Lancashire

Last updated

Coordinates: 53°48′N2°36′W / 53.8°N 2.6°W / 53.8; -2.6

Contents

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Cumbria: [10] [ full citation needed ] [16] [29] [15] [30] [31] [32]

Lancashire
Lancaster and the Lune from the Greyhound Bridge.jpg
Lancaster, the county town of Lancashire
Arms of Lancashire County Council.svg
Motto(s): 
"In Concilio Consilium"
("In Council is Wisdom")
Lancashire UK locator map 2010.svg
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West England
Establishedc.1182 [1]
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Charles Kay-Shuttleworth [2]
High Sheriff Catherine Penny [3] (2020–21)
Area3,079 km2 (1,189 sq mi)
  Ranked 17th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)1,498,300
  Ranked 8th of 48
Density487/km2 (1,260/sq mi)
Ethnicity89.7% White British
6.0% S. Asian
2.1% Other White
0.9% Mixed
0.7% E. Asian and Other
0.5% Black
2005 Estimates
Greater Manchester
Merseyside
Cumbria
Cheshire
West Yorkshire Todmorden (part)

Boundary changes before 1974 include: [32]

Governance

The ceremonial county is defined in the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as consisting of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, Blackburn and Blackpool. [33] The Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire is the King's personal representative in the ceremonial county and has been Charles Kay-Shuttleworth since 1997. [34] The High Sheriff of Lancashire is the King's judicial representative, a position which is a largely ceremonial and changes holder each year. [35]

Lancashire - the non-metropolitan county - is administered on a two-tier system. It is governed by the Lancashire County Council and twelve district councils. Two districts - Blackpool and Blackburn with Darwen - are goverened by unitary authority councils - Blackpool Council and Blackburn with Darwen Council respectively - and are as such outside the control of the non-metropolitan county.

Areas of the county palatine are outside the ceremonial county and are instead within the modern counties of Cumbria, Merseyside and Greater Manchester.

Parliamentary constituencies

General Election 2019: Lancashire [36]
ConservativeLabourLiberal DemocratsGreenBrexit PartyOthersTurnout
331,000
−7,000
270,000
−92,000
37,000
+9,000
19,000
+10,000
16,000
+16,000
41,000
+39,000
716,000
−34,000
Overall Number of Seats as of 2019
ConservativeLabourLiberal DemocratsGreenBrexit PartyOthers
11
+3
4
−4
0
0
0
1 (Speaker)
+1

County Council

Council logo Lancashire County Council.svg
Council logo

Lancashire County Council is based in County Hall in Preston. Built as a home for the county administration, the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary, it opened on 14 September 1882. [37]

Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The Conservative Party currently form a majority on Lancashire County Council.

ElectionNumber of councillors elected by each political party
Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats Independent Green Party BNP UKIP Idle Toad
2017 463042101 [38] 0
2013 3539631000
2009 51161032101
2005 3144611001
2001 2744511000

Lancashire Combined Authority and restructuring

Following similar moves by other counties, in 2020 Lancashire County Council, alongside all the district council leaders, proposed to restructure the entire modern county into three unitary authorities with roughly equal representation. A Mayoral Combined Authority would also be established to provide strategic priorities for the county. The County Council state the restructuring will enable Lancashire to develop better community services. [39]

The three new council areas would be:

Proposed unitary authorities of Lancashire [39]
District nameConsisting ofPopulation
Northwest LancashireBlackpool, Fylde, Lancaster, Ribble Valley, Wyre540,000
Central LancashireChorley, Preston, South Ribble, West Lancashire485,450
Pennine LancashireBlackburn and Darwen, Burnley, Hyndburn, Pendle, Rossendale483,250

Duchy of Lancaster

Lancashire, County Palatine shown within England Lancashire Brit Isles Sect 3.svg
Lancashire, County Palatine shown within England

The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two royal duchies in England. It has landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, operating as a property company, but also exercising the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster. [40] While the administrative boundaries changed in the 1970s, the county palatine boundaries remain the same as the historic boundaries. [41] As a result, the High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster". [42]

The High Sheriff is an ancient county officer, but is now a largely ceremonial post. High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown, in England and Wales. The High Sheriff is the representative of the monarch and is the "Keeper of The King's Peace" in the county, executing judgements of the High Court. [14]

The Duchy administers bona vacantia within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained. There is no separate Duke of Lancaster; the title merged into the Crown with the ascension of Henry V. Rather, the Duchy is administered by the King in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast, 'The King, Duke of Lancaster' is in regular use in the county palatine. Lancaster serves as the county town of the county palatine.

Economy

County Hall, Preston Lancashire County Hall, Preston.jpg
County Hall, Preston

Lancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of economic activity, and hence one of wealth. Activities included coal mining, textile production, particularly that which used cotton, and fishing. Preston Docks, an industrial port is now disused. Lancashire was historically the location of the port of Liverpool while Barrow-in-Furness is famous for shipbuilding.

