Lancashire

Last updated

Coordinates: 53°48′N2°36′W / 53.8°N 2.6°W / 53.8; -2.6

Contents

Lancashire railway map.svg
Railways in Lancashire
  Primary route
  Secondary route
  Rural route
  Goods only
  Disused railway

The West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London, Glasgow and other major cities, with stations at Preston and Lancaster. East-west connections are carried via the East Lancashire Line between Blackpool and Colne via Lytham, Preston, Blackburn, Accrington and Burnley. The Ribble Valley Line runs from Bolton to Clitheroe via Darwen and Blackburn. There are connecting lines from Preston to Ormskirk and Bolton, and from Lancaster to Morecambe, Heysham and Skipton.

Air

Blackpool Airport are no longer operating domestic or international flights, but it is still the home of flying schools, private operators and North West Air Ambulance. Manchester Airport is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is nearby, while the closest airport to the Pendle Borough is Leeds Bradford.

There is an operational airfield at Warton near Preston where there is a major assembly and test facility for BAE Systems.

Ferry

Heysham offers ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man. [42] As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Sankey Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.

Bus

Several bus companies run bus services in the Lancashire area serving the main towns and villages in the county with some services running to neighbouring areas, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and West Yorkshire. Some of these include:

Demography

The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a number of notable settlements along west to east of the M65: including the city of Preston and towns of Blackburn, Darwen, Accrington, Burnley, Padiham, Brierfield, Nelson and Colne. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland and Chorley; the three formed part of the Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970. The north of the county is predominantly rural and sparsely populated, except for the city of Lancaster and town of Morecambe which form a large conurbation of almost 100,000 people. Lancashire is home to a significant Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns in the south east.

Population change

Lancashire
Lancashire rose.svg
The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower of Lancashire, and a common symbol for the county.
Arms of Lancashire County Council.svg
Motto(s):  
"In Concilio Consilium"
("In Council is Wisdom")
Lancashire UK locator map 2010.svg
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West England
Establishedc.1182 [1]
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Charles Kay-Shuttleworth [2]
High Sheriff Catherine Penny [3] (2020–21)
Area3,079 km2 (1,189 sq mi)
  Ranked 17th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)1,498,300
  Ranked 8th of 48
Density487/km2 (1,260/sq mi)
Ethnicity89.7% White British
6.0% S. Asian
2.1% Other White
0.9% Mixed
0.7% E. Asian and Other
0.5% Black
2005 Estimates
Population totals for modern (post-1998) Lancashire
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801 163,310    
1811 192,283+1.65%
1821 236,724+2.10%
1831 261,710+1.01%
1841 289,925+1.03%
1851 313,957+0.80%
1861 419,412+2.94%
1871 524,869+2.27%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1881 630,323+1.85%
1891 736,233+1.57%
1901 798,545+0.82%
1911 873,210+0.90%
1921 886,114+0.15%
1931 902,965+0.19%
1941 922,812+0.22%
1951 948,592+0.28%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1961 991,648+0.44%
1971 1,049,013+0.56%
1981 1,076,146+0.26%
1991 1,122,097+0.42%
2001 1,134,976+0.11%
2011 1,171,339+0.32%
Pre-1998 statistics were gathered from local government areas that now comprise Lancashire
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS. [43]

Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Areas

Administrative boroughCentre of
administration
Other towns, villages and settlements
Blackburn with Darwen Borough
(unitary)
Blackburn with Darwen UK locator map.svg Blackburn Belmont, Chapeltown, Darwen, Edgworth, Hoddlesden, Tockholes, North Turton
Blackpool Borough
(unitary)
Blackpool UK locator map.svg Blackpool Bispham, Layton
Burnley Borough Burnley UK locator map.svg Burnley Padiham, Hapton, Harle Syke, Worsthorne, Cliviger.
Chorley Borough Chorley UK locator map.svg Chorley Adlington, Clayton-le-Woods, Coppull, Croston, Eccleston, Euxton, Mawdesley, Whittle-le-Woods
Fylde Borough Fylde UK locator map.svg Lytham St Annes Freckleton, Kirkham, Warton, Wrea Green
Hyndburn Borough Hyndburn UK locator map.svg Accrington Altham, Church, Clayton-le-Moors, Great Harwood, Oswaldtwistle, Rishton
City of Lancaster Lancaster UK locator map.svg Lancaster Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, Morecambe
Pendle Borough Pendle UK locator map.svg Nelson Barnoldswick†, Barrowford, Brierfield, Colne, Earby†, Foulridge, Trawden
City of Preston Preston UK locator map.svg Preston Barton, Broughton, Fulwood, Goosnargh, Grimsargh, Whittingham
Ribble Valley Borough Ribble Valley UK locator map.svg Clitheroe Bolton-by-Bowland†, Chipping, Hurst Green, Longridge, Read, Ribchester, Slaidburn†, Whalley, Wilpshire,
Rossendale Borough Rossendale UK locator map.svg Rawtenstall Bacup, Chatterton, Edenfield, Haslingden, Helmshore, Waterfoot, Whitworth
South Ribble Borough South Ribble UK locator map.svg Leyland Bamber Bridge, Farington, Longton, Lostock Hall, Penwortham, Samlesbury, Walton-le-Dale
West Lancashire Borough West Lancashire UK locator map.svg Ormskirk Appley Bridge, Aughton, Banks, Bickerstaffe, Burscough, Downholland, Great Altcar, Halsall, Lathom, Parbold, Rufford, Scarisbrick, Skelmersdale, Tarleton, Upholland
Wyre Borough Wyre UK locator map.svg Poulton-le-Fylde Cleveleys, Fleetwood, Garstang, Great Eccleston, Pilling, Preesall, St Michael's On Wyre, Thornton
– part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974
This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at Category:Towns in Lancashire, Category:Villages in Lancashire, and Category:Civil parishes in Lancashire.

Historic areas

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Cumbria: [6] [7] [44] [20] [45] [46] [47]

Greater Manchester
Merseyside
Cumbria
Cheshire
West Yorkshire Todmorden (part)

Boundary changes to occur before 1974 include: [47]

Symbols

The Red Rose of Lancaster Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.svg
The Red Rose of Lancaster

The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower found on the county's heraldic badge and flag. The rose was a symbol of the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th-century Wars of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was not officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that it was officially registered by Montrose in Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. Lancashire's official flag is registered as a red rose on a gold field.

Sport

Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members James Anderson and Jos Buttler. The County Ground, Old Trafford, Trafford has been the home cricket ground of LCCC since 1864. [48]

Local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Since 2000, the designated ECB Premier League [49] for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.

Football

Football in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association which, like most county football associations, has boundaries that are aligned roughly with the historic counties. The Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association operate in Greater Manchester and Merseyside. [50] [51]

Lancashire clubs were prominent in the formation of the Football League in 1888, with the league being officially named at a meeting in Manchester. [52] [53] Of the twelve founder members of the league, six were from Lancashire: Accrington, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Everton, and Preston North End.

The Football League now operates out of Preston. [54] The National Football Museum was founded at Deepdale, Preston in 2001, but moved to Manchester in 2012. [55]

Seven professional full-time teams were based in Lancashire at the start of the 2018–2019 season:

The county's most prominent football rivalries are the East Lancashire derby between Blackburn Rovers and Burnley, and the West Lancashire derby between Blackpool and Preston North End.

A further nine professional full-time teams lie within the historical borders of Lancashire but outside of the current ceremonial county. These include the Premier League clubs Everton, Liverpool, Manchester City and Manchester United.

