The old water tower viewed across St. Olof's lake
|• Total||12.95 km2 (5.00 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,572/km2 (6,660/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Landskrona (old Danish : Landskrone) is a town in Scania, Sweden. Located on the shores of the Öresund, it posesses an excellent natural port, which has lent the town first military and then commercial sigificance. Ferries operate from Lankdskrona to the island of Ven, and for many years there was also a connection to Copenhagen.
Landskrona was founded by the Danish king Eric of Pomerania early in the 15th century and a fortress was built in the 1540s. Following the cession of Scania by Denmark, Landskrona became part of Sweden in 1720. The fortress and its extensive system of moats continued to have military importance until the 1700s. The town's population grew rapidly during the industrial revolution, and the Öresundsvarvet shipyard operated from 1917 until the 1983 and employed up to 3500 people.
In 2013 Landskrona had close to 33,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of Landskrona Municipality.
The city of Landskrona is usually claimed to have been founded in 1413 by the King of Denmark, Eric of Pomerania, as a trading city intended to compete with Danish towns under the control of the Hanseatic League. There is however evidence found in the Danish National Archive, which mention the town by the name "Landzcrone" already in 1405.
The site possesses the best natural harbour in Scania, which at that time was part of Denmark. At the time of foundation, the site held a fishing settlement named Sønder Sæby.The original name of the officially founded town was Landszcrone, which changed to Landskrone sometime before 1450.
A Carmelite monastery was founded in 1410, English merchants were granted the privileges in a royal charter in 1412, and the town itself was chartered in 1413. The monastery was closed by King Christian III after the reformation, but survives in the name of the street "Karmelitergatan".
Construction of Landskrona Citadel started in the 1540s under the orders of Christian III. The castle was completed in 1559, and consisted of a fortress with a surrounding wall and moat. [ citation needed ]A huge system of moats was constructed around the castle over the centuries; parts of four of the moats survive. Sweden's second, and oldest surviving, allotment area is located in the northern part of the citadel.
The town supported the king Christian II in 1525, and opposed the Reformation in Denmark (1535); in both cases it found itself on the losing side. The reformist king Christian III of Denmark opted not to retaliate against the town, and instead founded a castle to protect the harbour. The castle, built where the monastery had been situated until the Reformation, was completed by 1559.
After Scania was ceded to the Swedish Crown in 1658, the good harbour and strong fort motivated plans to make Landskrona a commercial center of the acquired territory, with extraordinary privileges for foreign trade. The castle was reinforced by bastions, and the area inside the moats extended to 400x400 meters. The castle was considered the strongest and most modern in Scandinavia, but was temporarily lost to the Danes after a comparably short siege lasting from July 8 to August 2, 1676. The commandant, Colonel Hieronymus Lindeberg, was consequently sentenced to death for high treason. During the Danish reconquest in 1676-1679, Landskrona Citadel constituted as mobilisation centre for formal enlistment of pro-Danish guerrilla fighters.
In 1753 the Swedish military commander feared that the tower of Sancti Johannis Baptistae church could be a threat to the citadel and demanded the demolition of the church.Even though the cornerstone of the new Sofia Albertina Church was laid the following year, it was not inaugurated until 1788, and was finally completed in 1812. Unusually for a church that is not a diocesan seat, the new church was built with two towers, possibly in compensation for its much larger medieval predecessor.
Landskrona's military importance declined after the 18th century. The continued Swedish–Danish wars led to Karlskrona replacing Landskrona as a naval base, as it is located at a safer distance from Denmark. Although the fortifications at Landskrona were expanded considerably between 1747 and 1788, they were condemned in 1822, whereafter the garrison was abolished in 1869. The last military regiment, Skånska Husarregimentet, K5 was renamed and moved from Landskrona to Uppsala in 1926.Today the walls and moats of the fortifications of Landskrona Citadel are a recreational area and the castle holds a museum. On the northern side, an allotment-garden area of cottages was founded in the final years of the 19th century, and is today the oldest of its kind in Sweden. The military's large exercise field became a public heath, today called "Exercisfältet" or "Exan".
