such, much of the freehold land of Lambeth to this day remains under Royal ownership as part of the estate of the Duchy of Cornwall. [8] Lambeth was also the site of the principal medieval London residence of the Dukes of Norfolk, but by 1680 the large house had been sold and ended up as a pottery manufacturer, creating some of the first examples of English delftware in the country. [9] The road names, Norfolk Place and Norfolk Row reflect the history and legacy of the house today. [10]

Map of 1897, showing Lambeth Palace and Lambeth Bridge Westminster Bridge and Lambeth Bridge 1897.jpg
Map of 1897, showing Lambeth Palace and Lambeth Bridge

Lambeth Palace lies opposite the southern section of the Palace of Westminster on the Thames. The two were historically linked by a horse ferry across the river. [5] Until the mid-18th century the north of Lambeth was marshland, crossed by a number of roads raised against floods. The marshland in the area, known as Lambeth Marshe, was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name. With the opening of Westminster Bridge in 1750, followed by the Blackfriars Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge and Lambeth Bridge itself, a number of major thoroughfares were developed through Lambeth, such as Westminster Bridge Road, Kennington Road and Camberwell New Road. [5] Until the 18th century Lambeth was still partly rural in nature, being outside the boundaries of central London, although it had experienced growth in the form of taverns and entertainment venues, such as theatres and Bear pits (being outside inner city regulations). [9] The subsequent growth in road and marine transport, along with the development of industry in the wake of the industrial revolution brought great change to the area. [9]

The area grew with an ever-increasing population at this time, many of whom were considerably poor. [9] As a result, Lambeth opened a parish workhouse in 1726. In 1777 a parliamentary report recorded a parish workhouse in operation accommodating up to 270 inmates. On 18 December 1835 the Lambeth Poor Law Parish was formed, comprising the parish of St Mary, Lambeth, "including the district attached to the new churches of St John, Waterloo, Kennington, Brixton, Norwood". Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of twenty Guardians. [11] Following in the tradition of earlier delftware manufacturers, the Royal Doulton Pottery company had their principal manufacturing site in Lambeth for several centuries. [12] The Lambeth factory closed in 1956 and production was transferred to Staffordshire. However the Doulton offices, located on Black Prince Road still remain as they are a listed building, which includes the original decorative tiling. [12]

Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Lambeth trebled and in ten years alone between 1831 and 1841 it increased from 87,856 in to 105,883. [10] The railway first came to Lambeth in the 1840s, as construction began which extended the London and South Western Railway from its original station at Nine Elms to the new terminus at London Waterloo via the newly constructed Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct. With the massive urban development of London in the 19th century and with the opening of the large Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station and Lower Marsh became known as Waterloo, becoming an area distinct from Lambeth itself. [4]

The Lambeth Ragged school was built in 1851 to help educate the children of destitute facilities, although the widening of the London and South Western Railway in 1904 saw the building reduced in size. [9] Part of the school building still exists today and is occupied by the Beaconsfield Gallery. [9] The Beaufoy Institute was also built in 1907 to provide technical education for the poor of the area, although this stopped being an educational institution at the end of the 20th century. [9]

Lambeth Walk and Lambeth High Street were the two principal commercial streets of Lambeth, but today are predominantly residential in nature. Lambeth Walk was site of a market for many years, which by 1938 had 159 shops, including 11 butchers. [13] The street and surrounding roads, like most of Lambeth were extensively damaged in the Second World War. [13] This included the complete destruction of the Victorian Swimming Baths (themselves built in 1897) in 1945, when a V2 Rocket hit the street resulting in the deaths of 37 people. [14]

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society's headquarters were located in Lambeth High Street from 1976 until 2015. [15]

Local governance

The tower of St Mary-at-Lambeth, constructed in 1377 Saint Mary-at-Lambeth (6265732043).jpg
The tower of St Mary-at-Lambeth, constructed in 1377

