|• President of the Departmental Council||Xavier Fortinon (PS)|
|• Total||9,243 km2 (3,569 sq mi)|
|• Density||45/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2|
Landes (French pronunciation: [lɑ̃d] ( listen ); Gascon and Occitan : Lanas [ˈlanəs] ; Basque : Landak) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, Southwestern France, with a long coastline on the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It borders Gers to the east, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, to the south, Lot-et-Garonne to the north-east, and Gironde to the north. It also borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Located on the Atlantic coast, it had a population of 413,690 as of 2019. Its prefecture is Mont-de-Marsan.
The department is the second-largest department in France and its covers the Forest of Landes. The southwestern part of the department is part of the wider conurbation of Biarritz and Bayonne across the Pyrénées-Atlantique border.
Landes is one of the original 83 departments that were created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the provinces of Guyenne and Gascony.
During the first part of the 19th century large parts of the department were covered with poorly drained heathland (French : lande) which is the origin of its name. The vegetation covered rich soil and was periodically burned off, leaving excellent pasturage for sheep, which around 1850 are thought to have numbered between 900,000 and 1,000,000 in this area. The sheep were managed by shepherds who moved around on stilts and became proficient at covering long distances thus supported. Most of the sheep departed during the second half of the nineteenth century when systematic development of large pine plantations transformed the landscape and the local economy.
One of the most famous citizens of the Landes was the 19th-century French economist Frédéric Bastiat.
The Nobel Prize–winning novelist François Mauriac set his novels in the Landes.
The Landes is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. With an area stretching over more than 9000 km2, Landes is, after Gironde, the second largest department of the metropolitan French territory.
It is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach which is Europe's longest and attracts many surfers to Mimizan and Soorts-Hossegor each year. It is also home to a château called Château de Gaujacq that was built in 1686.
Population development since 1801:
The most populous commune is Mont-de-Marsan, the prefecture. As of 2019, there are 5 communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants:
The president of the Departmental Council has been Xavier Fortinon of the Socialist Party since 2017. He succeeded former president of the National Assembly Henri Emmanuelli upon his death.
|Union of the Republican Right and Independents||10|
In the 2017 legislative election, Landes elected the following members of the National Assembly:
|Landes's 1st constituency||Fabien Lainé||MoDem|
|Landes's 2nd constituency||Lionel Causse||La République En Marche!|
|Landes's 3rd constituency||Boris Vallaud||Socialist Party|
In the Senate, Landes is represented by two members: Éric Kerrouche and Monique Lubin. Both have served since the 2017 Senate election.
Landes is known for its large pine forest which is the raw material for a timber and resin industries in the region. The forest was planted in the early nineteenth century to prevent erosion of the region's sandy soil by the sea.
Landes is famous for its seaside resorts and natural spots, such as:
Charente-Maritime is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region on the southwestern coast of France. Named after the river Charente, its prefecture is La Rochelle. As of 2019, it had a population of 651,358 with an area of 6,864 square kilometres.
Gironde is the largest department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. Named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway, its prefecture is Bordeaux. In 2019, it had a population of 1,623,749. The famous Bordeaux wine region is in Gironde. It has six arrondissements, making it one of the departments with the most arrondissements.
Hautes-Pyrénées is a department in the region of Occitania, southwestern France. In 2019, its population was 229,567; its prefecture is Tarbes. It is named after the Pyrenees mountain range.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the southwest corner of France and of the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Named after the Pyrenees mountain range and the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the French Basque Country and the Béarn. Its prefecture is Pau. In 2019, it had a population of 682,621.
Lot-et-Garonne is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. Named after the rivers Lot and Garonne, it had a population of 331,271 in 2019. Its prefecture and largest city is Agen.
Soorts-Hossegor is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, 20 km north of Biarritz.
Athos-Aspis is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Ascarat is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
The Landes forest in the Landes de Gascogne, in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest man-made woodland in Western Europe. The French word, landes and Gascon lanas, mean 'moors' or 'heaths', from Transalpine Gaulish *landa ; compare Irish lann, Welsh llan (“enclosure”).
Abos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
Audaux is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Aubertin is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Aste-Béon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Arricau-Bordes is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Andrein is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Perquie is a commune, a small town located in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Baigts-de-Béarn is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Baliros is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the mainland. The region was created by the territorial reform of French regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine, Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,036 km2 (32,446 sq mi) – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,956,978 inhabitants. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015.
The Landes de Gascogne, or Gascony Moors, is a natural region of France of nearly 14,000 km2 (5,400 sq mi). It extends over three departments: Gironde, Landes and Lot-et-Garonne, and includes 386 communes. The region is a flat, sandy plain in the west of the Aquitaine Basin beside the Atlantic Ocean. The interior is cut off from the sea by a barrier of dunes. It is dominated by pine forests that cover 66% of the territory, with islets of agriculture over 18% of the territory.