Rugby League

Along with Yorkshire and Cumberland, Lancashire is recognised as the heartland of Rugby League. The county has produced many successful top flight clubs such as St. Helens, Wigan, Warrington, Oldham, Salford and Widnes. The county was once the focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Lancashire County Cup which ran until 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895. [56] In recent times there were several rugby league teams that are based within the ceremonial county which include Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions, Blackpool Sea Eagles, Bamber Bridge RLFC, Leyland Warriors, Chorley Panthers, Blackpool Stanley, Blackpool Scorpions and Adlington Rangers.

Archery

There are many archery clubs located within Lancashire. [57] In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from Yorkshire who had held it for 7 years. [58]

Wrestling

Lancashire has a long history of wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling, with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers.[ citation needed ] Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Shak Khan, Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, William Regal, Wade Barrett and the Dynamite Kid.[ citation needed ]

Music

Folk music

Lancashire has a long and highly productive tradition of music making. In the early modern era the county shared in the national tradition of balladry, including perhaps the finest border ballad, "The Ballad of Chevy Chase", thought to have been composed by the Lancashire-born minstrel Richard Sheale. [59] The county was also a common location for folk songs, including "The Lancashire Miller", "Warrington Ale" and "The soldier's farewell to Manchester", while Liverpool, as a major seaport, was the subject of many sea shanties, including "The Leaving of Liverpool" and "Maggie May", [60] beside several local Wassailing songs. [59] In the Industrial Revolution changing social and economic patterns helped create new traditions and styles of folk song, often linked to migration and patterns of work. [61] These included processional dances, often associated with rushbearing or the Wakes Week festivities, and types of step dance, most famously clog dancing. [61] [62]

A local pioneer of folk song collection in the first half of the 19th century was Shakespearean scholar James Orchard Halliwell, [63] but it was not until the second folk revival in the 20th century that the full range of song from the county, including industrial folk song, began to gain attention. [62] The county produced one of the major figures of the revival in Ewan MacColl, but also a local champion in Harry Boardman, who from 1965 onwards probably did more than anyone to popularise and record the folk song of the county. [64] Perhaps the most influential folk artists to emerge from the region in the late 20th century were Liverpool folk group The Spinners, and from Manchester folk troubadour Roy Harper and musician, comedian and broadcaster Mike Harding. [65] [66] [67] The region is home to numerous folk clubs, many of them catering to Irish and Scottish folk music. Regular folk festivals include the Fylde Folk Festival at Fleetwood. [68]

Classical music

Lancashire had a lively culture of choral and classical music, with very large numbers of local church choirs from the 17th century, [69] leading to the foundation of local choral societies from the mid-18th century, often particularly focused on performances of the music of Handel and his contemporaries. [70] It also played a major part in the development of brass bands which emerged in the county, particularly in the textile and coalfield areas, in the 19th century. [71] The first open competition for brass bands was held at Manchester in 1853, and continued annually until the 1980s. [72] The vibrant brass band culture of the area made an important contribution to the foundation and staffing of the Hallé Orchestra from 1857, the oldest extant professional orchestra in the United Kingdom. [73] The same local musical tradition produced eminent figures such as Sir William Walton (1902–88), son of an Oldham choirmaster and music teacher, [74] Sir Thomas Beecham (1879–1961), born in St. Helens, who began his career by conducting local orchestras [75] and Alan Rawsthorne (1905–71) born in Haslingden. [76] The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool in 1944. [77] Lancashire also produced more populist figures, such as early musical theatre composer Leslie Stuart (1863–1928), born in Southport, who began his musical career as organist of Salford Cathedral. [78]

More recent Lancashire-born composers include Hugh Wood (1932– Parbold), [79] Sir Peter Maxwell Davies (1934–2016, Salford), [80] Sir Harrison Birtwistle (1934–, Accrington), [81] Gordon Crosse (1937–, Bury), [82] John McCabe (1939–2015, Huyton), [83] Roger Smalley (1943–2015, Swinton), Nigel Osborne (1948–, Manchester), Steve Martland (1954–2013, Liverpool), [84] Simon Holt (1958–, Bolton) [85] and Philip Cashian (1963–, Manchester). [86] The Royal Manchester College of Music was founded in 1893 to provide a northern counterpart to the London musical colleges. It merged with the Northern College of Music (formed in 1920) to form the Royal Northern College of Music in 1972. [87]

