Laozi

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Laozi
老子
Zhang Lu-Laozi Riding an Ox.jpg
Laozi by Zhang Lu; Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
Born601 BC
Chujen village, state of Chu
DiedUnknown, departed to the West in 531 BC (aged 70)
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Chinese philosophy
School Taoism
Notable ideas
Tao , wu wei
Laozi
Laozi (Chinese characters).svg
"Lǎozǐ" in seal script (top) and regular (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese 老子
Hanyu Pinyin Lǎozǐ
Literal meaning"Old Master"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Lão Tử
Hán-Nôm 老子
Korean name
Hangul 노자
Hanja 老子
Japanese name
Kanji 老子
Hiragana ろうし

Laozi ( UK: /ˈlˈzɪə/ ; [1] US: /ˈlˈts/ ; Chinese :老子Mandarin pronunciation:  [làu̯.tsɨ] ; literally "Old Master"), also rendered as Lao Tzu ( /ˈlˈts/ [1] or /ˈlˈdzʌ/ [2] [3] ) and Lao-Tze ( /ˈlˈdz/ [4] ), was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. [5] He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching , [6] the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions.

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Contents

A semi-legendary figure, Laozi was usually portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but some modern historians consider him to have lived during the Warring States period of the 4th century BC. [7] A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage. Laozi's work has been embraced by both various anti-authoritarian movements [8] and Chinese Legalism. [9]

Confucius Chinese teacher, editor, politician and philosopher

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period.

Warring States period Era in ancient Chinese history

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.

Chinese culture Asian culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. The area over which the culture prevails covers a large geographical region in East Asia and is extremely diverse and varying, with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns as well.

Names

In traditional accounts, Laozi's personal name is usually given as Li Er( , Old   * ʔ  ʔ , [10] Mod.   Ěr) and his courtesy name as Boyang( trad.   , simp.   , Old   * Pˤrak-lang, [10] Mod.  Bóyáng). A prominent posthumous name was Li Dan( , Dān). [11] [12] [13]

Old Chinese Oldest attested stage of Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuo zhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese, which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese.

Glottal stop Sound made by stopping airflow in the glottis

The glottal stop or glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Laozi itself is a honorific title: ( Old   * rˤu ʔ , "old, venerable") [10] and ( Old   * tsəʔ , "master"). [10] It has been romanized numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is Laozi or Lǎozǐ, [14] based on the Hanyu Pinyin system adopted by Mainland China in 1958 [15] and by Taiwan in 2009. [16] During the 20th century, Lao-tzu [17] was more common, [14] based on the formerly prevalent Wade–Giles system. In the 19th century, the title was usually romanized as Lao-tse. [14] [18] Other forms include the variants Lao-tze [19] and Lao-tsu. [20]

Chinese honorifics and honorific language are words, word constructs, and expressions in the Chinese language that convey self-deprecation, social respect, politeness, or deference. Once ubiquitously employed in ancient China, a large percent has fallen out of use in the contemporary Chinese lexicon. The promotion of vernacular Chinese during the New Culture Movement of the 1910s and 1920s in China further hastened the demise of a large body of Chinese honorifics previously preserved in the vocabulary and grammar of Classical Chinese.

Pharyngealization

Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

The romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization.

As a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" (太上老君, Tàishàng Lǎojūn) [21] and as one of the "Three Pure Ones". During the Tang dynasty, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor" (太上玄元皇帝,Tàishàng Xuānyuán Huángdì). [22]

Three Pure Ones The three highest gods in the Taoist pantheon, regarded as pure manifestation of the Tao and the origin of all sentient beings

The Three Pure Ones also translated as the Three Pure Pellucid Ones, the Three Pristine Ones, the Three Divine Teachers, the Three Clarities, or the Three Purities are the Taoist Trinity, the three highest Gods in the Taoist pantheon. They are regarded as pure manifestation of the Tao and the origin of all sentient beings. From the Taoist classic Tao Te Ching, it was held that "The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things." It is generally agreed that: Tao produced One—Wuji produced Taiji; One produced Two—Taiji produced Yin and Yang [or Liangyi (兩儀) in scholastic term]. However, the subject of how Two produced Three has remained a popular debate among Taoist Scholars. Most scholars believe that it refers to the Interaction between Yin and Yang, with the presence of Chi, or life force.

