Lanzarote

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Lanzarote
Lanzarote's Lunar-Like Landscape.jpg
Satellite view (October 2019)
Spain Canary Islands location map Lanzarote.svg
Location in the Canary Islands
Espana-Canarias-loc.svg
Red pog.svg
Lanzarote
Location in Spain
Geography
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 29°02′06″N13°38′06″W / 29.035°N 13.635°W / 29.035; -13.635 Coordinates: 29°02′06″N13°38′06″W / 29.035°N 13.635°W / 29.035; -13.635
Archipelago Canary Islands
Area845.94 km2 (326.62 sq mi) [1]
Coastline191 km (118.7 mi) [1]
Highest elevation671 m (2201 ft) [1]
Highest pointPeñas del Chache
Administration
Spain
Autonomous community Canary Islands
Province Las Palmas
Capital and largest city Arrecife (pop. 62988)
President of the cabildo insular María Dolores Corujo Berriel
Demographics
Demonymlanzaroteño, -ña; conejero, -a (es)
Population152289 (2019) [2]
Pop. density180.0/km2 (466.2/sq mi)
Languages Spanish, specifically Canarian Spanish
Ethnic groups Spanish, other minority groups
Additional information
Time zone
  Summer (DST)

Lanzarote ( UK: /ˌlænzəˈrɒti/ , [3] [4] Spanish:  [lanθaˈɾote] , locally  [lansaˈɾote] ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is located approximately 125 kilometres (78 miles) off the north coast of Africa and 1,000 kilometres (621 miles) from the Iberian Peninsula. Covering 845.94 square kilometres (326.62 square miles), Lanzarote is the fourth-largest of the islands in the archipelago. With 152,289 inhabitants at the start of 2019, [2] it is the third most populous Canary Island, after Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Located in the centre-west of the island is Timanfaya National Park, one of its main attractions. The island was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in 1993. [5] The island's capital is Arrecife, which lies on the eastern coastline. [6] It is the smaller main island of the Province of Las Palmas.

Contents

The first recorded name for the island, given by Italian-Majorcan cartographer Angelino Dulcert, was Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus, after the Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, from which the modern name is derived. The island's name in the native Guanche language was Tyterogaka or Tytheroygaka, which may mean "one that is all ochre" (referring to the island's predominant colour). [7]

Geography

Lanzarote is located 11 kilometres (7 miles) north-east of Fuerteventura and just over 1 kilometre (0.62 miles) from La Graciosa. The dimensions of the island are 60 kilometres (37 miles) from north to south and 25 kilometres (16 miles) from west to east. Lanzarote has 213 kilometres (132 miles) of coastline, of which 10 kilometres (6 miles) are sand, 16.5 kilometres (10 miles) are beach, and the remainder is rocky. Its landscape includes the mountain ranges of Famara (671 metres or 2,201 feet) [8] in the north and Ajaches (608 metres or 1,995 feet) to the south. South of the Famara massif is the El Jable desert, which separates Famara and Montañas del Fuego. The highest peak is Peñas del Chache, rising to 670 metres (2,200 feet) above sea level. The "Tunnel of Atlantis", the largest underwater volcanic tunnel in the world, is part of the Cueva de los Verdes lava tube. [9]

Climate

Often called the "Island of Eternal Spring", [10] Lanzarote has a subtropical-desert climate according to the Köppen climatic classification. [11] The small amount of precipitation is mainly concentrated in the winter. Rainfall during summer is a rare phenomenon and very often summers are completely dry without any precipitation. On average the island receives approximately 16 days of precipitation between December and February. [10] Sometimes, the hot sirocco wind prevails, causing dry and dusty conditions across the island. [10] Average precipitation in June and August is less than 0.5 millimetres (0.020 inches). It closely borders a tropical climate, with winter means of 18 °C (64 °F) and summer means of 25 °C (77 °F).