The Beatles began in Liverpool before the city's county was changed from Lancashire to Merseyside The Fabs.JPG
The Beatles began in Liverpool before the city's county was changed from Lancashire to Merseyside

Liverpool, both during its time in Lancashire and after being moved to the new county of Merseyside, has produced a number of successful musicians. This includes pop stars such as Frankie Vaughan and Lita Roza, as well as rock stars such as Billy Fury, who is considered to be one of the most successful British rock and roll stars of all time. [65] Many Lancashire towns had vibrant skiffle scenes in the late 1950s, out of which a culture of beat groups emerged by the early 1960s, particularly around Liverpool and Manchester. It has been estimated that there were at least 350 bands—including the Beatles—active in and around Liverpool during this era, playing ballrooms, concert halls, and clubs. [88] A number of Liverpool performers followed the Beatles into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, the Searchers, and Cilla Black.

The first musicians to break through in the UK who were not from Liverpool or managed by Beatles manager Brian Epstein were Manchester's Freddie and the Dreamers, [89] with Herman's Hermits and the Hollies also hailing from Manchester. [90] The Beatles led a movement by various beat groups from the region which culminated in the British Invasion of the US, which in turn made a major contribution to the development of modern rock music. [91] After the decline of beat groups in the late 1960s, the centre of rock culture shifted to London, and there were relatively few Lancashire bands who achieved national prominence until the growth of a disco scene and the punk rock revolution in the mid-and-late 1970s. [92]

The towns of Accrington, Burnley, Chorley, Clitheroe, Colne, Lytham St Annes, Morecambe, Nelson, Ormskirk and Skelmersdale are referenced in the 1991 song, It's Grim Up North by the band the KLF as well as the cities of Lancaster and Preston.

Cuisine

Lancashire hotpot Lancashire hotpot.jpg
Lancashire hotpot
Lancashire cheese Lancashire cheese.jpg
Lancashire cheese

Lancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include:

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Mosques
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county:

Haigh Hall https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HH_icon.svg

Filmography

Whistle Down the Wind (1961) was directed by Bryan Forbes, set at the foot of Worsaw Hill and in Burnley, and starred local Lancashire schoolchildren.

The tunnel scene was shot on the old Bacup-Rochdale railway line, location 53°41'29.65"N, 2°11'25.18"W, off the A6066 (New Line) where the line passes beneath Stack Lane. The tunnel is still there, in use as an industrial unit but the railway has long since been removed.

Funny Bones (1995) was set mostly in Blackpool, after opening scenes in Las Vegas.

See also

Notes

  1. Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252: Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm. And indeed, there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.
  2. Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31: The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary.
  3. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  4. includes hunting and forestry
  5. includes energy and construction
  6. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

Related Research Articles

North West England One of nine official regions of England

North West England is one of nine official regions of England and consists of the counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the third-most-populated region in the United Kingdom, after the South East and Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester and Liverpool.

History of Lancashire Aspect of history

Lancashire is a county of England, in the northwest of the country. The county did not exist in 1086, for the Domesday Book, and was apparently first created in 1182, making it one of the youngest of the traditional counties.

Civil parishes in Lancashire

A civil parish is a subnational entity, forming the lowest unit of local government in England. There are 219 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of Lancashire; Blackpool is completely unparished; Pendle and Ribble Valley are entirely parished. At the 2001 census, there were 587,074 people living in the 219 parishes, accounting for 41.5 per cent of the county's population.

Blackburn railway station Railway station in Lancashire, England

Blackburn railway station is a railway station that serves the town of Blackburn in Lancashire, England. It is 12 miles (19 km) east of Preston and is managed and served by Northern Trains.

