Lancaster, Lancashire

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Lancaster
Lancaster Collage 2022.jpg
Left to right from top: Lancaster Town Hall, Lancaster Priory and Castle, Lancaster from Lune Bridge, Ashton Memorial, Queen Victoria Statue, Lancaster Cathedral.
Location map United Kingdom City of Lancaster.svg
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Lancaster
Shown within the City of Lancaster district
Lancashire UK location map.svg
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Lancaster
Location within Lancashire
Population52,234  [1]
Demonym Lancastrian
OS grid reference SD475615
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LANCASTER
Postcode district LA1, LA2
Dialling code 01524
Police Lancashire
Fire Lancashire
Ambulance North West
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Lancashire
54°02′56″N02°48′05″W / 54.04889°N 2.80139°W / 54.04889; -2.80139

Lancaster ( /ˈlæŋkəstər/ , [2] /ˈlænkæs-/ ) [3] is a city [lower-alpha 1] in Lancashire, England and the main cultural hub, economic and commercial centre of City of Lancaster district. The city is on the River Lune and is directly inland from Morecambe Bay. Lancaster was the county town of Lancashire until the county council's administrative headquarters moved to Preston in 1974. [4]

Contents

The city's long history is marked by Lancaster Roman Fort, Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church, Lancaster Cathedral and the Ashton Memorial. It is the seat of Lancaster University and has a campus of the University of Cumbria. It had a population of 52,234 [5] in the 2011 census compared to the district which had a population of 138,375. [6]

The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family. The Duchy of Lancaster still holds large estates on behalf of Charles III, who is the Duke of Lancaster. The Port of Lancaster and the 18th-century Lancaster slave trade played a major role in the city's growth, but for many years the outport of Glasson Dock, downstream, has been the main shipping facility.

History

Toponymy

Lancaster was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, as Loncastre, where "Lon" refers to the River Lune and "castre" from the Old English cæster and Latin castrum for "fort" to the Roman fort that stood on the site. [7] [8]

Roman and Saxon eras

Roman bath house on Castle Hill Roman bath house, Lancaster 2.JPG
Roman bath house on Castle Hill

A Roman fort was built by the end of the 1st century CE on the hill where Lancaster Castle now stands, possibly as early as the 60s, based on Roman coin evidence. [9] [10] Coin evidence also suggests that the fort was not continuously inhabited in its early years. [11] It was rebuilt in stone about 102. [12] The fort name is known only in a shortened form; the only evidence is a Roman milestone found 4 miles outside Lancaster, with an inscription ending L MP IIII, meaning "from L – 4 miles, [13] and that its name began with an L. The fort was perhaps named Calunium. [14] [ unreliable source ]

Roman baths were found in 1812 and can be seen near the junction of Bridge Lane and Church Street. There was presumably a bath-house with the 4th-century fort. The Roman baths incorporated a reused inscription of the Gallic Emperor Postumus, dating from 262 to 266. The 3rd-century fort was garrisoned by the ala Sebosiana and numerus Barcariorum Tigrisiensium. [15]

The ancient Wery Wall was identified in 1950 as the north wall of the 4th-century fort, which was a drastic remodelling of the 3rd-century one, while retaining the same orientation. The later fort is the only example in north-west Britain of a 4th-century type, with massive curtain-wall and projecting bastions typical of the Saxon Shore or Wales. Extension of the technique as far north as Lancaster shows that the coast between Cumberland and North Wales was not left defenceless after the west-coast attacks and the disaster in the Carausian Revolt of 296, which followed from those under Albinus in 197.

The fort at its largest extent covered 9–10 acres (4–4 ha). [16] Evidence suggests that it stayed in use until the end of Roman occupation of Britain. [17] Church Street and some of St Leonard's Gate probably mark the initial course of the Roman road up the valley to the fort at Over Burrow. [18]

Little is known of Lancaster from the end of Roman rule to the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest of the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation for the period, it is thought that Lancaster remained inhabited. It lay on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria and over time may have passed from one to the other. [19] Archaeological evidence suggests there was a monastery on or near the site of today's Lancaster Priory by the 700s or 800s. The Anglo-Saxon runic "Cynibald's cross" found at the Priory in 1807 is thought to date from the late 9th century. Lancaster was probably one of several abbeys founded under Wilfrid. [20]