The town grew quickly after the industrial revolution and subsequent urbanization. During the first World War a large shipyard, Öresundsvarvet was constructed. In the mid-1970s the shipyard employed more than 3,500 people, in a town with only 30,000 inhabitants. The shipyard was closed down in stages from the late 1970s, finally closing in 1983.
On 14 May 1919 the Swedish engineer and flight pioneer Enoch Thulin, who lived and worked in Landskrona, died when he crashed his own airplane at the Södra Fäladen fields. His funeral service was held in Sofia Albertina Church.
Between 1930 and 1939 the Saxtorp TT-races were held just south of the town. The races attracted up to 160,000 attendees and are considered the largest sporting events by crowd size ever held in Sweden.
The town's centre and buildings along the entrance streets generally consist of buildings with between two and seven floors.[ citation needed ] As a fortified town, stone houses were preferred instead of wooden houses, so the city boasts few examples of traditional Danish and Scanian half-timbered houses.[ citation needed ] Apart from the Citadel and Sofia Albertina Church, other notable 19th-century or older buildings are "Rådhuset", the Town Hall, Landskrona museum , the old railway station building and the theatre.
Much of the town's central parts, and buildings along the entrance roads are characterized by the work of the former town architects Fredrik Sundbärg 1901–1913and Frans Ekelund 1913–1949. Sundberg created a number of monumental buildings such as the old water tower, the school Tuppaskolan, the power station, a hot bathhouse (demolished in the 1970s), and two large blocks of flats intended for the working class, Falken and Gripen . Ekelund, who was a believer in the Garden city movement, reserved areas for people to build customised homes, typically smaller houses with cellars and two floors.
Ralph Erskine created the row house area called Esperanza (Spanish for hope) around 1970. The new water tower came into operation the same year.
Around the Town Hall Square, all but one building was built before functionalist architecture became popular. Some older buildings were demolished in the mid-20th century. Falcks hörna, a block-corner building with a rather unusual appearance, was demolished in the middle of the night in 1971 amid protests.
A natural deep harbour has existed here for a longer time than the town has been known. It's mentioned in the Danish historical work Saxo Grammaticus from around 1200The port is based on a natural chute in the sandy sea floor, despite the lack of any nearby debouching river. Since the 18th century, the harbour has been protected by the artificial island Gråen. In the 1960s it had a total quay length of around 3 km As of 2017 its usable quay length has been greatly reduced, with a tally of approximately 1250 meters of remaining quay, and its activity has been low for decades. The former car ferries to Copenhagen-Tuborg departed from the Nyhamn port, in the northern end. At a common map, it looks like the harbour has two inlets. But the waters immediately south of the harbor are extremely shallow. The northernmost part of Lundåkrabukten, the bay between Landskrona and Barsebäck, is not just shallow, but also largely free of stronger currents. During cold winter periods, Sea ice can then be formed here, much faster than at most other places in Øresund.
For many years, Landskrona was serviced by car ferries and other ships to and from Copenhagen. From 1951 to 1980 did the SL ferries operate the route between Port of Tuborg in northern Copenhagen and Landskrona. During a larger part of that period, also the Viking Bådeneoperated smaller passenger ships between the inner port of Copenhagen harbour. They were owned in Denmark, but from around 1970 they were purchased by the Swedish Centrumlinjen but kept their name. The 1973 energy crisis eventually caused the end of this shipping line.
Between 1980 and 1984 different kind of ships and shipping lines offered at least summer time traffic to Copenhagen. And From 1985 Scarlett Line was formed, and once again sailed to Port of Tuborg. From the spring of 1991 did Danish Vognmandsruten A/S merge with Scarlett Line, maintained the established name and began to sail every hour. The new shipping line mainly was intended to live on transport of lorries. In the autumn of 1993 Vognmandsruten A/S went bankrupt and this put an end to the car and lorry ferry traffic from Landskrona.
