Lampang

Last updated
Lampang

ลำปาง
City of Lampang
เทศบาลนครลำปาง
Sonnenaufgang am Fluss in Lampang (Thailand).jpg
Wang River, Lampang
Seal of Lampang.png
Seal
Location Lampang town.png
Location in Northern Thai
Thailand adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lampang
Location in Thailand
Coordinates: 18°18′N99°30′E / 18.300°N 99.500°E / 18.300; 99.500 Coordinates: 18°18′N99°30′E / 18.300°N 99.500°E / 18.300; 99.500
CountryThailand
Province Lampang
District Mueang Lampang
Government
  TypeCity Municipality
  MayorKittiphum Namwong
Area
  Total22.17 km2 (8.56 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
  Total58,074
  Density2,600/km2 (6,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+7 (ICT)
Area code (+66) 54
Website lampangcity.go.th
Nakhon Lampang railway station Lampang-railway station1771.JPG
Nakhon Lampang railway station

Lampang, also called Nakhon Lampang (Thai : นครลำปาง, pronounced [náʔkʰɔːn lampaːŋ] ) to differentiate from Lampang Province, is the third largest city in northern Thailand and capital of Lampang Province and the Lampang district. Traditional names for Lampang include Wiang Lakon and Khelang Nakhon. The city is a trading and transportation center. Lampang lies 601 km (373 mi) north of Bangkok and 101 km (63 mi) southeast of Chiang Mai.

Contents

Geography

Wang River Wang River at Lampang.jpg
Wang River

Lampang city is in the valley of the Wang River, bordered by the Khun Tan Range on the west and the Phi Pan Nam Range on the east. The river, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya, flows through the city. The city lies mainly on the south side of Wang River, although the old parts of the city had been originally developed in the north side of it. Nowadays, downtown Lampang has grown in the southeast of the river along Bunyawat and Pahon Yothin Roads.

Climate

Lampang has a relatively dry climate relative to nearby provinces. "Winter" starts after the last rains, typically November, and lasts until March. Cold air masses from Siberia sometimes lead to nighttime temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), although that is quite rare. Winter is characterized by dry, sunny, and quite pleasant days, and cool and occasionally foggy nights. In recent times, the blue winter sky is often marred by the practice of burning the fields after the harvest, as well as the smog generated by Mae Mo coal-fired power plants.

Summer typically runs from March until June. The temperature could soar to 40 °C (104 °F) in April. Late afternoon thunderstorms and hailstorms are frequent.

Rainy season runs from June until November, and significant rain may occur in May as well. Being in a relative rain shadow, Lampang receives less precipitation than neighboring provinces and rarely suffers from the flooding which has plagued Chiang Mai in recent years.

Climate data for Lampang (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.9
(98.4)
40.0
(104.0)
42.5
(108.5)
43.5
(110.3)
43.0
(109.4)
41.1
(106.0)
38.6
(101.5)
37.6
(99.7)
36.5
(97.7)
37.8
(100.0)
36.5
(97.7)
36.0
(96.8)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F)31.6
(88.9)
34.4
(93.9)
37.2
(99.0)
38.3
(100.9)
35.5
(95.9)
34.0
(93.2)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
32.8
(91.0)
32.3
(90.1)
31.3
(88.3)
30.2
(86.4)
33.7
(92.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)22.2
(72.0)
24.7
(76.5)
28.0
(82.4)
30.0
(86.0)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.8
(82.0)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.2
(75.6)
21.6
(70.9)
26.4
(79.5)
Average low °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
16.6
(61.9)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
24.2
(75.6)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
23.9
(75.0)
23.5
(74.3)
22.3
(72.1)
19.1
(66.4)
15.3
(59.5)
17.0
(62.6)
Record low °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
8.7
(47.7)
11.5
(52.7)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
21.9
(71.4)
21.2
(70.2)
21.2
(70.2)
19.6
(67.3)
14.1
(57.4)
8.2
(46.8)
3.7
(38.7)
3.7
(38.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches)2.8
(0.11)
8.8
(0.35)
22.8
(0.90)
65.9
(2.59)
160.4
(6.31)
117.5
(4.63)
134.6
(5.30)
186.3
(7.33)
211.6
(8.33)
98.3
(3.87)
29.5
(1.16)
7.0
(0.28)
1,045.5
(41.16)
Average rainy days0.81.43.06.615.115.417.418.517.711.23.71.0111.8
Average relative humidity (%)70625760727678818382787573
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8257.1294.5243.0198.4156.0120.9117.8144.0182.9216.0254.22,457.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.89.19.58.16.45.23.93.84.85.97.28.26.7
Source 1: Thai Meteorological Department [1]
Source 2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity) [2]