Medieval

Lancaster in 1728 Lancaster in 1728.jpg
Lancaster in 1728

After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Lancaster fell under the control of William I, as stated in the Domesday Book of 1086, which has the earliest known mention of Lancaster as such in any document. The founding Priory charter dated 1094 is the first known document specific to Lancaster. [21] By this time William had passed Lancaster and its surroundings to Roger de Poitou. The document also suggests the monastery was refounded as a parish church some time before 1066. [21]

Lancaster became a borough in 1193 under King Richard I. Its first charter, dated 12 June 1193, was from John, Count of Mortain, who later became King of England. [22]

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Lancaster from the south in 1825

Lancaster Castle, partly built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. During The Great Raid of 1322, damage was done to the castle by Robert the Bruce, though it resisted the attack and was restored and strengthened by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, who added much of the Gateway Tower and a turret on the keep or Lungess Tower, which has been named "John o' Gaunt's Chair". [23] In 1322 the Scots burnt the town. It was rebuilt but removed from its position on the hill to the slope and foot. Again in 1389, after the Battle of Otterburn, it was destroyed by the Scots. [23] Lancaster Castle is known as the site of the Pendle witch trials in 1612. It was said that the court based in the castle (the Lancaster Assizes) sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town". [24] It also figured prominently in the suppression of Catholicism during the Reformation – at least eleven Catholic priests were executed and a memorial to them as the Lancaster Martyrs stands by the city centre.

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Lancaster in the 19th century

The traditional emblem of the House of Lancaster is the Red Rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York with a white rose. The names derive from emblems of the Royal Duchies of Lancaster and York in the 15th century. This erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses.

More recently the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams from Lancashire and Yorkshire. It is also applied to the annual Roses Tournament between Lancaster and York universities. [25]

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St George's Quay

Lancaster gained a first charter in 1193 [26] as a market town and borough, but had to await city status until 1937. [27]

18th-century port

Many of the city's central buildings, including those lining St George's Quay date from the 18th century, as the Port of Lancaster became one of the UK's busiest and the Lancaster slave trade was the fourth most important in the UK slave trade. [23] Among prominent Lancaster slavers were Dodshon Foster, [28] Thomas Hinde and his namesake son. [29] The last slave ship to be constructed in Lancaster was the 267-tonne Trafalgar, built in 1806 at Brockbank’s shipyard for Samuel Hinderland and William Hinde. [30] Lancaster's role as a major port diminished as the river began to silt up [26] and Morecambe, Glasson Dock and Sunderland Point became preeminent for brief periods. Heysham Port has now eclipsed all others on the Lune.

Recent history

A permanent military presence was built up with the completion of Bowerham Barracks in 1880. [31] The Phoenix Street drill hall was completed in 1894. [32]

Since the industrial revolution, the city was home to many industries from the 18th century to the 20th century. The main industries in the city at the time were candle making, sailcloth making, rope making and shipbuilding. [33] Since the decline of the industrial revolution, Lancaster suffered from economic decline and high unemployment rates like many parts of the north of England. [34] The city underwent regeneration and is now a tourist destination.

Lancaster is mainly a service-oriented city. Products include animal feed, textiles, chemicals, livestock, paper, synthetic fibre, farm machinery, HGV trailers and mineral fibres. In recent years, a high-tech sector has emerged from Information Technology and Communications firms investing in the city.[ citation needed ]

In March 2004, Lancaster was granted Fairtrade City status. [35]

Lancaster was home to the European headquarters of Reebok. After merging with Adidas, Reebok moved to Bolton and Stockport in 2007. [36]

In May 2015 Queen Elizabeth II visited the castle for commemorations for the 750th anniversary of the creation of the Duchy of Lancaster. [37]

Governance

Lancaster Town Hall, Dalton Square Lancaster Old Town Hall.jpg
Lancaster Town Hall, Dalton Square

The former City and Municipal Borough of Lancaster and the Municipal Borough of Morecambe and Heysham, along with other authorities, merged in 1974 [38] to form the City of Lancaster district within the shire county of Lancashire. This was given city status and Lancaster City Council became the governing body for the district. [39] Lancaster is an unparished area and has no separate council. It is divided into wards (for elections to Lancaster City Council), such as Bulk, Castle, Ellel, John O'Gaunt (named after John of Gaunt, the 1st Duke of Lancaster), Scotforth East, Scotforth West, Skerton East, Skerton West, and University and Scotforth Rural. [40]