Tang dynasty State in Chinese history

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Chinese history. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.

Historical views

In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the historicity of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the Tao Te Ching was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands". [23] Alan Watts urged more caution, holding that this view was part of an academic fashion for skepticism about historical spiritual and religious figures and stating that not enough would be known for years – or possibly ever – to make a firm judgment. [24]

Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction. The historicity of a claim about the past is its factual status. Historicity denotes historical actuality, authenticity, factuality and focuses on the true value of knowledge claims about the past.

Alan Watts British philosopher, writer and speaker

Alan Wilson Watts was a British philosopher who interpreted and popularised Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Born in Chislehurst, England, he moved to the United States in 1938 and began Zen training in New York. Pursuing a career, he attended Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, where he received a master's degree in theology. Watts became an Episcopal priest in 1945, then left the ministry in 1950 and moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the American Academy of Asian Studies.

The earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st‑century BC Records of the Grand Historian collected by the historian Sima Qian from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius during the 6th or 5th century BC. His surname was Li and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of Confucius titled Lao Laizi ( ) and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century BC reign of Duke Xian of the Qin Dynasty. [25] [26] The oldest text of the Tao Te Ching so far recovered was written on bamboo slips and dates to the late 4th century BC; [6] see Guodian Chu Slips.

According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. [27] This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi . [28] [29]

He was sometimes held to have come from the village of Chu Jen in Chu. [30] In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier.

The story tells of Zong the Warrior who defeats the enemy and triumphs, and then abandons the corpses of the enemy soldiers to be eaten by vultures. By coincidence Laozi, traveling and teaching the way of the Tao, comes on the scene and is revealed to be the father of Zong, from whom he was separated in childhood. Laozi tells his son that it is better to treat respectfully a beaten enemy, and that the disrespect to their dead would cause his foes to seek revenge. Convinced, Zong orders his soldiers to bury the enemy dead. Funeral mourning is held for the dead of both parties and a lasting peace is made.

Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, [31] including the emperors of the Tang dynasty. [32] [31] [33] This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage (隴西李氏). According to the Simpkinses, while many (if not all) of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture. [34]

The third story in Sima Qian states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in Chengzhou and noted the kingdom's decline. He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 80. At the western gate of the city (or kingdom), he was recognized by the guard Yinxi. The sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the Tao Te Ching, although the present version of the text includes additions from later periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again. [35] In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha. Others say he was the Buddha himself. [28] [36]

A seventh-century work, the Sandong Zhunang ("Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns"), embellished the relationship between Laozi and Yinxi. Laozi pretended to be a farmer when reaching the western gate, but was recognized by Yinxi, who asked to be taught by the great master. Laozi was not satisfied by simply being noticed by the guard and demanded an explanation. Yinxi expressed his deep desire to find the Tao and explained that his long study of astrology allowed him to recognize Laozi's approach. Yinxi was accepted by Laozi as a disciple. This is considered an exemplary interaction between Taoist master and disciple, reflecting the testing a seeker must undergo before being accepted. A would-be adherent is expected to prove his determination and talent, clearly expressing his wishes and showing that he had made progress on his own towards realizing the Tao. [37]

The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Tao Te Ching, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his virtue, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Tao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Taoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment. [38]

The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Taoism took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Tao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Masters, the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the Tao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Tao Te Ching but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the Tao. [39]

