Lanai

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Coordinates: 20°49′7.30″N156°55′56.03″W / 20.8186944°N 156.9322306°W / 20.8186944; -156.9322306

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Contents

Lānaʻi
Nickname: The Pineapple Isle
LanaiLandsat.jpg
Landsat satellite image of Lānaʻi
Map of Hawaii highlighting Lanai.svg
Location in the state of Hawaiʻi
Geography
Location 20°50′N156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933
Area140.5 sq mi (364 km2)
Area rank 6th largest Hawaiian Island
Highest elevation3,366 ft (1,026 m)
Highest pointLānaʻihale
Administration
United States
Symbols
FlowerKaunaʻoa ( Cuscuta sandwichiana)
ColourʻĀlani (orange)
Largest settlement Lanai City
Demographics
Population3,102 (2010)
Pop. density23 /sq mi (8.9 /km2)

Lānaʻi ( /ləˈn, lɑːˈnɑːi/ ; [1] Hawaiian:  [laːˈnɐʔi, naː-]) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and the smallest publicly accessible inhabited island in the chain. [2] It is colloquially known as the Pineapple Island because of its past as an island-wide pineapple plantation. [3] The island's only settlement of note is the small town of Lānaʻi City. As of 2012, the island was 97% owned by Larry Ellison (Founder and Chairman of Oracle), [4] with the remaining 3% owned by the state of Hawaiʻi and privately owned homes. [5]

Hawaiian Islands An archipelago in the North Pacific Ocean, currently administered by the US state of Hawaii

The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.

Pineapple species of plant

The pineapple is a tropical plant with an edible fruit, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

Plantation long artificially established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale

A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, and fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located.

Lānaʻi is a roughly apostrophe-shaped island with a width of 18 miles (29 km) in the longest direction. The land area is 140.5 square miles (364 km2), making it the 42nd largest island in the United States. [6] It is separated from the island of Molokaʻi by the Kalohi Channel to the north, and from Maui by the Auʻau Channel to the east. The United States Census Bureau defines Lānaʻi as Census Tract 316 of Maui County. Its total population shrank from 3,193 as of the 2000 census [7] to 3,102 as of 2010. [8] Many of the island's landmarks are accessible only by dirt roads that require a four-wheel drive vehicle.[ citation needed ]

Molokai island of the Hawaiian Island Chain

Molokaʻi, nicknamed “The Friendly Isle”, is the fifth largest island of eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Island Chain in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is 38 by 10 miles in size at its extreme length and width with a usable land area of 260 square miles (673.40 km2), making it the fifth-largest of the main Hawaiian Islands and the 27th largest island in the United States. It lies east of Oʻahu across the 25-mile (40 km) wide Kaiwi Channel and north of Lānaʻi, separated from it by the Kalohi Channel.

Maui island of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

There is one school, Lanai High and Elementary School, serving the entire island from kindergarten through 12th grade. There is also one hospital, Lanai Community Hospital, with 24 beds, and a community health center providing primary care, dental, behavioral health and selected specialty services in Lānaʻi City. [9] [10] There are no traffic lights on the island.

Lanai High and Elementary School (LHES) is located on the island of Lanai in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest of six K-12 public schools in the Hawaii State Department of Education system. Lanai High and Elementary School is the only school on the island located in the heart of Lanai City, which is also the only city on the island. As of 2007, there are 672 students with a ratio of 1 teacher per 15 students.

Kindergarten preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing

Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home. The term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods.

Traffic light signalling device to control competing flows of traffic

Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots, and traffic control signals, are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.

History

Lānaʻi was under the control of nearby Maui before recorded history. Its first inhabitants may have arrived as late as the 15th century.

The name Lānaʻi is of uncertain origin, but the island has historically been called Lānaʻi o Kauluāʻau, which can be rendered in English as "day of the conquest of Kauluāʻau." This epithet refers to the legend of a Mauian prince who was banished to Lānaʻi for some of his wild pranks at his father's court in Lāhainā. The island was reportedly haunted by Akua-ino, ghosts and goblins. Kauluāʻau chased them away and brought peace and order to the island and regained his father's favor as a consequence.