However, hydrofoil speedboats Flygbåtarna AB, which previously only had served passenger traffic in the southern part of Øresund, between Malmö and Copenhagen, now began to operate also from both Landskrona as well as from Helsingborg. Not until March 2002, almost two years after the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge did Flygbåtarna AB threw in the towel.
Aircraft approaching the nearby Copenhagen Airport to land on Runway 22L pass over the northern part of the town, where they make a sharp right turn towards the south to intercept the localiser around Barsebäck.Most landings at Copenhagen take place at Runway 22L. At the busiest times this can lead to consecutive aircraft passing over Landskrona with less than a minute's gap between them.
From the late Middle Ages to the Industrial revolution, the town's population was fairly stable at around 2,000. Between 1860 and 1918 it grew to a little below 20,000. But from around 1919 until the mid 1970s, Landskrona just grew to some 30,000 inhabitants. Due to the closing of Öresundsvarvet shipyard (only a fraction of its close to 4000 employees work at the "new" renovation shipyard with the same name) and of other heavy industries, the population instead began to fall. Around 1985–1995 Landskrona's population were approximately some 25,000. Thanks to the general immigration (both from upper Sweden and from other countries) to western Scania and the Øresund coast, and due to the new railway station (opened in 2001), the town's population has again grown, and has once again exceeded 30,000 inhabitants, which equals the situation in the early 1970s. The town had 32,229 inhabitants in 2015.
Landskrona was also relatively larger a century ago compared with today. After World War One the town was among the 15 largest in the country. But no longer holds that position.Between approx. 1880 and 1920 was the town transformed from a military town to a town with much heavy industry within many sectors. The Öresundsvarvet shipyard, which opened in 1917, became the largest employer (with close to 4000 employees in the early 1970s). But the industry was not limited to shipbuilding, and a sugar refinery, several textile industries, fertilizers and other chemical plants, as well as a spectrum of various manufacturing industries, grew up. But after the First World War, the town stopped growing as fast as many other Swedish towns did. And the very last military regiment moved to Hässleholm in 1924. Between the mid-1920s and mid-1970s the town grew from approx. 20,000 inhabitants to 30,000. And after the Swedish municipality reforms reached its end point, in 1974, the municipality counted around 38,000 inhabitants.
Landskrona Konsthall opened in 1963 in the park attached to Landskrona Citadell.In the surrounding parkland there are sculptures by twenty artists.
Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd, was a Swedish painter and sculptor. He lived in Landskrona at the end of his life and died of pneumonia at Landskrona Hospital, on 3 May 2016, aged 81. He was a professor of painting at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm from 1965 until 1969. In 1974, he was a guest professor at Minneapolis School of Art in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 1986 he was awarded the Prince Eugen Medal for painting. Reuterswärd is known for his sculpture showing a revolver tied in a knot, called Non violence , which is exhibited outside the United Nations headquarters in New York City.
British artist Ian Berry, who makes artwork from denim jeans, lived in Landskrona between 2010-2015 and made some of his artwork based on Landskrona and the Oresund Region.
The Landskrona BoIS football club was formed through a merger of two older clubs in 1915. "BoIS" was one of the twelve original football clubs in Sweden's premier football league, Allsvenskan. They have won four Allsvenskan medals and the cup once, in 1972. As of the 2018 season [update] , Landskrona BoIS play in Sweden's second-tier league, Superettan. They are based at the Landskrona IP stadium, where their attendance record is 18,535.
Between 1930 and 1939 the annual Saxtorp TT-races motorcycle events saw crowds of up to 160,000. Saxtorp is located some 10–15 km south-east of the town centre.
The island of Ven can be reached through a regular ferry connection. The ships used for this transport usually depart 9 times a day. Extended service is also available during July and August.