Climate data for Lanzarote Airport (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)27.9
(82.2)
29.0
(84.2)
32.7
(90.9)
36.3
(97.3)
42.6
(108.7)
40.7
(105.3)
42.9
(109.2)
43.6
(110.5)
40.5
(104.9)
37.1
(98.8)
34.2
(93.6)
27.5
(81.5)
43.6
(110.5)
Average high °C (°F)20.7
(69.3)
21.3
(70.3)
22.9
(73.2)
23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
26.3
(79.3)
28.2
(82.8)
29.1
(84.4)
28.6
(83.5)
26.7
(80.1)
24.2
(75.6)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.4
(63.3)
17.9
(64.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.6
(67.3)
20.8
(69.4)
22.6
(72.7)
24.3
(75.7)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
23.0
(73.4)
20.7
(69.3)
18.6
(65.5)
21.1
(70.0)
Average low °C (°F)14.0
(57.2)
14.3
(57.7)
15.0
(59.0)
15.7
(60.3)
16.8
(62.2)
18.8
(65.8)
20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.8
(69.4)
19.4
(66.9)
17.2
(63.0)
15.4
(59.7)
17.4
(63.3)
Record low °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
9.0
(48.2)
8.3
(46.9)
9.5
(49.1)
11.5
(52.7)
12.4
(54.3)
15.4
(59.7)
16.6
(61.9)
15.5
(59.9)
12.0
(53.6)
10.9
(51.6)
9.0
(48.2)
8.0
(46.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)16.5
(0.65)
18.2
(0.72)
12.5
(0.49)
5.2
(0.20)
1.5
(0.06)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
2.2
(0.09)
9.9
(0.39)
14.7
(0.58)
29.3
(1.15)
111.0
(4.37)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)3.22.72.41.30.40.00.00.10.41.93.03.819
Average relative humidity (%)68686666666668687071697168
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2032012412552972923082952482352071962,986
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología [12]

Geology

Atlantic Ocean at Los Picollos, Lanzarote Atlantic Ocean at Los Picollos, Lanzarote.jpg
Atlantic Ocean at Los Picollos, Lanzarote

Lanzarote is the northernmost and easternmost island of the Canary Islands and has a volcanic origin. [13] It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. The island emerged about 15 million years ago as product of the Canary hotspot. The island, along with others, emerged after the breakup of the African and the American continental plates. The greatest recorded eruptions occurred between 1730 and 1736 in the area now designated Timanfaya National Park. [14]

Biodiversity

Malvasia grape vines growing in topsoil covered in lapilli, in La Geria. The low, curved walls protect the vines from the constant, drying wind. La Geria vines.jpg
Malvasia grape vines growing in topsoil covered in lapilli, in La Geria. The low, curved walls protect the vines from the constant, drying wind.

Plants

There are five hundred different kinds of plants on the island, of which 17 species are endemic. These plants have adapted to the relative scarcity of water in the same way as succulents. They include the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), which is found in damper areas of the north, the Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis), ferns, and wild olive trees (Olea europaea). Laurisilva trees, which once covered the highest parts of Risco de Famara, are rarely found today. After winter rainfall, the vegetation comes to a colourful bloom between February and March.

The vineyards of La Gería, Lanzarote DO wine region, are a protected area. Single vines are planted in pits 4–5 metres (13–16 feet) wide and 2–3 metres (6 feet 7 inches–9 feet 10 inches) deep, with small stone walls around each pit. This agricultural technique is designed to harvest rainfall and overnight dew and to protect the plants from the winds.

Fungi

There are 180 different species of lichen-forming fungi. These survive in the suitable areas like rock surfaces, and promote weathering.

Animals

Apart from the native bats and the mammals which accompanied humans to the island (including the dromedary, which was used for agriculture and is now a tourist attraction), there are few vertebrate species on Lanzarote. These include birds (such as falcons) and reptiles. Some interesting endemic animals are the Gallotia lizards and the blind Munidopsis polymorpha crabs found in the Jameos del Agua lagoon, which was formed by a volcanic eruption. The island is also home to one of two surviving populations of the threatened Canarian Egyptian vulture.