History

Horse carriages in Lampang Lampanghorses0005a.jpg
Horse carriages in Lampang

Lampang was a major city in the Lanna kingdom. [3] However, its historical prominence is largely overshadowed by Chiang Mai or Chiang Rai which were the traditional seats of government, and whose histories were well recorded in chronicles. Following decades of warfare with both the Ava Burmese and Ayudhya during the 17th-18th century, the region was in decline, severely depopulated, and subject to Burmese control.

In the late 18th century, the famed marksman and Lampang native Nan Thip Chang assassinated the local Burmese leader in Wat Phra That Lampang Luang, and led an uprising which led to a rollback of Burmese rule over Lanna. Allied with Bangkok, the descendants of Nan Thip Chang, known as Chao Ched Ton (the seven princes), became the vassal rulers of the various Lanna cities until the annexation of Lanna into Siam (Thailand) proper under King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). [4]

Economy

Besides the traditional rice paddy farming, pineapple, and sugarcane constitute major food crops in Lampang Province. The province has a large deposit of lignite in Mae Moh district, fuelling several coal-fired electricity generating plants, whose pollution has severely affected the local populations.[ citation needed ] Lampang also has a large deposit of kaolin which is widely utilized in the ceramics industry. Historically, logging was an important industry, since Lampang, together with nearby Phrae had a large stand of teak. Many elephants were employed to transport the logs to the river for transport to Bangkok, hence the founding of an "elephant school", the predecessor of the Thai Elephant Conservation Center. Much of the old growth teak stands in Lampang had been thoroughly harvested.

Culture

Lampang, also called "mueang rot ma" in Thai, meaning "horse carriage city", is considered by some Thais as the last paradise in Thailand.[ citation needed ] It is about 100 km (62 mi) to the southeast of Chiang Mai. Although well-connected by rail, and four lane highways to both Bangkok and Chiang Mai, it is here that tourists can still find horse-drawn carriages in regular use for transportation. One account attributes the horse-drawn carriage to the Portuguese, via Macau, although a more likely origin is colonial Burma. Lampang was an important center of the timber industry in the early-20th century and saw an influx of migrants from British-controlled Burma. The horse-drawn carriage is one of the most memorable symbols of Lampang, as reflected in many traditional products.

Lampang has a few institutions of higher learning, such as Yonok College, and a branch of Thammasat University.

Health

The main hospital of Lampang is Lampang Hospital, operated by the Ministry of Public Health.

Transportation

The city is an important highway hub, with a four lane highway link to Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, as well as a major highway to Phrae and the eastern Lanna provinces. Lampang is roughly a 1.5 hour bus ride to Chiang Mai. Nakhon Lampang railway station is a stop for the Chiang Mai-bound train, approximately 10 hours from Bangkok.

Lampang Airport is served by Bangkok Airways (three flights daily to Suvarnabhumi Airport) and Nok air (four flights daily to Don Mueang) (Oct 2015).

Landmarks and tourist attractions

Wat Phradhart Lampangluang Wat Phradhart Lampangluang.jpg
Wat Phradhart Lampangluang
Elephant train in Thai Elephant Conservation Center,Hang chat district Lampang, Thailand Lampang - elephant train.jpg
Elephant train in Thai Elephant Conservation Center,Hang chat district Lampang, Thailand

Tourists typically stop by for lunch and visit the more famous attractions such as Wat Phra That Lampang Luang and the Thai Elephant Conservation Center and then proceed to points further north such as Chiang Mai or Chiang Rai. Less well-known tourist attractions in Lampang are thus mostly visited by locals. Among these are the Wang Kaeo Waterfall and the Chae Son National Park, a compact park which combines a natural hot spring with large waterfalls.

Many temples in downtown Lampang were built in the Burmese -style, originally endowed by the logging tycoons of the late-19th century. Wat Si Bun Rueang, Wat Si Chum and Wat Pa Fang are among the extant examples. Nine of the 31 remaining Burmese-style temples in Thailand are in Lampang. [5] Traditional Lanna architecture can be found at Wat Phra That Lampang Luang, on the site of ancient Lampang city. It is famous for its murals from the 19th century. The city seal features a white rooster in the temple's gate.