The current district of Lambeth was part of the large ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary in the Brixton hundred of Surrey. [16] It was an elongated north–south parish with a two-mile River Thames frontage to the west. In the north it lay opposite the cities of London and Westminster and extended southwards to cover the contemporary districts of Brixton, West Dulwich and West Norwood, almost reaching Crystal Palace. Lambeth became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It continued as a single parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 and a single parish governed by a vestry after the introduction of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855. [16] In 1889 it became part of the county of London and the parish and vestry were reformed in 1900 to become the Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth, governed by Lambeth Borough Council. In the reform of local government in 1965, the Streatham and Clapham areas that had formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth were combined with Lambeth to form the responsible area of local government under the London Borough of Lambeth. The current mayor is Cllr Christopher Wellbelove as of May 2018. [17]

Local politics

A map showing the wards of Lambeth since 2002 Lambeth London UK labelled ward map 2002.svg
A map showing the wards of Lambeth since 2002
Lambeth Town Hall, completed in 1908 Lambeth Town Hall (8715334040).jpg
Lambeth Town Hall, completed in 1908

The council is run by a leader and cabinet. All cabinet members are from the Labour Party.

The leader of the opposition is Green Party Co-leader Jonathan Bartley and the leader of the Conservative opposition is Timothy Briggs.

The chief executive is Andrew Travers.

Mark Bennett became mayor in March 2013, and died in February 2014. [18] The current mayor as of May 2018, is Cllr Christopher Wellbelove. [17]

In the 2016 EU referendum, Lambeth issued the highest "Remain" vote in the United Kingdom (besides Gibraltar) with almost 79% of residents advocating the United Kingdom staying in the European Union.

At the 2015 general election, all three Labour candidates were elected Kate Hoey for Vauxhall, Chuka Umunna for Streatham & Helen Hayes for Dulwich and West Norwood. The Conservative Party finished the runners up in all three seats.

At the snap 2017 general election, Hoey, Umunna and Hayes were re-elected with increased majorities. The Liberal Democrat candidate George Turner finished the runner up in Vauxhall achieving a 5% swing in his favour. The Conservative candidates Rachel Wolf and Kim Caddy finished the runner up in Dulwich & West Norwood and Streatham respectively.

At the 2018 local elections, Labour remained in control of the council with 57 of the 63 seats, (down 2 seats from 2014). The Greens gained 4 seats and achieved a total 5 seats. The Conservatives were reduced down to a single seat, and the Liberal Democrats failed to gain any seats, but did make some inroads into Wards in Northern Vauxhall and Southern Streatham.

In the 2019 EU elections, the Liberal Democrats won Lambeth with 33% of the vote, Labour were second with 21%, The Greens third with 19% and Change UK and The Brexit Party joint fourth on 8%.

In June 2019, Umunna defected to the Liberal Democrats.

Hoey stood down at the 2019 General Election and was replaced with Labour MP Florence Eshalomi, who was the sitting London Assembly Member for Lambeth and Southwark. Ummuna stood down as an MP and was replaced with Bell Ribeiro-Addy where the Labour majority was cut by almost 10,000 by the 2nd placed Lib Dems. Hayes stood for re-election with the Green Party's Jonathan Bartley finishing in second place, for the first time.

Buildings and churches

The church of St Mary-at-Lambeth is the oldest above ground structure in Lambeth, the oldest structure of any kind being the crypt of Lambeth Palace itself. [19] The church has pre-Norman origins, being recorded as early as 1062 as a church built by Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor. It was rebuilt in flint and stone between the years 1374 and 1377. The tower is the only original part still to survive, as much of the church was reconstructed by 1852. The church was de-consecrated in 1972 and since 1977 it has been the home of the Garden Museum. [19]

Lambeth Palace is the home of the Archbishop of Canterbury and has been occupied as a residence by the Archbishops since the early 13th century. [20] The oldest parts of the palace are Langton's Chapel and its crypt, both of which date back to the 13th century. Although they suffered greatly from damage in the Second World War, they have seen been extensively repaired and restored. [20] Morton's Tower, the main entrance to the palace, was built in 1490. [20] The Great Hall, rebuilt over different centuries but primarily following damage during the English Civil War, contains the vast collections of the Lambeth Palace Library. [20] Later additions to the palace including the Blore Building, a newer private residence for the Archbishop, which was completed in 1833. [20]