Natural symbols

The official natural symbols associated with Lanzarote are Munidopsis polymorpha (Blind crab) and Euphorbia balsamifera (Tabaiba dulce). [15]

Demographics and administration

Papagayo Beach Lanzarote 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
Papagayo Beach

As of 2019, 152289 people live on Lanzarote, an increase of 9.163% from 2008 (139506). [2] The seat of the island government ( Cabildo insular ) is in the capital, Arrecife, which has a population of 62988 in 2019. [2] According to the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants are Spanish (72.1%) with a sizeable number of residents of other nationalities, notably Britons (5.6%), Colombians (3.2%), Germans (3.1%) and Moroccans (3.1%). [16] Other populous groups include Italians, Koreans, Cubans, and Romanians, which constitute a large proportion of the remaining 12.9% of the population. [16]

NationalityPopulation %
Spanish 10272072.1%
British 80265.6%
Colombian 45663.2%
German 44043.1%
Moroccan 43843.1%
Other nationalities1841712.9%

The island has an international airport, César Manrique-Lanzarote Airport, through which 7327019 passengers travelled in 2018. [17] Tourism has been the mainstay of the island's economy for over 40 years, the only other industry being agriculture.

Lanzarote is part of the province of Las Palmas, and is divided into seven municipalities:

NameArea
(km2)
Population
(2001) [2]
Population
(2011) [2]
Population
(2019) [2]
Arrecife 22.7244,98055,38162,988
Haría 106.594,0275,0545,123
San Bartolomé 40.8913,03018,11818,816
Teguise 263.9812,39220,29422,342
Tías 64.6112,82019,14820,170
Tinajo 135.284,5125,7386,279
Yaiza 211.855,02014,46816,571
Totals845.92 96,781138,201152,289

    Transport

    Lanzarote (Canary Islands) - OSM Mapnik.svg
    Anchor pictogram.svg
    Arrecife
    Anchor pictogram.svg
    Órzola
    Anchor pictogram.svg
    Playa Blanca
    Location of airport and ports of Lanzarote

    Air

    The island's main point of entry is César Manrique-Lanzarote Airport which, in 2018, handled 7327019 passengers. [17] It was renamed in 2019 to include the name of local artist César Manrique, in honour of the legacy he left behind on the island and coinciding with the centenary of his birth. [18] The airport has two passenger terminal buildings, T1 and T2, with T2 being used exclusively for inter-island flights to and from the other Canary Islands. These inter-island flights are operated by regional airlines Binter Canarias and Canaryfly. Lanzarote Airport is located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southwest of the island's capital, Arrecife, to which it is connected by the LZ-2 road.

    Sea

    Most of the goods arrive by sea through the Port of Arrecife, Puerto de los Mármoles. This port is also used by cruise ships.

    Furthermore, there are regular ferry lines that connect the Port of Arrecife with Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Cadiz.

    Ferry services to the neighbouring island of Fuerteventura depart from Playa Blanca, the island's southernmost town.

    The two main companies operating these services are Fred Olsen Express and Naviera Armas.

    Ferries to the island of La Graciosa depart from Órzola, Lanzarote's northernmost town.

    Road

    The LZ-1 road connects the capital, Arrecife, to the northernmost town of Órzola. The LZ-2 road connects Arrecife to the southernmost town of Playa Blanca. LZ-3 is a highway that acts as a ring road around Arrecife, connecting Puerto de los Mármoles on the northern side of the city to LZ-2 on the southern side. These three roads form the island's central road axis from which other roads connect to the rest of the island's towns, settlements and points of interest.