Wat Phra Kaeo Don Tao, on the west bank of the Wang River, is said to have housed the Emerald Buddha between 1436 and 1468. Wat Phra That Chedi Sao (The Temple of Twenty Chedis) is famous for its array of twenty pagodas. Other temples of some renown include Wat Phra That Chom Ping and Wat Lai Hin both in the Ko Kha District.

Mae Mo mine is a vast open pit lignite mine in the Mae Mo basin. The mine and the adjoining power generation facilities are operated by EGAT. The power plant is a major source of electric power for Thailand.

Education

Lampang has a number of educational institutions, including kindergartens, primary, secondary and vocational schools. Schools teach in the English, Thai, and Chinese languages. Lampang also has a number of universities: Lampang Rajabhat University, Rajmangala University of Technology, Nation University (formerly Yonok) and a satellite campus of Thammasat University. Lampang College of Commerce and Technology (LCCT) and Lampang International Technical College (LIT) are well known schools which teach technology.

Related Research Articles

Emerald Buddha Statue considered the Palladium of Thailand

The Emerald Buddha is an image of the meditating Gautama Buddha seated in the lotus position, made of a semi-precious green stone, clothed in gold. and about 66 centimetres (26 in) tall. The image is considered the sacred palladium of Thailand. It is housed in the Temple of the Emerald Buddha on the grounds of the Grand Palace in Bangkok.

Chiang Rai City Municipality in Thailand

Chiang Rai is the northernmost major city in Thailand, with a population of about 200,000 people. It is located in Mueang Chiang Rai District, Chiang Rai Province. Chiang Rai was established as a capital city in the reign of King Mangrai, in 1262 CE.

Chiang Rai Province Province of Thailand

Chiang Rai is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces, which lies in upper northern Thailand and is Thailand's northernmost province. It is bordered by the Shan State of Myanmar to the north, Bokeo Province of Laos to the east, Phayao to the south, Lampang to the southwest, and Chiang Mai to the west. The provinces is linked to Houayxay Laos by the Fourth Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge that spans the Mekong.

Chiang Mai Province Province of Thailand

Chiang Mai is the second-largest province (changwat) of Thailand. It lies in upper northern Thailand. It is bordered by Chiang Rai to the northeast, Lampang and Lamphun to the south, Tak to the southwest, Mae Hong Son to the west, and Shan State of Burma to the north. The capital, Chiang Mai, is 685 kilometres (426 mi) north of Bangkok.

Lampang Province Province of Thailand

Lampang is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat), lies in upper northern Thailand. The old name of Lampang was Khelang Nakhon.

Phayao Province Province of Thailand

Phayao is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Nan, Phrae, Lampang, and Chiang Rai. In the northeast it borders Xaignabouli of Laos.

Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong

Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong is located in Nakhon Chiang Rai, Amphoe Mueang, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

Wat Phra Kaew, Chiang Rai

Wat Phra Kaew is a third-common-class royal temple situated in the area of 10,640 square metres on Trairat road, Wiang sub-district, Muang Chiang Rai in Chiang Rai City, Thailand. The King of Thailand upgraded the temple to the royal temple on May 31, 1978. The temple gains historical importance as the place where the Emerald Buddha was found. It is also one of the main centres of Buddhist education and the Sangha's administration in northern Thailand.

Nan, Thailand Town Municipality in Nan, Thailand

Nan is a town in northern Thailand. It is 688 km (428 mi) north of Bangkok. It is in the centre of Nan Province which bears its name, and of which it is the former administrative capital. It covers tambon Nai Wiang and parts of tambon Pha Sing of Mueang Nan District, an area of 7.60 km2 (2.93 sq mi) divided into 30 chumchon. In 2010 it had a population of 21,333 spread along the Nan River's right bank. Nan is a small city, primarily devoted to commercial, administrative, educational, and hospital activities. The old heart of the city, where Wat Phumin, the national museum and other tourist attractions are found, is being restored.

Chiang Saen District District in Chiang Rai, Thailand

Chiang Saen is a district (amphoe) in the northern part of Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. Chiang Saen is an important entrepôt for Thailand's trade with other countries on the upper part of Mekong River.

Chofa

Chofa is a Lao and Thai architectural decorative ornament that adorns the top at the end of wat and palace roofs in most Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. It resembles a tall thin bird and looks hornlike. The chofa is generally believed to represent the mythical creature Garuda, half bird and half man, who is the vehicle of the Hindu god Vishnu.

