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The land grid array (LGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging for integrated circuits (ICs) that is notable for having the pins on the socket (when a socket is used) rather than the integrated circuit.A LGA can be electrically connected to a printed circuit board (PCB) either by the use of a socket or by soldering directly to the board.
The land grid array is a packaging technology with a rectangular grid of contacts on the underside of a package. The contacts are to be connected to a grid of contacts on the PCB. Not all rows and columns of the grid need to be used. The contacts can either be made by using an LGA socket, or by using solder paste.
LGA packaging is related to ball grid array (BGA) and pin grid array (PGA) packaging. Unlike pin grid arrays, land grid array packages are designed to fit either in a socket, or be soldered down using surface mount technology. PGA packages cannot be soldered down using surface mount technology. In contrast with a BGA, land grid array packages in non socketed configurations have no balls, and use flat contacts which are soldered directly to the PCB. BGA packages, however have balls as their contacts in between the IC and the PCBs. The balls are normally attached to the underside of the IC.
LGA is used as a physical interface for microprocessors of the Intel Pentium, Intel Xeon, Intel Core and AMD Opteron, Threadripper and Epyc families. Unlike the pin grid array (PGA) interface found on most AMD and older Intel processors, there are no pins on the chip; in place of the pins are pads of bare gold-plated copper that touch protruding pins on the microprocessor's connector on the motherboard. Compared to PGA CPUs, LGA reduces the likelihood of the chip being damaged either before or during installation as there are no pins that can be accidentally bent. By transferring the pins to the motherboard, it is possible to design the socket to physically shield the pins from damage, and the costs of installation damage can be mitigated as motherboards tend to be significantly cheaper than CPUs.
While LGA sockets have been in use as early as 1996 by the MIPS R10000 and HP PA-8000 processors, the interface did not gain widespread use until Intel introduced their LGA platform, starting with the 5x0 and 6x0 sequence Pentium 4 (Prescott) in 2004. All Pentium D and Core 2 desktop processors use LGA 775 socket. As of Q1 2006, Intel switched the Xeon server platform to LGA, starting with the 5000-series models. AMD introduced their server LGA platform starting with the 2000-series Opteron in Q2 2006. AMD offered the Athlon 64 FX series on socket 1207FX through ASUS's L1N64-SLI WS motherboards. It was the only desktop LGA solution offered by AMD.
The most recent Intel desktop LGA socket is dubbed LGA 1151 (Socket H4), which is used with Intel's Skylake, Kaby Lake and Coffee Lake series Core i3, i5, and i7 families, as well as their lower-end Pentium and Celeron families. Their Skylake-X Core i7 and Core i9 families use the LGA 2066 socket. The LGA setup provides higher pin densities, allowing more power contacts and thus a more stable power supply to the chip.
AMD introduced its first consumer LGA socket, called Socket TR4 (LGA 4094) for its high end desktop platform Ryzen Threadripper processors. This socket is physically identical to their Socket SP3 for their Epyc server CPUs even though SP3 CPUs are not compatible with the desktop X399 chipset and vice versa.
The previous AMD server LGA socket was designated Socket G34 (LGA 1944). Like Intel, AMD decided to use LGA sockets for their higher pin densities, as a 1944-pin PGA would simply be too large for most motherboards.
A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. BGA packages are used to permanently mount devices such as microprocessors. A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package. The whole bottom surface of the device can be used, instead of just the perimeter. The traces connecting the package's leads to the wires or balls which connect the die to package are also on average shorter than with a perimeter-only type, leading to better performance at high speeds.
A pin grid array (PGA) is a type of integrated circuit packaging. In a PGA, the package is square or rectangular, and the pins are arranged in a regular array on the underside of the package. The pins are commonly spaced 2.54 mm (0.1") apart, and may or may not cover the entire underside of the package.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have some advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.
In computer hardware, a CPU socket or CPU slot contains one or more mechanical components providing mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB). This allows for placing and replacing the central processing unit (CPU) without soldering.
Socket 478 is a 478-contact CPU socket used for Intel's Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs.
LGA 775, also known as Socket T, is an Intel desktop CPU socket. LGA stands for land grid array. Unlike earlier common CPU sockets, such as its predecessor Socket 478, the LGA 775 has no socket holes; instead, it has 775 protruding pins which touch contact points on the underside of the processor (CPU).
Socket 479 (mPGA479M) is the CPU socket for the Intel Pentium M and Celeron M, mobile processors. Normally used in laptops, but has also been used with Tualatin-M Pentium III processors. The official naming by Intel is µFCPGA and µPGA479M.