    Public transport on the island is provided by Arrecife Bus, operating under the name of Intercity Bus Lanzarote. The company operates 30 bus lines connecting the island's major and minor settlements, as well as serving the airport, and includes internal bus services in the towns of Playa Blanca, San Bartolomé and Tías. Most lines begin or end in the capital, Arrecife. [19] The public bus service within the city of Arrecife is provided by the local council and consists of five lines, including one to the neighbouring town of Playa Honda. [20]

    History

    View over a lava field towards the Montanas del Fuego LavaFieldLanzarote.jpg
    View over a lava field towards the Montañas del Fuego

    Lanzarote is believed to have been the first Canary Island to be settled. The Phoenicians may have visited or settled there, though no material evidence survives. The first known record came from Roman author Pliny the Elder in the encyclopaedia Naturalis Historia on an expedition to the Canary Islands. [21] The names of the islands (then called Insulae Fortunatae or the "Fortunate Isles") were recorded as Junonia (Fuerteventura), Canaria (Gran Canaria), Ninguaria (Tenerife), Junonia Major (La Palma), Pluvialia (El Hierro), and Capraria (La Gomera). Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two easternmost Canary Islands, were only mentioned as the archipelago of the "purple islands".[ clarification needed ] The Roman poet Lucan and the Greek astronomer and geographer Ptolemy gave their precise locations. [22] It was settled by the Majos tribe of the Guanches.[ citation needed ] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, interaction with the Canary Islands is unrecorded before 999, when the Arabs arrived at the island which they dubbed al-Djezir al-Khalida (among other names).

    Overlooking the harbour in Puerto del Carmen's Old Town Sunny afternoon in the Old town in Puerto Del Carmen.jpg
    Overlooking the harbour in Puerto del Carmen's Old Town

    In 1336, a ship arrived from Lisbon under the guidance of Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, who used the alias "Lanzarote da Framqua". A fort was later built in the area of Montaña de Guanapay near today's Teguise. Castilian slaving expeditions in 1385 and 1393 seized hundreds of Guanches and sold them in Spain, initiating the slave trade in the islands. [23] [24] French explorer Jean de Béthencourt arrived in 1402, heading a private expedition under Castilian auspices. Bethencourt first visited the south of Lanzarote at Playas de Papagayo, and the French overran the island within a matter of months. The island lacked mountains and gorges to serve as hideouts for the remaining Guanche population, and so many Guanches were taken away as slaves that only 300 Guanche men were said to have remained.

    At the southern end of the Yaiza municipality, the first European settlement in the Canary Islands appeared in 1402 in the area known as El Rubicón, where the conquest of the Archipelago began. [25] In this place, the Cathedral of Saint Martial of Limoges was built. The cathedral was destroyed by English pirates in the 16th century. A diocese was moved in 1483 to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Roman Catholic Diocese of Canarias). [25] In 1404, the Castilians (with the support of the King of Castile) came and fought the local Guanches, who were further decimated. The islands of Fuerteventura and El Hierro were later similarly conquered. In 1477, a decision by the royal council of Castile confirmed a grant of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, with the smaller islands of Ferro and Gomera to the Castilian nobles Herrera, who held their fief until the end of the 18th century. [26] In 1585, the Ottoman admiral Murat Reis temporarily seized Lanzarote. In the 17th century, pirates raided the island and took 1,000 inhabitants into slavery in Cueva de los Verdes.

    Sunset overlooking the beach in Puerto del Carmen Scenic sunset image in Puerto Del Carmen, Lanzarote.jpg
    Sunset overlooking the beach in Puerto del Carmen

    Lanzarote and Fuerteventura would be the main exporters of wheat and cereals to the central islands of the archipelago during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries; Tenerife and Gran Canaria. [27] Although this trade was almost never reversed for the inhabitants of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (due to the fact that the landowners of these islands profited from this activity), producing periods of famine, so the population of these islands had to travel to Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The island of Tenerife is a major focus of attraction for the inhabitants of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, hence the feeling of union that has always existed in the popular sphere with Tenerife. [27]