Stagecoach North West

Stagecoach North West was a major operator of bus services in North West England. It was a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group, and had its origins in the purchase of Cumberland in 1987 and Ribble Motor Services in 1988 from the National Bus Company. The head office of Stagecoach North West was in Carlisle. Although the cities of Liverpool and Manchester are in the North West of England, Stagecoach Manchester and Stagecoach Merseyside were run as separate divisions.

Lancashire County Council

Lancashire County Council is the upper-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. It consists of 84 councillors. After the 2017 Lancashire County Council election, the council is under Conservative control.

Diocese of Blackburn Diocese of the Church of England

The Diocese of Blackburn is a Church of England diocese, covering much of Lancashire, created on 12 November 1926 from part of the Diocese of Manchester. The diocese includes the towns of Blackburn, Blackpool and Burnley, the cities of Lancaster and Preston, as well as a large part of the Ribble Valley. The cathedral is Blackburn Cathedral and the current Bishop of Blackburn is Julian Henderson.

Blackburn Bus Company Transdev owned bus operator

The Blackburn Bus Company is a bus operator, running services in the boroughs of Blackburn, Hyndburn, Preston and the Ribble Valley. It is a subsidiary of Transdev Blazefield.

Lancashire County Football Association Governing body of association football in Lancashire, England

The Lancashire County Football Association, also known simply as the Lancashire FA, is the governing body of football within the historical county boundaries of Lancashire, England. They are responsible for the governance and development of football at all levels in the county.

Scouting in North West England

Scouting in North West England is about Scouting in the official region of North West England. It is largely represented by the Scout Association of the United Kingdom and some Groups of traditional Scouting including the British Boy Scouts and British Girl Scouts Association, Baden-Powell Scouts' Association and the Federation of European Scouts.

Transport in Preston

Preston is a city in Lancashire, around 50 kilometres (31 mi) north-west of Manchester.

Lancashire County Rugby Football Union

The Lancashire County Rugby Football Union is the society responsible for rugby union in the county of Lancashire, England, and is one of the constituent bodies of the national Rugby Football Union having been formed in 1881. In addition it is the county that has won the County Championship on most occasions

Healthcare in Lancashire in 2015 was the responsibility of seven clinical commissioning groups covering Blackpool, Chorley and South Ribble, East Lancashire, Fylde and Wyre, Greater Preston, Lancaster North and West Lancashire. From 1 April 2017 32 GP practices from Cumbria Clinical Commissioning Group will merge with Lancashire North CCG to form Morecambe Bay CCG.

The Lancashire Enterprise Partnership (LEP) is one of 39 Local Enterprise Partnerships set up by the UK Government to drive economic development in England.