As of 2013, the largest private sector industry is the defence industry with BAE Systems Military Air Solutions division based in Warton on the Fylde coast. The division operates a manufacturing site in Samlesbury. Other defence firms include BAE Systems Global Combat Systems in Chorley, Ultra Electronics in Fulwood and Rolls-Royce plc in Barnoldswick.

The nuclear power industry has a plant at Springfields, Salwick operated by Westinghouse and Heysham nuclear power station is operated by British Energy. Other major manufacturing firms include Leyland Trucks, a subsidiary of Paccar building the DAF truck range.

Other companies with a major presence in Lancashire include:

The Foulnaze cockle fishery is in Lytham. It has only opened the coastal cockle beds three times in twenty years; August 2013 was the last of these openings. [43]

Enterprise zone

The creation of Lancashire Enterprise Zone was announced in 2011. It was launched in April 2012, based at the airfields owned by BAE Systems in Warton and Samlesbury. [44] Warton Aerodrome covers 72 hectares (180 acres) and Samlesbury Aerodrome is 74 hectares. [45] Development is coordinated by Lancashire Enterprise Partnership, Lancashire County Council and BAE Systems. [44] The first businesses to move into the zone did so in March 2015, at Warton. [46]

In March 2015 the government announced a new enterprise zone would be created at Blackpool Airport, using some airport and adjoining land. [47] Operations at the airport will not be affected. [48]

Economic output

Cattle grazing on the salt marshes of the Ribble Estuary near Banks Cattle Banks marsh.JPG
Cattle grazing on the salt marshes of the Ribble Estuary near Banks

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling. [49]

YearRegional Gross Value Added [note 3] Agriculture [note 4] Industry [note 5] Services [note 6]
199513,7893445,4617,984
200016,5842596,09710,229
200319,2062946,35212,560

Education

Lancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population and Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Church of England and Catholic faith schools in Lancashire.

Lancashire is home to four universities: Lancaster University, the University of Central Lancashire, Edge Hill University and the Lancaster campus of the University of Cumbria. Seven colleges offer higher education courses.

Transport

Road

The M6 near Carnforth M6 motorway near Carnforth.jpg
The M6 near Carnforth

The Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 motorway which runs from north to south, past Lancaster and Preston. The M55 connects Preston to Blackpool and is 11.5 miles (18.3 km) long. The M65 motorway from Colne, connects Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn to Preston. The M61 from Preston via Chorley and the M66 starting 500 metres (0.3 mi) inside the county boundary near Edenfield, provide links between Lancashire and Manchester, and the trans-Pennine M62. The M58 crosses the southernmost part of the county from the M6 near Wigan to Liverpool via Skelmersdale.

Other major roads include the east–west A59 between Liverpool in Merseyside and Skipton in North Yorkshire via Ormskirk, Preston and Clitheroe, and the connecting A565 to Southport; the A56 from Ramsbottom to Padiham via Haslingden and from Colne to Skipton; the A585 from Kirkham to Fleetwood; the A666 from the A59 north of Blackburn to Bolton via Darwen; and the A683 from Heysham to Kirkby Lonsdale via Lancaster.

Rail

Lancashire railway map.svg
Railways in Lancashire
  Primary route
  Secondary route
  Rural route
  Goods only
  Disused railway

The West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London, Glasgow and other major cities, with stations at Preston and Lancaster. East-west connections are carried via the East Lancashire Line between Blackpool and Colne via Lytham, Preston, Blackburn, Accrington and Burnley. The Ribble Valley Line runs from Bolton to Clitheroe via Darwen and Blackburn. There are connecting lines from Preston to Ormskirk and Bolton, and from Lancaster to Morecambe, Heysham and Skipton.

Air

Blackpool Airport are no longer operating domestic or international flights, but it is still the home of flying schools, private operators and North West Air Ambulance. Manchester Airport is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is nearby, while the closest airport to the Pendle Borough is Leeds Bradford.

There is an operational airfield at Warton near Preston where there is a major assembly and test facility for BAE Systems.

Ferry

Heysham offers ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man. [50] As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Sankey Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.

Bus

Several bus companies run bus services in the Lancashire area serving the main towns and villages in the county with some services running to neighbouring areas, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and West Yorkshire. Some of these include:

Demography

The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a number of notable settlements along west to east of the M65: including the city of Preston and towns of Blackburn, Darwen, Accrington, Burnley, Padiham, Brierfield, Nelson and Colne. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland and Chorley (which, with Preston, formed Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970), as well as Penwortham, Skelmersdale and Ormskirk. The north of the county is predominantly rural and sparsely populated, except for the city of Lancaster and the towns of Morecambe and Heysham which form a large conurbation of almost 100,000 people. Lancashire is home to a significant Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns in the south east.