The town's first railway station opened in 1863 and was located a short walk from Rådhustorget, the City Hall Square.In the 1920s was Landskrona station the western terminal of three railway lines. To Eslöv, Kävlinge (from which some trains continued to Lund and Malmö) and to Billesholm. It's notable that during the 1860 to 1940 construction of the Swedish railway network, there wasn't build a railway to the nearby city of Helsingborg. The line to Billesholm was short-lived and closed before the 1960s. During the mid 1970s the Swedish National Railways, SJ, was considering closing all local train service in the south. But along with other towns and cities in the former Malmöhus län, Landskrona participated in forming a new local railway system, which got the very Scanian name Pågatåg. This new railway system, which opened in a minor scale in 1983, was the first of its kind in Sweden, outside the Stockholm area. In connection with the construction of the Øresund Bridge, another train system was introduced, called the Øresundståg. They are Inter-regional trains as well as international ones, and link Denmark and Sweden together via railways. For Landskrona this meant that there was a call for a new location for the station, in order to avoid both the terminal type station, and provide better routing for northbound traffic. After political discussions it was decided to build a new dual track high speed railway between Helsingborg and Lund, as a part of a planned West Coast Railway between Copenhagen and Gothenborg. As Landskrona is located between Helsingborg and Lund, Landskrona was included in the planning for the new railway. But, as the new railway just "touched" the town's eastern end, there was a need for a new station in that area. The new station, located in what were until the late 1990s agricultural areas, now delineates a clear boundary between town and countryside. The new station, which opened in January 2001, allowed for a greater range of train operations compared to the old terminal station that accommodated southbound trains only. Today, all local Pågatågen trains and inter-regional Øresundståg trains stop at the new station, which gives the new station a weekday service frequency of 4-6 trains per hour in each direction.
A trolleybus shuttle service, the "Station Shuttle", was introduced in September 2003,and links the new station with the city centre and the ferry terminal in the harbour. This service is the shortest trolleybus route currently operating in the world.
The new services meant that, as of 2017, Copenhagen Airport can be reached in 50 minutes and central Copenhagen in 65 minutes. It's also possible to reach Copenhagen by northbound trains to Helsingborg and then by the HH ferry route make a 20-minute sea travel to Helsingør, and from there take another train to Copenhagen. Although the (initially) northbound route to central Copenhagen includes two changes, the Danish Capital is normally reached in less than 90 minutes.
Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark. Helsingør Municipality had a population of 62,686 on 1 January 2018. Helsingør and Helsingborg in Sweden together form the northern reaches of the Øresund Region, centered on Copenhagen and Malmö. The HH Ferry route connects Helsingør with Helsingborg, 4 km across the Øresund.
Malmö is the largest city in the Swedish county (län) of Skåne. It is the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 316,588. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Öresund region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people.
Øresund or Öresund, commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi); its width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.
Skåne County, sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county, or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne. It borders the counties of Halland, Kronoberg and Blekinge and connects to Capital Region, Denmark by the Öresund Bridge. The seat of residence for the Skåne Governor is the city of Malmö. The headquarters of Skåne Regional Council are located in both Kristianstad and Malmö.
Ven is a small Swedish island in the Øresund strait, between Scania and Zealand (Denmark). It is part of Landskrona Municipality, Skåne County. The island has 371 inhabitants and an area of 7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi). During the 1930s, the population was at its peak, with approximately 1,300 inhabitants. There are four villages on the island: Bäckviken, Tuna By, Norreborg and Kyrkbacken. The island is best known as the location of Tycho Brahe's 16th century observatories.
The history of the province of Scania was for many hundred years, up until the 18th century, marked by the struggle between the two Scandinavian kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden over the hegemony in the Baltic area.
The Øresund Region, also known as Greater Copenhagen for marketing purposes, is a metropolitan region that comprises eastern Denmark and Skåne in southern Sweden. Centred around the Øresund strait and the two cities which lie on either side, Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden, the region is connected by the Øresund Bridge, which spans the strait at its southern end, and the HH Ferry route between Helsingør, Denmark, and Helsingborg, Sweden, at the narrowest point of the strait.