Taoist myths state that Laozi was conceived when his mother gazed upon a falling star. He supposedly remained in her womb for 62 years before being born while his mother was leaning against a plum tree. (The Chinese surname Li shares its character with "plum".) Laozi was said to have emerged as a grown man with a full grey beard and long earlobes, both symbols of wisdom and long life. [40] [41] Other myths state that he was reborn 13 times after his first life during the days of Fuxi. In his last incarnation as Laozi, he lived nine hundred and ninety years and spent his life traveling to reveal the Tao. [39]

Tao Te Ching

Laozi Immortal and Grand Master of Heaven Ping Sien Si - 016 Lao zi (16135526115).jpg
Laozi Immortal and Grand Master of Heaven

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Tao Te Ching (Daodejing), though the identity of its author(s) or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history. [43] [44] It is one of the most significant treatises in Chinese cosmogony. As with most other ancient Chinese philosophers, Laozi often explains his ideas by way of paradox, analogy, appropriation of ancient sayings, repetition, symmetry, rhyme, and rhythm. In fact, the whole book can be read as an analogy – the ruler is the awareness, or self, in meditation and the myriad creatures or empire is the experience of the body, senses and desires.

The Tao Te Ching, often called simply Laozi after its reputed author, describes the Dao (or Tao) as the source and ideal of all existence: it is unseen, but not transcendent, immensely powerful yet supremely humble, being the root of all things. People have desires and free will (and thus are able to alter their own nature). Many act "unnaturally", upsetting the natural balance of the Tao. The Tao Te Ching intends to lead students to a "return" to their natural state, in harmony with Tao. [45] Language and conventional wisdom are critically assessed. Taoism views them as inherently biased and artificial, widely using paradoxes to sharpen the point. [46]

Livia Kohn provides an example of how Laozi encouraged a change in approach, or return to "nature", rather than action. Technology may bring about a false sense of progress. The answer provided by Laozi is not the rejection of technology, but instead seeking the calm state of wu wei, free from desires. This relates to many statements by Laozi encouraging rulers to keep their people in "ignorance", or "simple-minded". Some scholars insist this explanation ignores the religious context, and others question it as an apologetic of the philosophical coherence of the text. It would not be unusual political advice if Laozi literally intended to tell rulers to keep their people ignorant. However, some terms in the text, such as "valley spirit" (gushen) and "soul" (po), bear a metaphysical context and cannot be easily reconciled with a purely ethical reading of the work. [46]

Wu wei (無爲), literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the Tao Te Ching. The concept of wu wei is multifaceted, and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment". [47]

It is a concept used to explain ziran (自然), or harmony with the Tao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as zuowang "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi. [46]

Taoism

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism, intimately connected with the Tao Te Ching and "primordial" (or "original") Taoism. Popular ("religious") Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities. [48] [49]

Influence

Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower in traditional accounts, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture.

Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak. [50]

Laozi was a proponent of limited government. [51] Left-libertarians in particular have been influenced by Laozi – in his 1937 book Nationalism and Culture , the anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist Rudolf Rocker praised Laozi's "gentle wisdom" and understanding of the opposition between political power and the cultural activities of the people and community. [52] In his 1910 article for the Encyclopædia Britannica, Peter Kropotkin also noted that Laozi was among the earliest proponents of essentially anarchist concepts. [53] More recently, anarchists such as John P. Clark and Ursula K. Le Guin have written about the conjunction between anarchism and Taoism in various ways, highlighting the teachings of Laozi in particular. [54] In her rendition of the Tao Te Ching, Le Guin writes that Laozi "does not see political power as magic. He sees rightful power as earned and wrongful power as usurped... He sees sacrifice of self or others as a corruption of power, and power as available to anyone who follows the Way. No wonder anarchists and Taoists make good friends." [55]