The waterfront of Lambeth including the International Maritime Organization and the former HQ of the London Fire Brigade Lambeth Waterfront.jpg
The waterfront of Lambeth including the International Maritime Organization and the former HQ of the London Fire Brigade

The Albert Embankment, finished in 1869 and created by the engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette under the Metropolitan Board of Works, forms the boundary of Lambeth. The embankment includes land reclaimed from the river and various small timber and boat-building yards, and was intended to protect low-lying areas of Lambeth from flooding while also providing a new highway to bypass local congested streets. Unlike the Thames Embankment on the opposite side of the river, the Albert Embankment does not incorporate major interceptor sewers. This allowed the southern section of the embankment (upstream from Lambeth Bridge) to include a pair of tunnels leading to a small slipway, named White Hart Draw Dock, whose origins can be traced back to the 14th century. [21] Centuries later, Royal Doulton's pottery works used the docks to load clay and finished goods for transport to and from the Port of London. The refurbishment of White Hart Dock was carried out as part of a local art project in 2009, which included the addition of wooden sculptures and benches to the 1868 dock boundary wall. [12]

Located on the Albert Embankment is the purpose-built headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). [22] The IMO is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping. [23] The building was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 May 1983. [22] The architects of the building were Douglass Marriott, Worby & Robinson. [24] The front of the building is dominated by a seven-metre high, ten-tonne bronze sculpture of the bow of a ship, with a lone seafarer maintaining a look-out from Lambeth to the Thames. [24]

From 1937 until 2007 the headquarters of the London Fire Brigade were in Lambeth, on Albert Embankment. [25] The headquarters building, constructed in an art deco style, was designed by architects of the London City Council and opened in 1937. [25] Occupying a prominent position on the Thames it is, however, still an operating fire station, although future plans have been submitted which may see redevelopment of the listed building. [26]

The Lambeth Mission is a church of the united Methodist Anglican denomination, located on Lambeth Road. [27] The original church was founded in 1739 but was entirely destroyed by a bomb in the Second World War. A new church for the mission was constructed in 1950 and continues to function as an active church today. [27]

The Beaconsfield gallery is a public contemporary art gallery in Lambeth, which was established in 1995 and specialises in temporary exhibitions and art classes. [28] Morley College is an adult education college, founded in the 1880s, that occupies sites on either side of the boundary between the London boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. [29]

Literary Lambeth

In William Blake's epic Milton: A Poem in Two Books , the poet John Milton leaves Heaven and travels to Lambeth, in the form of a falling comet, and enters Blake's foot. This allows Blake to treat the ordinary world as perceived by the five senses as a sandal formed of "precious stones and gold" that he can now wear. Blake ties the sandal and, guided by Los, walks with it into the City of Art, inspired by the spirit of poetic creativity. The poem was written between 1804 and 1810.

Liza of Lambeth , the first novel by W. Somerset Maugham, is about the life and loves of a young factory worker living in Lambeth near Westminster Bridge Road. [30]

Thyrza, a novel by George Gissing first published in 1887, is set in late Victorian Lambeth, particularly Newport Street, Lambeth Walk and Walnut Tree Walk. The novel was intended by Gissing to "contain the very spirit of London working-class life". The story tells of Walter Egremont, an Oxford-trained idealist who gives lectures on literature to workers, some of them from his father's Lambeth factory.

Leisure and recreation

Lambeth has several areas of public parks and gardens. This includes Old Paradise Gardens, which is a park occupying a former burial ground on Lambeth High Street and Old Paradise Street. A watch-house for holding the 'drunk and disorderly' existed on the site, from 1825 until 1930 and is today marked by a memorial stone. [31] Lambeth Walk Open Space is a small public park to the east of Lambeth on Fitzalan Walk and includes several open spaces and play areas. [32] Pedlars' Park is another small public park in Lambeth, which was created in 1968 on the site of the former St. Saviour's Salamanca Street School. [33] Archbishop's Park is open to the public and borders the edge of Lambeth Palace and the neighbouring area of Waterloo and the hospital of St Thomas.