This is a comparison of chipsets designed by Nvidia.
The Platform Controller Hub (PCH) is a family of Intel chipsets, introduced circa 2008. It is the successor to the Intel Hub Architecture, which used a northbridge and southbridge instead, and first appeared in the Intel 5 Series.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "Y" suffix.
LGA 1156, also known as Socket H or H1, is an Intel desktop CPU socket. LGA stands for land grid array. Its incompatible successor is LGA 1155.
Socket G1, also known as rPGA 988A, is Intel's CPU socket for their line of mobile Core i7, the successor to the Core 2 line. It is based on Intel's Nehalem architecture which was first available for the 1366-pin "Socket B", which, like its predecessor, LGA775, uses the LGA socket configuration. Later followed the updated LGA-1156 socket, which moved the QPI and PCI-express controller off the Northbridge and onto the CPU. As a result of the lower pin count, LGA-1156 systems, and later, socket G1 systems, can only run in Dual-channel memory mode, as opposed to the Triple-channel mode which is unique to the LGA-1366 platform. The Nehalem's mobile variant was released on September 23, 2009 in the form of the i7-720QM, 820QM, and 920XM models, followed by the i7-740QM, 840QM, and 940XM models on June 21, 2010. The newer CPUs use the new Clarksfield core, which maintained the same 45 nm manufacturing process as the desktop-based Nehalems. Nehalem received a die shrink on January 7, 2010, under the core name of Westmere. With the Intel GMA HD Graphics Ironlake core packaged onto the CPU substrate, but not integrated directly to the processor die, it goes on to create the Arrandale-based line. The current CPUs to use this package are the Core i7-6x0M series, the Core i5-4x0M series, the Core i5-5x0M series, the Core i3-3x0M series, and finally the Pentium P6x00 series and Celeron P4x00 series which were released on March 28, 2010. However, not all of these are available for Socket G1, as some of them are only available in a BGA package. They are also known as PGA988 socket processors.
Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture. Skylake is a microarchitecture redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology as its predecessor, serving as a "tock" in Intel's "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model. According to Intel, the redesign brings greater CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Skylake CPUs share its microarchitecture with Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake and Cannon Lake CPUs.
Socket G2, also known as rPGA 988B is Intel's CPU socket used with their line of mobile Core i7, the successor to the Core 2 line, and also with several mobile Core i5 and Core i3 processors. It is based on Intel's Sandy Bridge architecture. Like its predecessor, socket G1 systems, it can only run in dual-channel memory mode, but with data rates up to 1600 MHz. Socket G2 CPUs are also known as FCPGA988 socket processors, which should be pin compatible with PPGA988.
LGA 1151, also known as Socket H4, is an Intel microprocessor compatible socket which comes in two distinct versions: the first revision which supports both Intel's Skylake and Kaby Lake CPUs, and the second revision which supports Coffee Lake CPUs exclusively.
Coffee Lake is Intel's codename for the second 14 nm process node refinement following Broadwell, Skylake, and Kaby Lake. The integrated graphics on Coffee Lake chips allow support for DP 1.2 to HDMI 2.0 and HDCP 2.2 connectivity. Coffee Lake natively supports DDR4-2666 MHz memory in dual channel mode when used with Xeon, Core i5, i7 and i9 CPUs, DDR4-2400 MHz memory in dual channel mode when used with Celeron, Pentium, and Core i3 CPUs, and LPDDR3-2133 MHz memory when used with mobile CPUs.
LGA 2066, also called Socket R4, is a CPU socket by Intel that debuted with Skylake-X and Kaby Lake-X processors in June 2017. It replaces Intel's LGA 2011-3 (R3) in the performance, high-end desktop and Workstation platforms, while LGA 3647 replaces LGA 2011-3 (R3) in the server platforms based on Skylake-SP.
Socket TR4, also known as Socket SP3r2, is a land grid array (LGA) CPU socket designed by AMD supporting its first- and second-generation Zen-based Ryzen Threadripper desktop processors, launched on August 10, 2017 for the high-end desktop and workstation platforms. It was succeeded by Socket sTRX4 for the third generation of Ryzen Threadripper processors.
Socket sTRX4, also known as Socket SP3r3, is a land grid array (LGA) CPU socket designed by AMD supporting its Zen 2-based Castle Peak Ryzen Threadripper desktop processors, launched on November 25, 2019 for the high-end desktop and workstation platforms.