The first people to migrate here, most likely from Maui and Molokaʻi, probably established fishing villages along the coast initially but later branched out into the interior where they raised taro in the fertile volcanic soil. During most of those times, the ʻī of Maui held dominion over Lānaʻi, but generally left the people of Lānaʻi alone. Life on Lānaʻi remained relatively calm until King Kamehameha I or Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao took control, slaughtering people across the island. So many were killed that Captain George Vancouver ignored the island in 1792, because of its apparent lack of villages and population. It is mentioned that Lānaʻi was Kamehameha's favorite fishing spot across Hawaiʻi's main eight islands. [11]

Basalt A magnesium- and iron-rich extrusive igneous rock

Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or very near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows.

Soil mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions:

Kamehameha I established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi

Kamehameha I, also known as Kamehameha the Great, was the founder and first ruler of the Kingdom of Hawaii. A statue of him was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection in Washington, D.C. by the state of Hawaii as one of two statues it is entitled to give.

Lānaʻi was first seen by Europeans on February 25, 1779, when Captain Charles Clerke sighted the island from aboard James Cook's HMS Resolution. Clerke had taken command of the ship after Cook was killed at Kealakekua Bay on February 14 and was leaving the islands for the North Pacific.[ citation needed ]

The history of sugar-growing in Hawaiʻi goes back to 1802, when a farmer from China, Wong Tse Chun, produced a small amount on Lānaʻi. He used a crude stone mill that he had brought with him to crush the cane.

In 1854 a group of Mormons were granted a lease in the ahupuaʻa of Pālāwai. In 1862 Walter M. Gibson arrived on Lānaʻi to reorganize the Mormon settlement. A year later he bought the ahupuaʻa of Pālāwai for $3000 with the money of the church but put the title in his own name. When the Mormons found this out they excommunicated him but he still got to retain the land. [12] By the 1870s, Walter M. Gibson, still the leader of the Mormon colony on the island, had acquired most of the land on the island for ranching. [4]

By 1890 the population of Lānaʻi was reduced to 200. In 1899, Gibson's daughter and son-in-law formed Maunalei Sugar Company, headquartered in Keomuku, on the windward (northeast) coast downstream from Maunalei Valley. The company failed in 1901. [13] Between 1899 and 1901, however, nearly 800 laborers, mostly from Japan, had been contracted for the plantations. Many Native Hawaiians continued to live along the less arid windward coast, supporting themselves by ranching and fishing. [14]

In 1921, Charles Gay planted the first pineapple on Lānaʻi. The population had again decreased to 150, most of whom were the descendants of the traditional families of the island. [15] A year later, James Dole, the president of Hawaiian Pineapple Company (later renamed Dole Food Company), bought the island and developed a large portion of it into the world's largest pineapple plantation.

With Hawaii statehood in 1959, Lānaʻi became part of the County of Maui.

In 1985, Lānaʻi passed into the control of David H. Murdock, as a result of his purchase of Castle & Cooke, then owner of Dole.

In October 1992 the final harvest of pineapple took place on Lānaʻi. [12]

In June 2012, Larry Ellison, then CEO of Oracle Corporation, purchased Castle & Cooke's 98 percent share of the island for $300 million. The state owns the remaining 2 percent. [16] Ellison, who believes renewable energy must be cost-competitive with fossil fuels in order to be viable, [17] stated intentions to invest as much as $500 million to improve the island's infrastructure and create an environmentally-friendly agricultural industry. [18] [19] As of 2016, Ellison had spent an estimated $450 million to remodel his Four Seasons Resort Lanai at Manele Bay, which reopened in April 2016 after a seven-month shutdown. In Lānaʻi City he built a new water filtration system and a resort-style Olympic-size public pool. He also refurbished the historic movie theater built in the 1920s but mostly shut since the 1970s, turning it into a state-of-the art movie house. His second Four Seasons Resort at Kōʻele in the mountains is currently being renovated. [20] No action has been taken on Ellison's claimed sustainable development plans beyond the announcement in 2018 of a hydroponic farming venture, Sensei, which has not yet begun production. [21]

Legends

According to the Hawaiian legends, man-eating spirits occupied the island before that time.[ which? ] For generations, Maui chiefs believed in these man-eating spirits. Differing legends say that either the prophet Lanikāula drove the spirits from the island or the unruly Maui prince Kauluāʻau accomplished that heroic feat. The more popular myth is that the mischievous Kauluāʻau pulled up every breadfruit tree (ʻulu) he could find on Maui. Finally his father, Kakaʻalaneo had to banish him to Lānaʻi, expecting him not to survive in that hostile place. However, Kauluāʻau outwitted the spirits and drove them from the island. The chief looked across the channel from Maui and saw that his son's fire continued to burn nightly on the shore, and he sent a canoe to Lānaʻi to bring the prince back, redeemed by his courage and cleverness. As a reward, Kakaʻalaneo gave Kauluāʻau control of the island and encouraged emigration from other islands. [22] Kauluāʻau had, in the meantime, pulled up all the breadfruit trees on Lānaʻi, accounting for the historic lack of them on that island.[ citation needed ]