Population totals for modern (post-1998) Lancashire
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801 163,310    
1811 192,283+1.65%
1821 236,724+2.10%
1831 261,710+1.01%
1841 289,925+1.03%
1851 313,957+0.80%
1861 419,412+2.94%
1871 524,869+2.27%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1881 630,323+1.85%
1891 736,233+1.57%
1901 798,545+0.82%
1911 873,210+0.90%
1921 886,114+0.15%
1931 902,965+0.19%
1941 922,812+0.22%
1951 948,592+0.28%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1961 991,648+0.44%
1971 1,049,013+0.56%
1981 1,076,146+0.26%
1991 1,122,097+0.42%
2001 1,134,976+0.11%
2011 1,171,339+0.32%
Pre-1998 statistics were gathered from local government areas that now comprise Lancashire
Source: Great Britain Historical GIS. [51]

Culture

Symbols

The Red Rose of Lancaster Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.svg
The Red Rose of Lancaster

The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower found on the county's heraldic badge and flag. The rose was a symbol of the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th-century Wars of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was not officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that it was officially registered by Montrose in Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. Lancashire's official flag is registered as a red rose on a gold field.

Sport

Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members James Anderson and Jos Buttler. The County Ground, Old Trafford, Trafford, has been the home cricket ground of LCCC since 1864. [52]

Local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League.

Since 2000, the designated ECB Premier League [53] for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.

Football

Football in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association which, like most county football associations, has boundaries that are aligned roughly with the historic counties. The Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association respectively operate in Greater Manchester and Merseyside. [54] [55]

Lancashire clubs were prominent in the formation of the Football League in 1888, with the league being officially named at a meeting in Manchester. [56] [57] Of the twelve founder members of the league, six were from Lancashire: Accrington, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Everton, and Preston North End.

The Football League now operates out of Preston. [58] The National Football Museum was founded at Deepdale, Preston in 2001, but moved to Manchester in 2012. [59]

Seven professional full-time teams were based in Lancashire at the start of the 2022-23 season:

The county's most prominent football rivalries are the East Lancashire derby between Blackburn Rovers and Burnley, and the West Lancashire derby between Blackpool and Preston North End.

A further nine professional full-time teams lie within the historical borders of Lancashire but outside of the current ceremonial county. These include the Premier League clubs Everton, Liverpool, Manchester City and Manchester United.

Rugby league

Along with Yorkshire and Cumberland, Lancashire is recognised as the heartland of Rugby League. The county has produced many successful top flight clubs such as St. Helens, Wigan, Warrington, Oldham, Salford and Widnes. The county was once the focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Lancashire County Cup which ran until 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895. [60] In recent times there were several rugby league teams that are based within the ceremonial county which include Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions, and Blackpool Sea Eagles.

Archery

There are many archery clubs located within Lancashire. [61] In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from Yorkshire who had held it for 7 years. [62]

Wrestling

Lancashire has a long history of wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling, with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers.[ citation needed ] Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Shak Khan, Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, William Regal, Wade Barrett and the Dynamite Kid.[ citation needed ]

Music

Folk music

Lancashire has a long and highly productive tradition of music making. In the early modern era the county shared in the national tradition of balladry, including perhaps the finest border ballad, "The Ballad of Chevy Chase", thought to have been composed by the Lancashire-born minstrel Richard Sheale. [63] The county was also a common location for folk songs, including "The Lancashire Miller", "Warrington Ale" and "The soldier's farewell to Manchester", while Liverpool, as a major seaport, was the subject of many sea shanties, including "The Leaving of Liverpool" and "Maggie May", [64] beside several local Wassailing songs. [63] In the Industrial Revolution changing social and economic patterns helped create new traditions and styles of folk song, often linked to migration and patterns of work. [65] These included processional dances, often associated with rushbearing or the Wakes Week festivities, and types of step dance, most famously clog dancing. [65] [66]

A local pioneer of folk song collection in the first half of the 19th century was Shakespearean scholar James Orchard Halliwell, [67] but it was not until the second folk revival in the 20th century that the full range of song from the county, including industrial folk song, began to gain attention. [66] The county produced one of the major figures of the revival in Ewan MacColl, but also a local champion in Harry Boardman, who from 1965 onwards probably did more than anyone to popularise and record the folk song of the county. [68] Perhaps the most influential folk artists to emerge from the region in the late 20th century were Liverpool folk group The Spinners, and from Manchester folk troubadour Roy Harper and musician, comedian and broadcaster Mike Harding. [69] [70] [71] The region is home to numerous folk clubs, many of them catering to Irish and Scottish folk music. Regular folk festivals include the Fylde Folk Festival at Fleetwood. [72]