    From 1730 to 1736, the island was hit by a series of volcanic eruptions, producing 32 new volcanoes in a stretch of 18 kilometres (11 miles). [28] The priest of Yaiza, Don Andrés Lorenzo Curbelo, documented the eruption in detail until 1731. Lava covered a quarter of the island's surface, including the most fertile soil and 11 villages. 100 smaller volcanoes were located in the area called Montañas del Fuego, the "Mountains of Fire". [29] In 1768, drought affected the deforested island, and winter rains did not fall. Much of the population was forced to emigrate to Cuba and the Americas, including a group which formed a significant addition to the Spanish settlers in Texas at San Antonio de Bexar in 1731. Another volcanic eruption occurred within the range of Tiagua in 1824, which was less violent than the major eruption between 1730 and 1736.

    In 1927, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura became part of the province of Las Palmas. Several archaeological expeditions have uncovered the prehistoric settlement at the archaeologic site of El Bebedero in the village of Teguise. [30] In one of those expeditions, by a team from the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and a team from the University of Zaragoza, yielded about 100 Roman potsherds, nine pieces of metal, and one piece of glass. The artefacts were found in strata dated between the 1st and 4th centuries. They show that Romans did trade with the Canarians, though there is no evidence of settlements. [22]

    The island has a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve protected site status. According to a report in the Financial Times , this status was endangered by a local corruption scandal. Since May 2009, police have arrested the former president of Lanzarote, the former mayor of Arrecife and more than 20 politicians and businessmen in connection with illegal building permits along Lanzarote's coastline. UNESCO has threatened to revoke Lanzarote's Biosphere Reserve status, "if the developments are not respecting local needs and are impacting on the environment". [31] [32] The President of the Cabildo of Lanzarote denied "any threat to Lanzarote's UNESCO status". [33]

    Notable people

    Festivals

    The most established festival on the island is held each year on 15 September in the village of Mancha Blanca, in honour of Our Lady of Dolours (Virgen de los Dolores), also called the "Virgin of the Volcanoes" (the Patron Saint of Lanzarote). People from all over the island participate in this pilgrimage, mostly dressed in traditional costumes.

    Views

    Hacha Grande, in the south of the island, viewed from the road to Papagayo beach Hacha grande from papagayo pano.jpg
    Hacha Grande, in the south of the island, viewed from the road to Papagayo beach
    Salinas de Janubio, in the west of the island Salinas de Janubio at Lanzarote.jpg
    Salinas de Janubio, in the west of the island
    Crater and laguna in El Golfo El Golfo Charco de los Clicos Panorama.jpg
    Crater and laguna in El Golfo

    Related Research Articles

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    Tourism is an essential part of the economy of the Canary Islands, a Spanish archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco. Seven main islands and six islets make up the Canary Islands. They had more than 9 million foreign incoming tourists in 2007. Tourists seeking sunshine and beaches first began to visit the Canaries in large numbers in the 1960s. The Canary Islands are a leading European tourist destination with very attractive natural and cultural resources.

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    Pechiguera Lighthouse Lighthouse on Lanzarote, Spain

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    As in the rest of Spain, the majority religion in the Canary Islands is the Catholic Church. The Catholic religion has been the majority since the Conquest of the Canary Islands in the fifteenth century. This religion would largely replace the Canarian aboriginal religion through the prohibition of the latter and syncretism. According to a survey conducted in 2019, Canary Islands is the fifth autonomous community in Spain with the highest percentage of people who declare themselves to be Catholics after the Region of Murcia, Extremadura, Galicia, Aragon, and Castile and León. 76.7% of the population is Catholic.

    Geology of the Canary Islands

    The geology of the Canary Islands is dominated by volcanic rock. The Canary Islands and some seamounts to the north-east form the Canary Volcanic Province whose volcanic history started about 70 million years ago. The Canary Islands region is still volcanically active. The most recent volcanic eruption on land occurred in 1971 and the most recent underwater eruption was in 2011-12.

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