For elections to Lancashire County Council, Lancaster is split into the electoral divisions of Lancaster Central (the city centre and an area extending south including Cockerham and Glasson Dock), Lancaster East (south of the River Lune and east of the Lancaster Canal), Lancaster South East (bordered by the River Conder with the University at its southern point), and Skerton (north of the River Lune). [41]

Political representation

Most of the city lies in the Lancaster and Fleetwood constituency for elections of Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, represented since 2015 by Cat Smith of the Labour Party. [42] The Skerton part of the city lies in the Morecambe and Lunesdale constituency, represented since 2010 by David Morris of the Conservative Party. [43]

While the United Kingdom was in the European Union, Lancaster was in the North West England European Parliamentary Constituency. [44]

Lancaster castle in the evening Lancaster Castle Evening.jpg
Lancaster castle in the evening

In the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century, the city council was under the control of the Morecambe Bay Independents (MBIs), who campaigned for an independent Morecambe council. In 2003, their influence waned and Labour became the largest party on the council. They formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and Greens. At the May 2007 local elections, Labour lost ground to the Greens in Lancaster and the MBIs in Morecambe, resulting in no overall control, with all parties represented in a PR administration. The 2011 elections saw Labour emerge as the largest party. They reached a joint administrative arrangement with the Greens.[ citation needed ]

The 2019 Lancaster City Council election results put no party in overall control. The council was run by a coalition of Labour, Green, Eco-Socialist Independent and Liberal Democrat councillors, supported by the Independent Group, with Conservatives and MBIs in opposition. The cabinet consisted of 4 Labour, 4 Green, 1 Eco-Socialist, 1 Independent Group. At 10 seats, Lancaster had one of the country's largest Green Party representations.[ citation needed ] The 2023 Lancaster City Council election resulted in a council with Labour as the largest party but not in overall control, with 24 of the 61 seats. [40]

After the 2021 Lancashire County Council election, Lancaster East, Lancaster South East and Skerton were represented on the county council by Labour, while Lancaster Central was represented by the Green Party. [41]

Geography

Lancaster is Lancashire's northernmost city, three miles (4.8 km) inland from Morecambe Bay. It is on the River Lune (from which comes its name), and the Lancaster Canal. It becomes hillier from the Lune Valley eastwards, with Williamson Hill in the north-west a notable height at 109 m (358 ft) and recognised as a TuMP: a hill with "thirty and upwards metres prominence". [45] The central area of the city can be roughly defined by the railway to the west, the canal to the south and east, and the river to the north. [46]

Built-up area

Lancaster, Morecambe and Heysham have been identified by the Office for National Statistics as forming the Lancaster/Morecambe Built-up area, with a population of 97,150 in the 2011 census. [47] Within this, ONS identifies a Lancaster Built-up area sub division with a 2011 population of 48,085. [48]

Green belt

There is a small portion of green belt on the northern fringe of Lancaster, covering the area into Carnforth and helping to prevent further urban expansion towards nearby Morecambe, Hest Bank, Slyne and Bolton-le-Sands. [49]

Transport

Road

King Street, with the castle in the background King Street, Lancaster, with the castle in the background - geograph.org.uk - 945333.jpg
King Street, with the castle in the background

The A6 road, one of the main historic north–south roads in England, passes through the city centre, with northbound and southbound traffic on separate streets, and crosses the Lune at Greyhound Bridge northbound and Skerton Bridge southbound (these are the two furthest-downstream road crossing points of the Lune). [46] The road leads south to Preston, Chorley and Manchester and north to Carnforth, Kendal, Penrith and Carlisle.

The M6 motorway passes to the east of Lancaster with junctions 33 and 34 to the south and north. The Bay Gateway, a dual carriageway opened in 2016, links Heysham to the M6. [50]

Lancaster's main bus operator, Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire, operates network of services from Lancaster bus station throughout the Lancaster District and services to more distant places such as Kendal, Keswick, Kirkby Lonsdale, Preston and Blackpool. There are buses to Lancaster University, the No. 1 and No. 1A services run every 10–15 minutes using double-deckers, with less frequent services 4, 41 and 42. [51] Other routes are covered by Kirkby Lonsdale Coach Hire, including the 582 to Kirkby Lonsdale, Settle and Skipton and the 89 to Knott End-on-Sea.