References

  1. "Lancashire: county history". The High Sheriff's Association of England and Wales. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  2. "FRIDAY, 17TH JANUARY 1997". London Gazette (54654): 675. 17 January 1997.
  3. "High Sheriff of Lancashire". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  4. "Rivals: Liverpool v Manchester". BBC Liverpool. 13 May 2010.
  5. Gibb, Robert (2005). Greater Manchester: A panorama of people and places in Manchester and its surrounding towns. Myriad. p. 13. ISBN   1-904736-86-6.
  6. 1 2 3 4 George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  7. 1 2 3 Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70
  8. 1 2 "County Palatine". Duchy of Lancaster. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  9. "NWDA Chairman appointed as High Sheriff of Lancashire". Northwest Regional Development Agency. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  10. "The Countie Pallatine of Lancaster Described and Divided into Hundreds, 1610". Welland Antique Maps. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. "Lancashire: County History". The High Sherrifs' Association of England and Wales. High Sheriff's Association of England and Wales (The Shrievalty Association). Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  12. 1 2 Sylvester (1980). p. 14.
  13. Morgan (1978). pp.269c–301c,d.
  14. 1 2 Booth, P. cited in George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  15. Phillips and Phillips (2002). pp. 26–31.
  16. Vision of Britain Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Lancashire ancient county divisions
  17. Berrington, E., Change in British Politics, (1984)
  18. Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974)
  19. 1 2 "High Sheriff - Lancashire County History". highsheriffs.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  20. 1 2 Jones, B. et al., Politics UK, (2004)
  21. OPSI Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine  – The Cheshire, Lancashire and Merseyside (County and Metropolitan Borough Boundaries) Order 1993
  22. Vision of Britain Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Divisions of Lancashire
  23. Lancashire County Council Archived 15 April 2007 at archive.today – Lancashire districts
  24. OPSI Archived 10 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine – The Lancashire (Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996
  25. Lancashire County Council Archived 8 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine – Map of Lancashire (Unitary boundaries shown)
  26. Government Office for the North West Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Local Authorities
  27. BUBL Information Service Archived 26 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine – The Relative Hills of Britain
  28. "Administrative (1974) County Tops". Hill-bagging.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  29. "Historic County Tops". Hill-bagging.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  30. "Results of the 2019 General Election in England". BBC News.
  31. "Opening of the new Town-Hall at Preston". The Times. 15 September 1882.
  32. "Lancashire County Council: Elections". www3.lancashire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  33. "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 15 Jun 1992". parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  34. High Sheriffs, The Times, 21 March 1985
  35. Christopher Thomond (13 August 2013). "Eyewitness: Lytham, Lancashire" (Image upload). The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  36. 1 2 Dillon, Jonathon (26 February 2012). "'Big companies' interested in East Lancashire enterprise zone". Lancashire Telegraph . Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  37. Woodhouse, Lisa (23 August 2012). "Lancashire enterprize [sic] zone due in to boost jobs 18 months". Lancashire Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  38. "Enterprise zone takes off". Blackpool Gazette . 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  39. "New Lancashire enterprise zone confirmed in Budget". Blackpool Gazette. 18 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  40. "No impact on runway from redevelopment". Blackpool Gazette. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  41. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) pp. 240–253 Office for National Statistics
  42. Transport for Lancashire – Lancashire Inter Urban Bus and Rail Map (PDF) Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  43. A Vision of Britain through time. "Lancashire Modern (post 1974) County: Total Population". Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  44. Vision of Britain Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Lancashire ancient county boundaries
  45. Vision of Britain Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Lancashire boundaries 1974
  46. Chandler, J., Local Government Today, (2001)
  47. 1 2 Youngs. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume 2. Northern England.
  48. "LCCC contact details". Lccc.co.uk. 16 January 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  49. "List of ECB Premier Leagues". Ecb.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  50. "Manchester FA | About Us". Manchesterfa.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  51. "Liverpool FA | About Us". Liverpoolfa.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  52. Fletcher, Paul (26 February 2013). "One letter, two meetings and 12 teams - the birth of league football". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  53. "On this day in 1888: The letter that led to the formation of The Football League". EFL Official Website. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  54. "Contact Us". English Football League. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  55. Airey, Tom (6 July 2012). "Why football museum moved to Manchester". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  56. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  57. "Archery clubs in Lancashire". Lancashire-archery.org.uk. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  58. "Bowmen of Skelmersdale". Bowmen of Skelmersdale. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  59. 1 2 D. Gregory, '"The Songs of the People for Me: The Victorian Rediscovery of Lancashire Vernacular Song', Canadian Folk Music/Musique folklorique canadienne, 40 (2006), pp. 12–21.