The right-libertarian economist Murray Rothbard suggested that Laozi was the first libertarian, [56] likening Laozi's ideas on government to Friedrich Hayek's theory of spontaneous order. [57] James A. Dorn agreed, writing that Laozi, like many 18th-century liberals, "argued that minimizing the role of government and letting individuals develop spontaneously would best achieve social and economic harmony." [58] Similarly, the Cato Institute's David Boaz includes passages from the Tao Te Ching' in his 1997 book The Libertarian Reader. [59] Philosopher Roderick Long, however, argues that libertarian themes in Taoist thought are actually borrowed from earlier Confucian writers. [60]

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References

Citations

  1. 1 2 "Lao Zi". Collins English Dictionary .
  2. "Lao-tzu". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  3. "Lao Tzu". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language , Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016.
  4. "Laotze". Collins English Dictionary .
  5. "Lao-tzu – Founder of Taoism". www.en.hubei.gov.cn. Government of Hubei, China. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  6. 1 2 "Laozi". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Stanford University. 2018. The discovery of two Laozi silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern Laozi research. The manuscripts, identified simply as 'A' (jia) and 'B' (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 BC. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the 'A' manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 BC.

    "Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the Laozi. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in Guodian, Jingmen city, Hubei province, has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the Laozi. The tomb...is dated around 300 BC.
  7. Kohn (2000 , p. 4)
  8. "Lao-tse". ztopics.com.
  9. Han Fei Tzu, the paradigm legalist, wrote one of the earliest commentaries on the Lao Tzu (cf. University of Hong Kong page).
  10. 1 2 3 4 Baxter, William; Sagart, Laurent (2014-09-20). "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  11. Luo (2004 , p. 118)
  12. Kramer (1986 , p. 118)
  13. Kohn (2000 , p. 2)
  14. 1 2 3 Franz, Alex et al. ed. Google corpus. 2008. Accessed 17 Jan;2014.
  15. Xinhua News Agency. "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday". 11 Feb 2008. Accessed 20 Sept 2008.
  16. Taipei Times. "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". 18 Sept 2008. Accessed 20 Sept 2008.
  17. Also encountered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tzu.
  18. Also encountered as Lao Tse and Lao-Tse.
  19. Also encountered as Lao Tze and Lao-Tze.
  20. Also encountered as Lao Tsu and Lao-Tsu.
  21. "Lao Zi and the Canon of Virtue". sacu.org.
  22. 傅勤家 (1996). 道教史概論 (in Chinese). Taipei: 臺灣商務印書館. p. 82. ISBN   978-957-05-1324-0.
  23. Watson (1968 , p. 8)
  24. Watts (1975 , p. xxiii)
  25. Fowler (2005 , p. 96)
  26. Robinet (1997 , p. 26)
  27. "Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Scroll Paintings and Posters". Edepot.com. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
  28. 1 2 Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 12–13)
  29. Morgan (2001 , pp. 223–24)
  30. Morgan (2001)
  31. 1 2 Woolf, Greg (2007). Ancient civilizations: the illustrated guide to belief, mythology, and art. Barnes & Noble. pp. 218–19. ISBN   978-1-4351-0121-0.
  32. Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1934), The Chinese: their history and culture, Volume 1 (2 ed.), Macmillan, p. 191, retrieved February 8, 2012, T'ai Tsung's family professed descent from Lao Tzu (for the latter's reputed patronymic was likewise Li)
  33. Hargett, James M. (2006). Stairway to Heaven: A Journey to the Summit of Mount Emei. SUNY Press. pp. 54–. ISBN   978-0-7914-6682-7.
  34. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , p. 12)
  35. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , pp. 14, 17, 54–55)
  36. Morgan (2001 , pp. 224–25)
  37. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , p. 55)
  38. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , pp. 55–56)
  39. 1 2 Kohn (2000 , pp. 3–4)
  40. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 11–12)
  41. Morgan (2001 , p. 303)
  42. Renard (2002 , p. 16)
  43. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 11–13)
  44. Morgan (2001 , p. 223)
  45. Van Norden & Ivanhoe (2005 , p. 162)
  46. 1 2 3 Kohn (2000 , p. 22)
  47. Watts (1975 , pp. 78–86)
  48. Maspero (1981 , p. 41)
  49. Robinet (1997 , p. 63)
  50. Roberts (2004 , pp. 1–2)
  51. Dorn (2008 , pp. 282–283)
  52. Rocker (1997 , pp. 256, 82)
  53. "Britannica: Anarchism". Dwardmac.pitzer.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
  54. Clark, John P. "Master Lao and the Anarchist Prince". Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  55. Le Guin (2009 , p. 20)
  56. Rothbard, Murray (2005). Excerpt from "Concepts of the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Toward Laissez Faire", The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IX, No. 2 (Fall 1990) at mises.org
  57. Rothbard, Murray (2005). "The Ancient Chinese Libertarian Tradition", Mises Daily, (December 5, 2005) (original source unknown) at mises.org
  58. Dorn (2008)
  59. Boaz (1997)
  60. Long (2003)