Rail

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Lancaster railway station
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Lancaster (Castle)
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Scale Hall
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Lancaster is served by the West Coast Main Line from Lancaster railway station. The station was formerly named Lancaster Castle, to differentiate it from Lancaster Green Ayre on the Leeds–Morecambe line, which closed in 1966. There are train services to and from London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds and Barrow-in-Furness, and a local service to Morecambe.

The city council aims to open a railway station serving the university and south Lancaster, although this is not feasible in the short or medium term with current levels of demand. [52] The Caton–Morecambe section of the former North Western railway is now used as a cycle path.

Water and air

The Port of Lancaster gained importance in the 18th century. In 1750 the Lancaster Port Commission was established to develop the port. However, in more recent years, shipping visits Glasson Dock, where the Port commission is now based. [53] Heysham Port, about 5 miles (8.0 km) west of Lancaster, is used by ferry services to the Isle of Man, Northern Ireland and Ireland.

The Lancaster Canal and River Lune pass through the city.

The nearest airports are Manchester, Liverpool and Blackpool.

Cycling

In 2005, Lancaster was one of six English towns chosen to be cycling demonstration towns to promote cycling as a means of transport. [54] Lancaster has cycle routes to many nearby places, many are off road using disused railways or canal towpaths. [55]

Landmarks

Ashton Memorial, Williamson Park Ashton Memorial front.jpg
Ashton Memorial, Williamson Park

The city's main war memorial is in a garden adjacent to the Town Hall, near Dalton Square, and commemorates those who died in the first and second world wars, Korea and the Falklands; it is grade II listed. [56] [57]

Listed buildings

There are more than 330 listed buildings in Lancaster (excluding those in nearby civil parishes such as the Lune Aqueduct in Halton-with-Aughton parish). They include four at grade I and 22 at grade II*, the others being at grade II. Those at grade I, the highest level, are the Ashton Memorial, [58] the Judges' Lodgings, [59] Lancaster Castle [60] and Lancaster Priory. [61]

Culture

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Lancaster Cathedral
Lancaster City Museum, Market Square Lancaster museum - geograph.org.uk - 945324.jpg
Lancaster City Museum, Market Square
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Lune Millennium Bridge
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Penny's Hospital almshouses

Lancaster has a range of historic buildings and venues, having retained many fine examples of Georgian architecture. Lancaster Castle, the Priory Church of St. Mary and the Edwardian Ashton Memorial are among the sites of historical importance. Its many museums include Lancaster City Museum, Maritime Museum, the Cottage Museum, [62] and the Judges' Lodgings Museum. [63]

Lancaster Friends Meeting House, dating from 1708, is the longest continual Quaker meeting site in the world, with an original building built in 1677. George Fox, founder of Quakerism, was near the site several times in the 1660s and spent two years imprisoned in Lancaster Castle. [64] The meeting house holds regular Quaker meetings and a wide range of cultural activities including adult learning, meditation, art classes, music and political meetings. Lancaster Grand Theatre is another historic cultural venue, under its many names. It has played a major part in social and cultural life since it was built in 1782. [65]

Lancaster Castle Lancaster Castle.jpg
Lancaster Castle

Lancaster is known nationally for its Arts scene. [66] There are 600 business and organisations in the region involved directly or indirectly in arts and culture. [67]

In 2009 several major arts bodies based in the district formed a consortium called Lancaster Arts Partners (LAP) to champion strategic development of arts activities in Lancaster District. [68] Notable partners include Ludus Dance, [69] More Music, [70] the Dukes [71] among others. LAP curates and promotes "Lancaster First Fridays", a monthly multi-disciplinary mini-festival under its brand "Lancaster Arts City".

Lancaster University has a public arts organisation, part of LAP, known as Lancaster Arts at Lancaster University. Its programmes include Lancaster's Nuffield Theatre, one of the largest professional studio theatres in Europe, the Peter Scott Gallery, with the most significant collection of Royal Lancastrian ceramics in Britain, and the Lancaster International Concerts Series, drawing nationally and internationally renowned classical and world-music artists. [72]

The gallery in the Storey Creative Industries Centre is now programmed and run by Lancaster City Council. In 2013 the previous incumbent organisation "The Storey Gallery" moved out of the building and reformed as "Storey G2". [73] The Storey Creative Industries Centre is also home to Lancaster's Litfest, which runs an annual literature festival. In the summer months Williamson Park hosts outdoor performances, including a Dukes "Play in the Park", which over the past 26 years has attracted 460,000 people, as the UK's biggest outdoor walkabout theatre event. [74]