  60. J. Shepherd, D. Horn, and D. Laing, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World (London: Continuum, 2003), ISBN   0-8264-7436-5, p. 360.
  61. 1 2 Lancashire Folk, http://www.lancashirefolk.co.uk/Morris_Information.htm Archived 10 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine , retrieved 16 February 2009.
  62. 1 2 G. Boyes, The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology, and the English Folk Revival (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 0-71902-914-7, p. 214.
  63. E. D. Gregory, Victorian Songhunters: the Recovery and Editing of English Vernacular Ballads and Folk Lyrics, 1820–1883 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2006), ISBN   0-8108-5703-0, p. 248.
  64. Folk North West, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), retrieved 16 February 2009.
  65. 1 2 P. Frame, Pete Frame's Rockin' Around Britain: Rock'n'Roll Landmarks of the UK and Ireland (London: Music Sales Group, 1999), ISBN   0-7119-6973-6, pp. 72–6.
  66. J, C. Falstaff, 'Roy Harper Longest Running Underground Act', Dirty Linen, 50 (Feb/Mar '94), http://www.dirtylinen.com/feature/50harper.html Archived 21 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine , 16 February 2009.
  67. S. Broughton, M. Ellingham and R. Trillo, World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East (Rough Guides, 1999), ISBN   1-85828-635-2, p. 67.
  68. 'Festivals', Folk and Roots, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), retrieved 8 January 2009.
  69. R. Cowgill and P. Holman, Music in the British Provinces, 1690–1914 (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007), ISBN   0-7546-3160-5, p. 207.
  70. R. Southey, Music-Making in North-East England During the Eighteenth Century (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006), ISBN   0-7546-5097-9, pp. 131–2.
  71. D. Russell, Popular Music in England, 1840–1914: a Social History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), ISBN   0-7190-2361-0, p. 163.
  72. A. Baines, The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), ISBN   0-19-311334-1, p. 41.
  73. D. Russell, Popular Music in England, 1840–1914: a Social History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), ISBN   0-7190-2361-0, p. 230.
  74. D. Clark and J. Staines, Rough Guide to Classical Music (Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2001), ISBN   1-85828-721-9, p. 568.
  75. L. Jenkins, While Spring and Summer Sang: Thomas Beecham and the Music of Frederick Delius (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005), ISBN   0-7546-0721-6, p. 1.
  76. J. McCabe, Alan Rawsthorne: Portrait of a Composer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), ISBN   0-19-816693-1.
  77. "Biography of David Atherton (1944-VVVV)". thebiography.us. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  78. A. Lamb, Leslie Stuart: Composer of Floradora (London: Routledge, 2002), ISBN   0-415-93747-7.
  79. "Hugh Wood". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  80. Stephen Moss (19 June 2004). "Profile: Peter Maxwell Davies". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  81. "Harrison Birtwistle". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  82. "Crosse, Gordon - NMC Recordings". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  83. "John McCabe - biography". Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  84. "Schott Music - Steve Martland - Profile". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  85. "Simon Holt". musicsalesclassical.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  86. "Philip Cashian - Biography". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  87. M. Kennedy, The History of the Royal Manchester College of Music, 1893–1972 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971), ISBN   0-7190-0435-7.
  88. A. H. Goldman, The Lives of John Lennon (A Capella, 2001), ISBN   1-55652-399-8, p. 92.
  89. "'Dreamers' star Freddie Garrity dies" [ dead link ]Daily Telegraph, 20 May 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  90. V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN   0-87930-653-X, p. 532.
  91. V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN   0-87930-653-X, pp. 1316–7.
  92. S. Cohen, Rock Culture in Liverpool: Popular Music in the Making (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), ISBN   0-19-816178-6, p. 14.
  93. Keating, Sheila (11 June 2005). "Food detective: Bury black pudding". The Times. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  94. History of fish and chips Archived 27 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  95. Sudi Pigott (30 May 2013), Goosnagh cake, sea lavender honey, medlar butter - forgotten foods making a comeback Archived 4 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine , The Independent, accessed 3 May 2018
  96. "Lancashire Cheese History". Lancashire Cheese Makers. Archived from the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  97. "EU Protected Food Names Scheme: Beacon Fell traditional Lancashire cheese". Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  98. "Uncle Joe's Mint Balls". Uncle Joe's Favourites. Wm Santus & Co. Ltd. 2013. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.

Bibliography

Further reading