Thai highway network

The Thai highway network follows the left-hand traffic rule of the road. The network is the twin responsibility of the Department of Highways, and the Department of Rural Roads, under the oversight of the Transportation ministry of Thailand. Public highways are also called public roads, especially when part of urban streets. The network spans over 70,000 kilometers across all regions of Thailand. Most are single carriageways. Dual carriageways have frequent u-turn lanes and intersections slowing down traffic. Coupled with the increase in the number of vehicles and the demand for a limited-access motorway, the Thai Government issued a Cabinet resolution in 1997 detailing the motorway construction master plan. Some upgraded sections of highway are being turned into a "motorway", while other motorways are not being built from highway sections.

Wat Phra Singh

Wat Phra Singh is a Buddhist temple in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. King Ananda Mahidol, the older brother of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej, bestowed on it the status of Royal temple of the first grade in 1935.

Wat Chet Yot

Wat Chet Yot or officially called Wat Photharam Maha Wihan is a Buddhist temple (Wat) in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand. It is a centre of pilgrimage for those born in the year of the Snake.

Wat Suan Dok

Wat Suan Dok, also known as Wat Buppharam is a Buddhist temple (Wat) in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. It is a Royal Temple of the Third Class. The temple is on Suthep Road, approximately one kilometre west of Suan Dok gate at the west side of the moat.

Wat Phra Kaeo Don Tao

Wat Phra Kaeo Don Tao is the principal Buddhist temple in Lampang, Thailand. The temple was founded by the first Mon ruler of Lampang. The Emerald Buddha was enshrined at this temple from 1434 to 1468, when King Tilokaraj relocated the image to Wat Phra Singh in Chiang Mai. The temple's Mon-style chedi, which is reputed to contain a strand of the Buddha's hair, is 50 metres (160 ft) tall. It is flanked by a Burmese-style mondop, with a pyatthat spired roof, that was commissioned by Lampang's governor in 1909.

Thammalangka Prince Ruler of Chiang Mai

Thammalangka or Earl of the White Elephant is the third son of prince Keaw and princess Chantadevi. He was born in 1746. He joined his brothers, Kawila, Khamsom, Duangthip, Moola, Khamfan, and Boonma to unite Lanna with Siam in 1774. In 1805, Rama I promoted him to be the regent of Chiangmai when Kawila was a ruler. In 1816, Kawila died, he was promoted to be a ruler of Chiangmai. Khamfan, his younger brother who was a ruler of Lamphun became a regent of Chiangmai. Boonma became a ruler of Lamphun. When they went to Bangkok, he gave a white elephant to Rama II and received the name Chao phraya chang pueak Thammalangka. During his reign, he renovated the temples and city walls and created three canals for the people in Chiangmai city. He ruled Chiangmai for six years. He died on 4 May 1822 at the age of 77.

Wat Rai Khing

Wat Rai Khing is another prominent and notable temple in Nakhon Pathom Province in addition to Wat Phra Pathom Chedi, which is the provincial temple. Wat Rai Khing is located along the Tha Chin River, Tambon Rai Khing, Amphoe Sam Phran on Petchkasem Road, west of Bangkok. And not far from other attractions such as Sampran Riverside, Samphran Elephant Ground & Zoo etc.

Nirat Hariphunchai

Nirat Hariphunchai is an old poem of around 720 lines, originally composed in Northern Thai language. Nirat, derived from a Sanskrit word meaning “without”, is a genre of Thai poetry that involves travel and love-longing for a separated beloved. Hariphunchai was an ancient kingdom, centered at Lamphun, incorporated into the Lan Na kingdom by Mangrai in the late 13th century. The poem recounts a journey from Chiang Mai to Lamphun to venerate the Buddhist reliquary, Wat Phra That Hariphunchai, with visits to around twenty temples and shrines along the way. During the journey, the author laments his separation from his beloved Si Thip. The journey takes two or three days. The poem ends at a festival in the reliquary, attended by a queen and her son. The original may date to 1517/18 CE. The poem was little appreciated until recently owing to the difficulty of the old language.

References

  1. "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 2. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  2. "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 17. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  3. "Historic Lampang", in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE
  4. Burmese-influenced Architecture in Lampang
  5. Kyaw Thein Kha, The Irrawaddy (2010-09-16). Burmese Architecture in Lampang (English Subtitle) (in Burmese). Lampang: The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 2010-09-18.