Lancaster is known as the Northern City of Ale, with almost 30 pubs serving cask ale. [75] [76] The pubs include the White Cross, Three Mariners, Borough and Water Witch. [75] There are two cask ale breweries: Lancaster Brewery and a microbrewery run by the Borough. There is a local CAMRA (Campaign for Real Ale) branch at Lunesdale. [77]

The Lancaster Grand Theatre and the Dukes are notable venues for live performance, as are the Yorkshire House (currently closed), Jailors Barrel, The John O' Gaunt and The Bobbin. Throughout the year events are held in and around the city, such as the Lancaster Music Festival, Lancaster Jazz Festival, and Chinese New Year celebrations in the city centre. [78]

Every November the city hosts a daylight and art festival entitled "Light Up Lancaster", [79] which includes a prominent fireworks display. [80]

Lancaster still has two city-centre cinemas; Vue and the Dukes playhouse. The 1930s art deco Regal Cinema closed in 2006. [81] The Gregson Centre is also known for small film screenings and cultural events.

Art and literature

John Henderson (c.1770-1853) painted many views of the town. One of these together with a poetical illustration (which relates to the treacherous sands of Morecambe Bay) by Letitia Elizabeth Landon was published in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1833 [82]

Music

The city's semi-professional Haffner Orchestra has a reputation for classical music. It performs in the Ashton Hall in the city centre and at Lancaster University.

During parades and festivals it is common to see two other long standing musical groups perform, Lancaster City Brass, which is the oldest remaining brass band in the city celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2021 and Batala who recently completed 15 years of Samba Regge drumming.

Lancaster has been producing successful bands and musicians since the 1990s, notably the drummer Keith Baxter of 3 Colours Red and folk-metal band Skyclad, who also featured Lancaster guitarist Dave Pugh, and the thrash metal band D.A.M., who were all from Lancaster, recording two albums for the Noise International label, with Dave Pugh appearing on the second.

The all-girl punk-rock band Angelica used the Lancaster Musicians' Co-operative, the main rehearsal and recording studio in the area.

The city has also produced many other musicians, including singer and songwriter John Waite, who first became known as lead singer of The Babys and had a solo #1 hit in the US, "Missing You". As part of the band Bad English, John Waite also had a #1 hit in the Billboard top hundred in the 1970s called "When I See You Smile". Additionally, Paul James, better known as The Rev, former guitarist of English punk band Towers of London who is now in the band Day 21 and plays guitar live on tour for The Prodigy; Chris Acland, drummer of the early 1990s shoegaze band Lush; Tom English, drummer of North East indie band Maxïmo Park and Steve Kemp, drummer of the indie band Hard-Fi.

Lancaster continues to produce bands and musicians such as singer-songwriter Jay Diggins, and acts like The Lovely Eggs, receiving considerable national radio play and press coverage in recent years. More recently, Lancaster locals Massive Wagons signed to Nottingham-based independent label Earache Records. The city is also the founding home of the dance-music sound systems Rhythm Method and ACME Bass Company. Pioneers in the field of the free party, these two systems and others forged strong representations of the genre in the North West of England in the 1990s.

Since 2006, Lancaster Library has hosted regular music events under the Get it Loud in Libraries initiative. Musicians such as Clean Bandit, The Long Blondes, Ellie Goulding, Marina And The Diamonds, Jessie J, Wolf Alice, The Wombats, The Thrills, Kate Nash, Adele and Bat for Lashes have taken part. [83] Get It Loud in Libraries has gained national exposure, featuring on The One Show on BBC1 and having gigs reviewed in Observer Music Monthly, NME and Art Rocker. [84] Launched in 2005. by Stewart Parsons BEM, who worked as chief music librarian in Lancaster Library from 1999- 2013, the programme still hosts the best new and emerging artists inc Erland Cooper and ENNY at Lancaster, funded by Arts Council England as a National Portfolio Organisation.