The nearest London Underground stations are Waterloo, Southwark and Lambeth North. London Waterloo is also a National Rail station as is Waterloo East which is located in-between both Waterloo and Southwark stations. Vauxhall station is also nearby in Vauxhall, situated more towards the South Lambeth area near Kennington as is Oval station nearby. The South Western Main Line runs through Lambeth on the Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct.

The principal road through the area is Lambeth Road (the A3203). Lambeth Walk adjoins Lambeth Road. The current Lambeth Bridge opened on 19 July 1932. It replaced an earlier suspension bridge which itself was built between 1862 and 1928, but was eventually closed and demolished following the 1928 Thames flood. [34]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Bermondsey Human settlement in England

Bermondsey is a district in South East London in the London Borough of Southwark, England, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southeast of Charing Cross. To the west of Bermondsey lies Southwark, to the east Rotherhithe and Deptford, to the south Walworth and Peckham, and to the north is Wapping across the River Thames. It lies within the historic county boundaries of Surrey.

Kennington Area of London, mostly within the London Borough of Lambeth

Kennington is a district in south London, England. It is mainly within the London Borough of Lambeth, running along the boundary with the London Borough of Southwark, a boundary which can be discerned from the early medieval period between the Lambeth and St George's parishes of those boroughs respectively. It is located 1.4 miles (2.3 km) south of Charing Cross in Inner London and is identified as a local centre in the London Plan. It was a royal manor in the parish of St Mary, Lambeth in the county of Surrey and was the administrative centre of the parish from 1853. Proximity to central London was key to the development of the area as a residential suburb and it was incorporated into the metropolitan area of London in 1855.

Newington, London Human settlement in England

Newington is a district of South London, just south of the River Thames, and part of the London Borough of Southwark. It was an ancient parish and the site of the early administration of the county of Surrey. It was the location of the County of London Sessions House from 1917, in a building now occupied by the Inner London Crown Court.

Stockwell Human settlement in England

Stockwell is a district in South West London, England, located in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 2.4 miles (3.9 km) south of Charing Cross. Battersea, Brixton, Clapham, South Lambeth, Oval and Kennington all border Stockwell.

Vauxhall District of London

Vauxhall is a district of South London, England. Vauxhall was part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created.

London Borough of Lambeth Borough in United Kingdom

Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha and in 1255 as Lambeth. The geographical centre of London is at Frazier Street near Lambeth North tube station, though nearby Charing Cross on the other side of the Thames in the City of Westminster is traditionally considered the centre of London.

South Bank Human settlement in England

South Bank is an entertainment and commercial district in central London, next to the River Thames opposite the City of Westminster. It forms a narrow strip of riverside land within the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Southwark,. As such, South Bank may be regarded as somewhat akin to the riverside part of an area known previously as Lambeth Marsh and North Lambeth.

Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth

Lambeth was a civil parish and metropolitan borough in south London, England. It was an ancient parish in the county of Surrey. The parish was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855 and became part of the County of London in 1889. The parish of Lambeth became a metropolitan borough in 1900, following the London Government Act 1899, with the parish vestry replaced by a borough council.

St Thomas Hospital Hospital in London, England

St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England. It is one of the institutions that compose the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre. Administratively part of the Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, together with Guy's Hospital, King's College Hospital, University Hospital Lewisham, and Queen Elizabeth Hospital, it provides the location of the King's College London GKT School of Medical Education.

Albert Embankment Road and footpath in Lambeth, London

Albert Embankment is part of the river bank on the south side of the River Thames in Central London. It stretches approximately one mile (1.6 km) northward from Vauxhall Bridge to Westminster Bridge, and is located in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Lambeth Walk

Lambeth Walk is a street in Lambeth, London, England, off Lambeth Road. It was at the heart of a working-class residential area and there was a street market.

The London Borough of Lambeth, in spite of being close to the centre of London has over 64 areas of parks and open spaces, in addition to 34 play areas and eight paddling pools, within its boundaries. In common with all the London boroughs these green spaces provide "lungs" for the leisure pursuits of the inhabitants.