Sources

  • Boaz, David (1997), The libertarian reader: classic and contemporary readings from Lao-tzu to Milton Friedman, New York: Free Press, ISBN   978-0-684-84767-2
  • Dorn, James A. (2008). "Lao Tzu (C. 600 B.C.)". In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n169. ISBN   978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN   2008009151. OCLC   750831024 . Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Fowler, Jeaneane (2005), An Introduction To The Philosophy And Religion Of Taoism: Pathways To Immortality, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, ISBN   978-1-84519-085-9
  • Kohn, Livia (2000), Daoism Handbook (Handbook of Oriental Studies / Handbuch der Orientalisk – Part 4: China, 14), Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN   978-90-04-11208-7
  • Kohn, Livia; Lafargue, Michael, eds. (1998), Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching, Albany: State University of New York Press, ISBN   978-0-7914-3599-1
  • Kramer, Kenneth (1986), World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions, New York: Paulist Press, ISBN   978-0-8091-2781-8
  • Long, Roderick T. (Summer 2003), "Austro-Libertarian Themes in Early Confucianism" (PDF), The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 3, 17: 35–62
  • Le Guin, Ursula K. (2009), Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching: A Book about the Way and the Power of the Way (2nd ed.), Washington, DC: Shambhala Publications Inc., ISBN   978-1-59030-744-1
  • Luo, Jing (2004), Over a cup of tea: an introduction to Chinese life and culture, Washington, DC: University Press of America, ISBN   978-0-7618-2937-9
  • Maspero, Henri (1981), Taoism and Chinese religion, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, ISBN   978-0-87023-308-1
  • Morgan, Diane (2001), The Best Guide to Eastern Philosophy and Religion, New York: St. Martin's Griffin, ISBN   978-1-58063-197-6
  • Renard, John (2002), 101 Questions and answers on Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto, New York: Paulist Press, ISBN   978-0-8091-4091-6
  • Roberts, Moss (2004), Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN   978-0-520-24221-0
  • Robinet, Isabelle (1997), Taoism: Growth of a Religion, Stanford: Stanford University Press, ISBN   978-0-8047-2839-3
  • Simpkins, Annellen M.; Simpkins, C. Alexander (1999), Simple Taoism: a guide to living in balance (3rd Printing ed.), Boston: Tuttle Publishing, ISBN   978-0-8048-3173-4
  • Van Norden, Bryan W.; Ivanhoe, Philip J. (2006), Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy (2nd ed.), Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Company, ISBN   978-0-87220-780-6
  • Watson, Burton (1968), Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, New York: Columbia Univ. Press (UNESCO Collection of Representative Works: Chinese Series), ISBN   978-0-231-03147-9
  • Watts, Alan; Huan, Al Chung-liang (1975), Tao: The Watercourse Way, New York: Pantheon Books, ISBN   978-0-394-73311-1
  • Rocker, Rudolf (1997). Nationalism and Culture. Black Rose Books.

Further reading

Translations into English