Notable popular music venues include The Dukes, The Grand Theatre, The Gregson Centre, The Bobbin, The Pub and The Yorkshire House, [85] which since 2006 has hosted such acts as John Renbourn, Polly Paulusma, Marissa Nadler, Baby Dee, Diane Cluck, Alasdair Roberts, Jesca Hoop, Lach, Jack Lewis, Tiny Ruins and 2008 Mercury Prize nominees Rachel Unthank and the Winterset. Other venues include the Dalton Rooms, the Park Hotel and The Hall, China Street. These host Lancaster's diverse music culture, such as the Lancaster Speakeasy [86] or Stylus. [87]

The Lancaster Jazz and Lancaster Music Festivals are respectively held every September and October, at venues throughout the city. In 2013 the headline jazz act was The Neil Cowley Trio, performing at The Dukes, whilst one of the Lancaster Music Festival headline acts was Jay Diggins at the Dalton Rooms. [88]

Media

Heart North Lancashire & Cumbria (formerly "The Bay") has been a commercial radio station for north Lancashire and south Cumbria. Its studios are based at St George's Quay in the city and it broadcasts on three frequencies: 96.9 FM (Lancaster), 102.3 FM (Windermere) and 103.2 FM (Kendal). It is now part of the Manchester-based Heart North West.[ citation needed ]

BBC local radio station that broadcast to the city is BBC Radio Lancashire on 104.5 FM.

Local television news programmes are BBC North West Tonight and ITV Granada Reports.

Beyond Radio is a voluntary, non-profit community radio station for Lancaster and Morecambe and broadcasts on 103.5FM and online. [89] Operated by Proper Community Media (Lancaster) Ltd, the station and broadcasts 24 hours a day from The Old Bowling Pavilion in Palatine Avenue Park, Bowerham. It took over from Diversity FM, a community radio station run by Lancaster and District YMCA, which had closed in April 2012.

Lancaster University has its own student radio station, Bailrigg FM, broadcasting on 95.3 FM, [90] and an online student-run television station called LA1TV (formerly LUTube.tv) [91] and a student-run newspaper named SCAN. [92]

The city was home to the film production company A1 Pictures, [93] which founded the independent film brand Capture.[ citation needed ]

Commercially available newspapers include the tabloids The Lancaster Guardian and The Visitor (mainly targeted at residents of Morecambe). Both are based on the White Lund Industrial Estate in Morecambe. Virtual Lancaster, founded in 1999, is a non-commercial volunteer-led resource website also featuring local news, events and visitor information.

Twinned cities

Lancaster is twinned with: [94]

Education

Higher education

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Lancaster University
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Lancaster Royal Grammar School

At Bailrigg south of the city is Lancaster University, a research university founded in 1964 as one of the seven "plate glass universities". [98] It has an annual income of about £325 million (2020/21), [99] 3,000 staff[ citation needed ] and 16,403 Lancaster-based students in 2021/22. [100] Its business school is one of two in the country to gain a six-star research rating. [101] Its physics department rated #1 in the United Kingdom in 2008. [102] [103] InfoLab21 at the university is a Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies. [104] LEC (Lancaster Environment Centre) has over 200 staff and shares premises with the government-funded CEH. In 2023 it was 10th, 12th and 14th out of 120 UK universities in "the three main UK league tables". [105] In 2017 it was rated 21st nationally for research in The Times Higher league table. For teaching, it gained the highest Gold ranking for quality in the 2017 government TEF, and in 2018 was ranked 9th for its teaching by The Independent [106] and 9th by The Guardian . [107] The Times Higher placed it 137th worldwide for research and 58th worldwide for arts and humanities. [108] Lancaster University was named International University of the Year by The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide in 2020. [109] It has campuses in Malaysia, China and Ghana and plans one in Leipzig, Germany. [109]

Lancaster is also home to a campus of the University of Cumbria – more centrally located on the site of the former St Martin's College – which was inaugurated in 2007. It provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, social sciences, business, teacher training, health care and nursing. [110] St Martin's college was founded in 1962 as Lancaster College of Education, and took its name from Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who converted to Christianity, because its premises were a former barracks of the King's Own Royal Regiment. The college merged with Cumbria Institute of the Arts, in Carlisle, and parts of the University of Central Lancashire, having previously absorbed Charlotte Mason College in Ambleside, to become the University of Cumbria. [111]

Further education

Secondary schools

Primary schools

Special Educational Needs (SEN) Schools

Religious sites

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Lancaster Cathedral
Castle and Priory of Lancaster Lancaster Castle and Priory - geograph.org.uk - 129526.jpg
Castle and Priory of Lancaster

Lancaster is home to many churches and other places of worship. Notable churches in the city include the grade II*-listed Lancaster Cathedral (Catholic), which is located on the brow of the hill beside the canal to the east of the city centre. Its spire can be seen on the cityscape. It was built in 1798 originally as a mission church for the city before it was rebuilt between 1857 and 1859 on a different site with the spire and tower. It is an active place of worship.