Classical music

Lancashire had a lively culture of choral and classical music, with very large numbers of local church choirs from the 17th century, [73] leading to the foundation of local choral societies from the mid-18th century, often particularly focused on performances of the music of Handel and his contemporaries. [74] It also played a major part in the development of brass bands which emerged in the county, particularly in the textile and coalfield areas, in the 19th century. [75] The first open competition for brass bands was held at Manchester in 1853, and continued annually until the 1980s. [76] The vibrant brass band culture of the area made an important contribution to the foundation and staffing of the Hallé Orchestra from 1857, the oldest extant professional orchestra in the United Kingdom. [77] The same local musical tradition produced eminent figures such as Sir William Walton (1902–88), son of an Oldham choirmaster and music teacher, [78] Sir Thomas Beecham (1879–1961), born in St. Helens, who began his career by conducting local orchestras [79] and Alan Rawsthorne (1905–71) born in Haslingden. [80] The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool in 1944. [81] Lancashire also produced more populist figures, such as early musical theatre composer Leslie Stuart (1863–1928), born in Southport, who began his musical career as organist of Salford Cathedral. [82]

More recent Lancashire-born composers include Hugh Wood (1932– Parbold), [83] Sir Peter Maxwell Davies (1934–2016, Salford), [84] Sir Harrison Birtwistle (1934–, Accrington), [85] Gordon Crosse (1937–, Bury), [86] John McCabe (1939–2015, Huyton), [87] Roger Smalley (1943–2015, Swinton), Nigel Osborne (1948–, Manchester), Steve Martland (1954–2013, Liverpool), [88] Simon Holt (1958–, Bolton) [89] and Philip Cashian (1963–, Manchester). [90] The Royal Manchester College of Music was founded in 1893 to provide a northern counterpart to the London musical colleges. It merged with the Northern College of Music (formed in 1920) to form the Royal Northern College of Music in 1972. [91]

The Beatles began in Liverpool before the city's county was changed from Lancashire to Merseyside The Fabs.JPG
The Beatles began in Liverpool before the city's county was changed from Lancashire to Merseyside

Liverpool, both during its time in Lancashire and after being moved to the new county of Merseyside, has produced a number of successful musicians. This includes pop stars such as Frankie Vaughan and Lita Roza, as well as rock stars such as Billy Fury, who is considered to be one of the most successful British rock and roll stars of all time. [69] Many Lancashire towns had vibrant skiffle scenes in the late 1950s, out of which a culture of beat groups emerged by the early 1960s, particularly around Liverpool and Manchester. It has been estimated that there were at least 350 bands—including the Beatles—active in and around Liverpool during this era, playing ballrooms, concert halls, and clubs. [92] A number of Liverpool performers followed the Beatles into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, the Searchers, and Cilla Black.

The first musicians to break through in the UK who were not from Liverpool or managed by Beatles manager Brian Epstein were Manchester's Freddie and the Dreamers, [93] with Herman's Hermits and the Hollies also hailing from Manchester. [94] The Beatles led a movement by various beat groups from the region which culminated in the British Invasion of the US, which in turn made a major contribution to the development of modern rock music. [95] After the decline of beat groups in the late 1960s, the centre of rock culture shifted to London, and there were relatively few Lancashire bands who achieved national prominence until the growth of a disco scene and the punk rock revolution in the mid-and-late 1970s. [96]

The towns of Accrington, Burnley, Chorley, Clitheroe, Colne, Lytham St Annes, Morecambe, Nelson, Ormskirk and Skelmersdale as well as the cities of Lancaster and Preston are referenced in the 1991 song, It's Grim Up North by the band the KLF.

Cuisine

Lancashire hotpot Lancashire hotpot.jpg
Lancashire hotpot
Lancashire cheese Lancashire cheese.jpg
Lancashire cheese

Lancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include:

Cinema

Whistle Down the Wind (1961) was directed by Bryan Forbes, set at the foot of Worsaw Hill and in Burnley, and starred local Lancashire schoolchildren.

The tunnel scene was shot on the old Bacup-Rochdale railway line, location 53°41'29.65"N, 2°11'25.18"W, off the A6066 (New Line) where the line passes beneath Stack Lane. The tunnel is still there, in use as an industrial unit but the railway has long since been removed.

Funny Bones (1995) was set mostly in Blackpool, after opening scenes in Las Vegas.

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Places of Worship
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county:

Haigh Hall https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HH_icon.svg

See also

Notes

  1. Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252: Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm. And indeed, there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.
  2. Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31: The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary.
  3. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  4. includes hunting and forestry
  5. includes energy and construction
  6. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

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References

  1. "Lancashire: county history". The High Sheriff's Association of England and Wales. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
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Bibliography

Further reading