Ystad is a town and the seat of Ystad Municipality in Skåne County, Sweden. Ystad had 18,350 inhabitants in 2010. The settlement dates back to the 11th century and has become a busy ferryport, local administrative centre and tourist attraction. The detective series Wallander, created by Henning Mankell, is set primarily in Ystad.
Helsingborg is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Scania, Sweden. It had 112,496 inhabitants in 2019. Helsingborg is the centre of the northern part of western Scania and Sweden's closest point to Denmark: the Danish city Helsingør is clearly visible about 4 km (2 mi) to the west on the other side of the Øresund. The HH Ferry route across the sound has more than 70 car ferry departures from each harbour every day.
The Øresund Line is a 24/7 railway between Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden via the Øresund Bridge, with a 35- to 40-minute trip. On the Swedish side it is managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, on the Danish side by Banedanmark.
Scania, is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden. The former province is roughly conterminous with Skåne County, created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania is still used in colloquial speech and cultural references, and can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Skåne Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.
The HH Tunnel is a proposed series of tunnels under Øresund between Helsingborg, Sweden and Helsingør, Denmark. The connection is planned for passenger trains, and probably for freight trains and for road traffic.
Helsingør station is the principal railway station serving the city of Helsingør, Denmark. It is the terminus of the Coast Line to Copenhagen, the Little North Line to Hillerød and the Hornbæk Line to Gilleleje. It also provides easy access to the ferries to Helsingborg, Sweden.
The Helsingør–Helsingborg ferry route is a shipping route connecting Helsingør (Elsinore), Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund. Due to the short distance, which is less than 3 nautical miles, is it one of the world's busiest international car ferry routes, with around 70 daily departures from each harbour. The oldest-known written mention of the route dates to the German traveller Adam of Bremen in the 11th century, but it has likely been in use much longer. Before 1658, the route was a domestic Danish route. For several centuries, the route has been run regularly by various Danish shipping lines. Its significance grew during the 1950s, but since the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, at the southern end of the Øresund, it has lost some significance but remains as one of the world's most important ferry routes, particularly as a cheaper alternative to the bridge tolls. Since 1952, passports have not been required for citizens of the Nordic Passport Union countries.
LB or locally simply LB was a car and lorry ferry line that between 1955 and 1981 operated on the HH Ferry route between Helsingør (Elsinore), Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden. They were the first operator on this route to challenge the informal monopoly which DSB had enjoyed ever since 1888. And since 1630, competition at the route had only occurred between 1836 and 1840. The route had further been operated by the Danish National railways with train ferries since 1892, and since 1931 with a 50-50 support deal also with the National Swedish railways. Until LB challenged the informal monopoly.
SL ferries was a shipping line that operated with car ferries in the central part of Øresund, between Copenhagen, Port of Tuborg, Zealand, Denmark and Landskrona, Scania, Sweden. The shipping line was to sail this route between 1951 and 1980. During the first ten years of operation, the SL ferries was a Danish owned shipping line, but in 1961 SL was bought by Stockholms Rederi AB Svea. The new owners also owned the LB which since 1955 operated at the HH Ferry route between Helsingør and Helsingborg, the first challenger of the de facto monopoly at that route which DSB had enjoyed since 1882.
The current national border between Denmark and Sweden dates to 1658.
Öresundsvarvet was a Swedish shipyard in Landskrona that was established in 1915 and largely phased out between 1980 and 1982.
Gråen is a small artificial Swedish island in Øresund, originally constructed during the 18th century both in order to protect Landskrona harbour and for military reasons related to the nearby Landskrona Citadel. A smaller allotments area is located on the island, and access is only by boat. Most of its 50 acres is a bird sanctuary and there are strong trespassing rules between 15 March and 1 August. Only a very few authorised ornithologists are allowed inside the sanctuary during the breeding season.
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