Geography

The highest point in Lānaʻi is Mount Lānaʻihale. It is an inactive volcano near the center of the island and to the east of Lanai City. The elevation of Mount Lānaʻihale is 3,366 ft (1,026 m). [23]

Lānaʻi was traditionally administered in 13 political subdivisions (Ahupuʻa), grouped into two districts (mokuoloko): kona (Leeward) and koʻolau (Windward). The ahupuaʻa are listed below, in clockwise sequence, and with original area figures in acres, starting in the northwest of the island. [24]

Map of 1878 with traditional subdivision into Ahupua`a 1878 Government Land Office Map of Lanai, Hawaii - Geographicus - LanaiHawaii-lo-1878.jpg
Map of 1878 with traditional subdivision into Ahupuaʻa
Nr.AhupuaaArea
acres
Area
km²
Population [25]
1Kaa1946878.78207
2Paomai907836.74147
3Mahana797332.271
4Maunalei379415.350
5Kalulu607824.601
6Kaunolu786031.813
7Palawai589723.861
8Pawili19307.810
9Kaohai967739.161
10Kamao275111.132
11Kealia Aupuni589723.862
12Kealia Kapu18297.401
13Kamoku829133.552804
 Lānaʻi90523366.333170

Kamoku hosts the largest share of population, because the bigger part of Lānaʻi City falls into it. Parts of Lānaʻi City stretch to Kaa and Paomai. As of 2010, the remaining ahupuaʻa were virtually uninhabited. According to the census of 2000, Lānaʻi City accounts for 99 percent of the island population (3164 of 3193). As a census-designated place, Lānaʻi City is defined solely for statistical purposes, and not by administrative boundaries.

A volcanic collapse in Lānaʻi 100,000 years ago generated a megatsunami that inundated land at elevations higher than 300 metres (980 ft). [26]

Tourism

Tourism on Lānaʻi began to be prominent in more recent history as the pineapple and sugarcane industries were phased out in the islands. The number of visitors coming to the island is still relatively small, however, with around 59,000 arrivals forecast for 2016—of all the publicly accessible Hawaiian islands only Molokaʻi attracts fewer visitors. [27]

As of 2016, the two resort hotels on Lānaʻi were managed by Four Seasons Hotels; the Four Seasons Resort Lanai in Manele Bay at Hulupoe Beach, just a few steps from where the ferry from Lāhainā docks, and the Lodge at Kōʻele in the mountains. The Hotel Lānaʻi in Lānaʻi City was built in 1923 by James Dole of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company as a lodge to house the executives overseeing the island’s pineapple production. It was the island’s only hotel until 1990.

Lānaʻi is also home to three golf courses, one at each Four Seasons resort and a third, free course.

Shipwreck Beach on the north shore of the island is so named because of the remains of a wrecked vessel aground a short distance offshore. This is popularly referred to as a WW II Liberty Ship, although it is YOGN 42, one of concrete barges built during the war. [29]

In Lānaʻi City, there are no traffic lights, no shopping malls, and public transportation is supplied by the hotels. For a one-time fee, hotel guests enjoy unlimited rides on small and large buses that go between the hotels and the ferry landing on Manele Bay. Bicycles and off-road vehicles are for rent at the local Gas Station and Dollar Rent a Car. [30] Most attractions outside of the hotels and town can be visited only via dirt roads that require an off-road vehicle.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Maui County, Hawaii County in the United States

Maui County, officially the County of Maui, is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It consists of the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Kahoolawe, and Molokini. The latter two are uninhabited. As of the 2010 census, the population was 154,834. The county seat is Wailuku.

Lanai City, Hawaii Census-designated place in Hawaii, United States

Lanai City is a census-designated place (CDP) on the island of Lanai, in Maui County, Hawaii, United States. The population was 3,102 at the 2010 census. Lanai City is the island's commercial center. Many of the island's restaurants and shops are in the town square that surrounds Dole Park, and the only hospital on the island, Lanai Community Hospital, is located near the park.