Lambeth Road

Lambeth Road is a road in Lambeth and Southwark, London running between Lambeth Bridge over the River Thames at the western end and St George's Circus at the eastern end. The road is designated the A3203. The borough boundary runs along it from the intersection with King Edward's Walk to Kennington Road.

Westminster Bridge Road

Westminster Bridge Road is a road in London, England. It runs on an east–west axis and passes through the boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark.

Waterloo, London Human settlement in England

Waterloo is a district in Central London, and part of the Bishops ward of the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) east of Charing Cross. The area is part of a business improvement district known as Waterloo Quarter, which includes The Cut and the Old Vic and Young Vic theatres. It includes some sections of the London Borough of Southwark.

A202 road

The A202 is a primary A road in London. It runs from New Cross Gate to London Victoria station. A section of the route forms a part of the London Inner Ring Road between Vauxhall and Victoria, known as Vauxhall Bridge Road.

Lambeth Marsh

Lambeth Marsh is one of the oldest settlements on the South Bank of London, England.

This is a list of the etymology of street names in the London districts of Kennington and Lambeth. The areas have no formally defined boundaries – those utilised here are Westminster Bridge Road/St George’s Circus/London Road to the north, Newington Butts/Kennington Park Road to the east, Kennington Road and Black Prince Road to the south and the river Thames to the west.

Royal Commission on Metropolitan Railway Termini Former royal commission of the United Kingdom

The Royal Commission to Investigate the Various Projects for Establishing Railway Termini Within or in the Immediate Vicinity of the Metropolis was a Royal commission established in 1846 with a remit to review and report on railway termini in London.


  1. "Lambeth". Collins Dictionary .
  2. Services, Good Stuff IT. "Lambeth – UK Census Data 2011". UK Census Data. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  3. Wheatley, Henry Benjamin; Cunningham, Peter (2011) [First published in 1891]. London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 355.
  4. 1 2 3 Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford.
  5. 1 2 3 "London Borough of Lambeth". Ideal Homes: A History of South-East London Suburbs. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Lambeth". Vauxhall History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  7. Cannon, John. "Treaty of Lambeth" A Dictionary of British History. Oxford University Press, 2009
  8. "Royal Southwark and Lambeth". Vauxhall History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Lambeth Pharmacy Walk" (PDF). Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  10. 1 2 "Lambeth: The parish". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  11. "Lambeth (Parish of St Mary), Surrey, London". Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  12. 1 2 3 "Memorial – White Hart Dock". London Remembers. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  13. 1 2 "Streets of London: Lambeth Walk". BBC News . Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  14. "Lambeth Baths". Vauxhall History Online Archives. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  15. "Pharmacy History and Lambeth". Royal Pharmaceutical Society . Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  16. 1 2 Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN   0-901050-67-9.
  17. 1 2 "The Mayor, the leader of the Council and Cabinet members – guide". Lambeth Council. 23 May 2018.
  18. De Peyer, Robin. "Tributes flood in for Lambeth Mayor Mark Bennett, who has died suddenly aged 44". London Evening Standard. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  19. 1 2 "St Mary – A history". The Garden Museum. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 "The History of Lambeth Palace". The Archbishop of Canterbury. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  21. "White Hart Dock". Plaques of London. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  22. 1 2 "IMO History: 30 years" (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  23. "Introduction to IMO". International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  24. 1 2 "IMO Building History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  25. 1 2 "Fire Brigade HQ History". Manchester History. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  26. "Developer appointed for Albert Embankment Site". London Fire Brigade. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  27. 1 2 "Lambeth Mission & St Mary's". North Lambeth Parish. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  28. "Main Site". Beaconsfield Gallery. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  29. "About". Morley College. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  30. "Liza of Lambeth". Vauxhall History Online Archive. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  31. "Lambeth Parish Watch House". Vauxhall History Online Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  32. "Lambeth Walk Open Space". Open Play. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  33. "Pedlars' Park". London Park Life. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  34. "Lambeth Bridge and its predeceasor". British History. Retrieved 30 November 2016.

Further reading