Lancaster Priory (Anglican) is a grade I listed building on the high ground adjacent to Lancaster Castle. It dates largely from about 1430, with a 1754-55 tower and later work. [61]

The Friends Meeting House, near the station, dates from 1708 and is grade II* listed.

Other notable churches in the city include:

The city has places of worship for Catholic, Baptist, Jehovah's Witness, Latter Day Saints and Methodists as well as the Salvation Army and community churches. [114] Lancaster is also home to several mosques. [115] Notable mosques are: Moorlands Islamic Centre, Lancaster Islamic Society, Raza Mosque Lancaster and prayer rooms in the University of Cumbria in Lancaster and University of Lancaster.[ citation needed ]

Sport

Giant Axe Ground, Home of Lancaster City F.C. Giant axe.jpg
Giant Axe Ground, Home of Lancaster City F.C.

Lancaster City, plays in the Northern Premier League Premier Division having won promotion as champions of Division One North in 2016–2017. The club plays home matches at the Giant Axe, which has a capacity of 3,500 (513 seated) and was formed in 1911 as Lancaster Town F.C. The club has been seven-times Lancashire FA Challenge cup winners and in 2010-11 won the Northern Premier League President's cup for a second time.

Lancaster John O' Gaunt Rowing Club is the fifth-oldest surviving rowing club in the UK, outside the universities. [116] It competes nationally at regattas and heads races run by British Rowing. The clubhouse stands next to the weir at Skerton.

It is one of the cities that rotates hosting the International Youth Games, a multi-sport Olympics-style event featuring competitors from Lancaster's twin towns: Rendsburg (Germany), Perpignan (France), Viana do Castelo (Portugal), Aalborg (Denmark), Almere (Netherlands), Lublin (Poland) and Växjö (Sweden). [117] The games were cancelled at the start of the COVID-19 Pandemic, but Lancaster resumed participation in 2022 when the games re-started. [118]

Lancaster Cricket Club is sited near the River Lune. It has two senior teams that participate in the Palace Shield. Rugby union is a popular sport in the area, with the local clubs being Vale of Lune RUFC and Lancaster CATS.

Lancaster is home to the Golf Centre, Lansil Golf Club, Forest Hills and Lancaster Golf Club. Lancaster Amateur Swimming and Waterpolo Club competes in the north-west. It trains at Salt Ayre and at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lancaster is home to a senior UK team. Water polo is also popular in the area.[ citation needed ]

The local athletics track near the Salt Ayre Sports Centre is home to Lancaster AC and Morecambe AC. It fields athletes across disciplines including track and field, cross country, road and fell running. It competes in several local and national leagues including the Young Athletics League, the Northern Athletics League and the local Mid Lancs League (Cross-Country in Winter, and Track and Field in Summer).[ citation needed ]

Notable people

Arts and entertainment

Business

Crime

Politics and journalism

Science and humanities

Sport

See also



Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancashire</span> County of England

Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. It is bordered by Cumbria to the north, North Yorkshire and West Yorkshire to the east, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, and the Irish Sea to the west. The largest settlement is Blackpool, and the county town is the city of Preston.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulverston</span> Market town in Cumbria, England

Ulverston is a market town and civil parish in Westmorland and Furness, Cumbria, England. In the 2001 census the parish had a population of 11,524, increasing at the 2011 census to 11,678. Historically in Lancashire, it lies a few miles south of the Lake District National Park and just north-west of Morecambe Bay, within the Furness Peninsula. Lancaster is 39 miles (63 km) to the east, Barrow-in-Furness 10 miles (16 km) to the south-west and Kendal 25 miles (40 km) to the north-east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carnforth</span> Town and civil parish in Lancashire, England