Larry Ellison American internet entrepreneur and businessman

Lawrence Joseph Ellison is an American businessman, entrepreneur, and philanthropist who is a co-founder and the executive chairman and chief technology officer of Oracle Corporation. As of March 2019, he was listed by Forbes magazine as the fourth-wealthiest person in the United States and as the seventh-wealthiest in the world, with a fortune of $63.5 billion, up from $54.5 billion in 2018.

James Dole American industrialist who developed the Hawaiian pineapple industry; founder of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company

James Drummond Dole, also known as the "Pineapple King'", was an American industrialist who developed the pineapple industry in Hawaii. He established the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (HAPCO) which was later reorganized to become the Dole Food Company and now operates in over 90 countries. Dole was a cousin of Sanford B. Dole, President of the Republic of Hawaii.

Island Air was an independent Hawaiian commuter airline based in Honolulu, Hawaii. It operated scheduled inter-island passenger services in Hawaii. Its main base was the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport on Oahu.

The Big Five was the name given to a group of what started as sugarcane processing corporations that wielded considerable political power in the Territory of Hawaii during the early 20th century and leaned heavily towards the Hawaii Republican Party. The Big Five were Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co., American Factors, and Theo H. Davies & Co. The extent of the power that the Big Five had was considered by some as equivalent to an oligarchy. Attorney General of Hawaii Edmund Pearson Dole, referring to the Big Five, said in 1903, "There is a government in this Territory which is centralized to an extent unknown in the United States, and probably almost as centralized as it was in France under Louis XIV."

David H. Murdock American billlionaire businessman

David Howard Murdock is an American businessman and philanthropist.

Castle & Cooke

Castle & Cooke, Inc., is a Los Angeles-based company that was once part of the Big Five companies in territorial Hawaii. The company at one time did most of its business in agriculture including becoming, through mergers the modern Dole Food Company, the world's largest producer of fruits and vegetables. In 1995 it was spun off from Dole and today most of the company's business is in real estate and residential, commercial, and retail development.

Ahupuaa

Ahupuaʻa is an old Hawaiian term for a large traditional socioeconomic, geologic, and climatic subdivision of land.

Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. is a land holding and operating company founded in 1909 and based in Kapalua, Hawaii, United States. It owns approximately 24,300 acres (100 km2) on the island of Maui. It develops, sells, and manages residential, resort, commercial and industrial real estate; and operates retail, golf and utility operations at the Kapalua Resort. ML&P also owns and manages the 8,304-acre (33.61 km2) Puʻu Kukui Watershed Preserve, one of the largest private nature preserves in the state of Hawaii. It formerly grew pineapples.

Olomaʻo species of bird

The olomaʻo is a small, dark solitaire endemic to Maui, Lānaʻi and Molokaʻi in the Hawaiian Islands, and is a bird which probably is extinct. It grows up to 7 inches in length. The male and female of the species look similar. It is dark brown above and gray below with blackish legs. It is closely related to the other species of Hawaiian thrushes, the puaiohi, ʻōmaʻo, and probably extinct kāmaʻo.

Honolua, Hawaii

Honolua Bay, Mokuleʻia Bay and Lipoa Point are part of an area known as the ahupuaʻa of Honolua, located just north of Kapalua, West Maui in Maui County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The area is a mix of agricultural and conservation land tended by the Maui Land & Pineapple Company in Lahaina, Hawaiʻi, including coastline management. Honolua Bay and Mokuleʻia Bay comprise the 45-acre (18 ha) Honolua-Mokuleʻia Marine Life Conservation District.

Hawaii Route 440 is a 13.2-mile-long (21.2 km) state highway on the island of Lanai in Hawaii.

Youth Developmental Enterprises was a program that ran from about 1971 to 1993. The primary activity of YDE was taking men and slightly older supervisors to Hawaii to work in the pineapple fields of Lanai and Maui. YDE took around 18,000 young men to Hawaii to accomplish this work; the stated goal of the organization was not pineapple production, but rather building the character of young men.

Aqua Hotels and Resorts is a Honolulu-based hotel chain operating a multi-branded line of hotels, condominiums and vacation resort properties in Hawaii. It has been listed by the BBB since 2002 with an A rating.

Golf clubs and courses in Hawaii

There are 75 golf courses in Hawaii.

Manele, Hawaii Census-designated place in Hawaii, United States

Manele is a census-designated place (CDP) located in Maui County, Hawaii, United States, on the island of Lanai. As of the 2010 Census, the CDP had a population of 29. Manele is one of only two census-designated places on Lanai, the other being the much larger Lanai City. Manele is the site of Four Seasons Resort Lanai. It is the least populated city in Hawaii.

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