Landes (department)

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Landes
Lanas  (Occitan)
Pref Landes MDM.JPG
Drapeau fr departement Landes.svg
Blason departement fr Landes.svg
Landes-Position.svg
Location of Landes in France
Coordinates: 44°0′N0°50′W / 44.000°N 0.833°W / 44.000; -0.833 Coordinates: 44°0′N0°50′W / 44.000°N 0.833°W / 44.000; -0.833
Country France
Region Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Prefecture Mont-de-Marsan
Subprefecture Dax
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Xavier Fortinon (PS)
Area
1
  Total9,243 km2 (3,569 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)
  Total405,010
  Rank 60th
  Density44/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 40
Arrondissements 2
Cantons 15
Communes 327
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Landes (French pronunciation:  [lɑ̃d] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Gascon and Occitan : Lanas [ˈlanəs] ) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. Located on the Atlantic coast, it had a population of 405,010 as of 2016. Its prefecture is Mont-de-Marsan.

Contents

History

Landes is one of the original 83 departments that were created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the provinces of Guyenne and Gascony.

During the first part of the 19th century large parts of the department were covered with poorly drained heathland (lande in French) which is the origin of its name. The vegetation covered rich soil and was periodically burned off, leaving excellent pasturage for sheep, which around 1850 are thought to have numbered between 900,000 and 1,000,000 in this area. The sheep were managed by shepherds who moved around on stilts and became proficient at covering long distances thus supported. Most of the sheep departed during the second half of the nineteenth century when systematic development of large pine plantations transformed the landscape and the local economy.

One of the most famous citizens of the Landes was the nineteenth-century French economist Frédéric Bastiat.

The Nobel Prize–winning novelist François Mauriac set his novels in the Landes.

Geography

The Landes is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Gers and Pyrénées-Atlantiques, as well as the Atlantic Ocean on the west. With an area stretching over more than 9000 km², Landes is, after Gironde, the second largest department of the metropolitan French territory.

It is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach which is Europe's longest and attracts many surfers to Mimizan and Soorts-Hossegor each year. It is also home to a château called Château de Gaujacq that was built in 1686.

Demographics

Population development since 1801:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801224,272    
1806240,146+1.38%
1821256,311+0.44%
1831281,504+0.94%
1841288,077+0.23%
1851302,196+0.48%
1861300,839−0.04%
1872300,528−0.01%
1881301,143+0.02%
1891297,842−0.11%
1901291,586−0.21%
1911288,902−0.09%
1921263,937−0.90%
1931257,186−0.26%
1936251,436−0.45%
1946248,395−0.12%
1954248,943+0.03%
1962260,495+0.57%
1968277,381+1.05%
1975288,323+0.55%
1982297,424+0.44%
1990311,461+0.58%
1999327,334+0.55%
2006362,827+1.48%
2011387,929+1.35%
2016405,010+0.87%
source: [1]

Politics

Departmental Council of Landes

The President of the Departmental Council has been Xavier Fortinon of the Socialist Party since 2017. He succeeded former President of the National Assembly Henri Emmanuelli upon his death.

PartySeats
Socialist Party 17
Left Front 3
Union of the Republican Right and Independents 10

National representation

In the 2017 legislative election, Landes elected the following members of the National Assembly:

ConstituencyMember [2] Party
Landes's 1st constituency Fabien Lainé MoDem
Landes's 2nd constituency Lionel Causse La République En Marche!
Landes's 3rd constituency Boris Vallaud Socialist Party

In the Senate, Landes is represented by two members: Éric Kerrouche and Monique Lubin. Both have served since the 2017 Senate election.

Economy

Agriculture

Landes is known for its large pine forest which is the raw material for a timber and resin industries in the region. The forest was planted in the early nineteenth century to prevent erosion of the region's sandy soil by the sea.

Tourism

Landes is famous for its seaside resorts and natural spots, such as:

See also

Related Research Articles

Aquitaine Region of France

Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne or Guienne, is a historical region of southwestern France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It is situated in the far southwest corner of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.

Charente-Maritime Department of France

Charente-Maritime is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region on the southwestern coast of France. Named after the river Charente, its prefecture is La Rochelle. As of 2016, it had a population of 642,191 with an area of 6,864 square kilometres.

Gironde Department of France

Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. Named after the Gironde estuary, a major waterway, its prefecture is Bordeaux. In 2016, it had a population of 1,566,679. The famous Bordeaux wine region is in Gironde. It has 6 arondissements, making it the department with the most arrondissements.

Lot-et-Garonne Department of France in Nouvelle-Aquitaine

Lot-et-Garonne is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwestern France. Named after the Lot River and Garonne River, it had a population of 332,833 in 2016. Its prefecture and largest city is Agen.

Haute-Vienne Department of France in Nouvelle-Aquitaine

Haute-Vienne is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwest-central France. Named after the Vienne River, it is one of the twelve departments that together constitute Nouvelle-Aquitaine. The neighbouring departments are Creuse, Corrèze, Dordogne, Charente, Vienne and Indre.

Moulis-en-Médoc Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Moulis-en-Médoc is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Mont-de-Marsan Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Mont-de-Marsan is a commune and capital of the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Guéret Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Guéret is a commune and the prefecture of the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.

Arcachon Subprefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Arcachon is a commune in the southwestern French department of Gironde. It is a popular seaside resort on the Atlantic coast 55 kilometres (34 mi) southwest of Bordeaux, in the Landes forest. It has a sandy beach and a mild climate said to be favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. Arcachon is twinned with 5 cities.

Soorts-Hossegor Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Soorts-Hossegor is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, 20 km north of Biarritz.

Benquet Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Benquet is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Langon, Gironde Subprefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Langon is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Langon serves as the seat of its district, canton and subprefecture. Its inhabitants are called Langonnais.

Saint-Sever Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Saint-Sever is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Landes forest

The Landes forest or the Landes of Gascony, in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest man-made woodland in Western Europe. The French word, landes and Gascon lanas, mean 'moors' or 'heaths', from Transalpine Gaulish *landa ; compare Irish lann, Welsh llan (“enclosure”).

Côte dArgent

Côte d’Argent is a name given to part of the Atlantic coast of the Aquitaine region in France.

Seignosse Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Seignosse is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Illats Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Illats is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Perquie Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Perquie is a commune, a small town located in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Grenade-sur-lAdour Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Grenade-sur-l'Adour is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

Nouvelle-Aquitaine Administrative region of France

Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, spanning the west and southwest of the mainland. The region was created by the territorial reform of French regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine, Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. It covers 84,036 km2 (32,446 sq mi) – or 18 of the country – and has 5,956,978 inhabitants. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015.

References