Carnforth is a market town and civil parish in the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England, situated at the north-east end of Morecambe Bay. The parish of Carnforth had a population of 5,560 in the 2011 census, an increase from the 5,350 recorded in the 2001 census. The town is situated around 7 miles north of Lancaster, 17 miles south of Kendal, 40 miles east of Barrow-in-Furness and 28 miles northwest of Settle. The town is also close to the Cumbria/Lancashire border.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">City of Lancaster</span> City and non-metropolitan district in England

Lancaster, or the City of Lancaster, is a local government district with city status in Lancashire, England. It is named after its largest settlement, Lancaster, and also includes the towns of Carnforth, Heysham and Morecambe and a wider rural hinterland. The district has a population of 142,162 (2021), and an area of 218.9 square miles (566.9 km2).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">River Lune</span> River in Cumbria and Lancashire, England

The River Lune is a river 53 miles (85 km) in length in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster railway station</span> Railway station in Lancashire, England

Lancaster railway station is a railway station that serves the city of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. It is one of the principal stations on the West Coast Main Line. It is located 20 miles 78 chains (33.76 km) from Preston and is the zero point for mileages onward to Carlisle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silverdale, Lancashire</span> Village in Lancashire, England

Silverdale is a village and civil parish within the City of Lancaster district of Lancashire, England. The village stands on Morecambe Bay, near the border with Cumbria, 4.5 miles (7 km) north west of Carnforth and 8.5 miles (14 km) of Lancaster. The parish had a population of 1,519 recorded in the 2011 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster and Wyre (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1997–2010

Lancaster and Wyre was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From 1997 to 2010, it elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election, but has now been replaced by Lancaster and Fleetwood.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Morecambe and Lunesdale (UK Parliament constituency)</span>

Morecambe and Lunesdale is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by David Morris, a Conservative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster City Council elections</span> Class of election in the United Kingdom

Lancaster City Council elections are held every four years. Lancaster City Council is the local authority for the non-metropolitan district of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. Since the last boundary changes in 2023, 61 councillors have been elected from 27 wards.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1885–1997

Lancaster was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1867, centred on the historic city of Lancaster in north-west England. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until the constituency was disenfranchised for corruption in 1867.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster and Fleetwood (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 2010 onwards

Lancaster and Fleetwood is a constituency created in 2010 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament by Cat Smith of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scotforth</span> Suburb of Lancaster, England

Scotforth is a suburb in the south of the city of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. It is home to Scotforth St Paul's Church of England Primary School and St Paul's Church. The civil parish, which does not include the suburb had a population of 239 recorded in the 2001 census, increasing to 321 at the 2011 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Morecambe</span> Town in England

Morecambe is a seaside town and civil parish in the City of Lancaster district of Lancashire, England, on Morecambe Bay, part of the Irish Sea.

Skerton is an area in the north of Lancaster, Lancashire, England, on the other side of the River Lune to the castle. It was formerly a township, but in the late 1800s it was incorporated into Lancaster and the neighbouring townships. Skerton Bridge takes the A6 southwards towards the city centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Claughton, Lancaster</span> Village and parish in Lancashire, England

Claughton is a small village and civil parish in the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. The village is on the A683 road east of Lancaster and at the time of the 2001 census had a population of 132. In the 2011 census Claughton was grouped with Roeburndale to give a total of 223.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lancaster Green Ayre railway station</span> Former station in Lancashire, England

Lancaster Green Ayre railway station was the Midland Railway's station in the city of Lancaster in England. The line between Green Ayre and Morecambe was used for pioneering experimental electrification via overhead wires.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Torrisholme</span> Human settlement in England

Torrisholme is a suburb of Morecambe, Lancashire, on the North West coast of England. In the 2001 census, the Torrisholme Ward had a population of 6,758 living in 3,118 households, decreasing marginally to 6,755 at the 2011 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greyhound Bridge</span> Bridge in Lancaster, Lancashire

The Greyhound Bridge is a road-connection spanning the River Lune as it runs through Lancaster, England. It serves as the primary route northwards, on account of a one-way system that directs all southbound traffic over Skerton Bridge. Originally built to carry a railway, it is the third bridge to stand on the present site and lies between the Lune Millennium Bridge and Skerton Bridge.

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Bibliography

  • Shotter, David (2001), "Roman Lancaster: Site and Settlement", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 3–31, ISBN   0-7486-1466-4
  • White, Andrew (2001), "Continuity, Charter, Castle and County Town, 400–1500", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 33–72, ISBN   0-7486-1466-4