Last updated

Zhang Lu-Laozi Riding an Ox.jpg
Laozi by Zhang Lu; Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
BornUnknown, 6th century – 4th century BC
Chujen village, state of Chu
DiedUnknown, 6th century – 4th century BC
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Chinese philosophy
School Taoism
Notable ideas
Tao , wu wei
Laozi (Chinese characters).svg
"Lǎozǐ" in seal script (top) and regular (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese 老子
Hanyu Pinyin Lǎozǐ
Literal meaning"Old Master"
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Lão Tử
Hán-Nôm 老子
Korean name
Hangul 노자
Hanja 老子
Japanese name
Kanji 老子
Hiragana ろうし
Clan name: Li (, )
Given name:Er (, Ěr)
Courtesy name:Boyang ( , Bóyáng), Dan (, Dān)
Styled:Old Master (老子, Lǎozǐ)

Lao Tzu ( /ˈlˈts/ [1] or /ˈlˈdzʌ/ [2] [3] ), also rendered as Laozi ( UK: /ˈlˈzɪə/ ; [1] US: /ˈlˈts/ ; Chinese :老子Mandarin pronunciation:  [làu̯.tsɨ] ; commonly translated as "Old Master") and Lao-Tze ( /ˈlˈdz/ [4] ), was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. [5] He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching , [6] the founder of philosophical Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions.


A semi-legendary figure, Lao Tzu was usually portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but some modern historians consider him to have lived during the Warring States period of the 4th century BC. [7] A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage. Laozi's work has been embraced by both various anti-authoritarian movements [8] and Chinese Legalism. [9]


Lao Tzu itself is a honorific title: ( Old   * rˤu ʔ , "old, venerable") [10] and ( Old   * tsəʔ , "master"). [10] In traditional accounts, Laozi's actual personal name is usually given as Li Er( , Old   * ʔ  ʔ , [10] Mod.   Ěr) and his courtesy name as Boyang( trad.   , simp.   , Old   * Pˤrak-lang, [10] Mod.  Bóyáng). A prominent posthumous name was Li Dan( , Dān). [11] [12] [13] Sima Qian in his biography mentions his name as Lǐ Ěr, and his literary name as Lǐ Dān, which became the deferential Lǎo Dān( ,Lǎo Dān). [14] The name Lǎo Dān also appears interchangeably with Lǎo Zi in early Daoist texts such as the Zhuangzi , [14] and may also be the name by which Lao Tzu was addressed by Confucius when they possibly met. [14] According to the Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, "the 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary Laodan, more commonly known as Laozi (Old Master)". [15]

The honorific title Lao Tzu has been romanized numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is still Lao Tzu, which is based on the formerly prevalent Wade–Giles system. [16] [17] In the 19th century, the title was usually romanized as Lao-tse. [17] [18] Other forms include the variants Lao-tze [19] , Lao-tsu [20] and Laozi/Lao Zi.

As a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" (太上老君, Tàishàng Lǎojūn) [21] and as one of the "Three Pure Ones". During the Tang dynasty, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor" (太上玄元皇帝,Tàishàng Xuānyuán Huángdì). [22]

Historical views

In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the historicity of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the Tao Te Ching was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands". [23] The earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st‑century BC Records of the Grand Historian collected by the historian Sima Qian from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius during the 6th or 5th century BC. His surname was Li and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of Confucius titled Lao Laizi ( ) and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century BC reign of Duke Xian of the Qin Dynasty. [24] [25] The oldest text of the Tao Te Ching so far recovered was part of the Guodian Chu Slips. It was written on bamboo slips, and dates to the late 4th century BC. [6]

According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. [26] This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi . [27] [28]

He was sometimes held to have come from the village of Chu Jen in Chu. [29] In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier.

The story tells of Zong the Warrior who defeats an enemy and triumphs, and then abandons the corpses of the enemy soldiers to be eaten by vultures. By coincidence Laozi, traveling and teaching the way of the Tao, comes on the scene and is revealed to be the father of Zong, from whom he was separated in childhood. Laozi tells his son that it is better to treat respectfully a beaten enemy, and that the disrespect to their dead would cause his foes to seek revenge. Convinced, Zong orders his soldiers to bury the enemy dead. Funeral mourning is held for the dead of both parties and a lasting peace is made.

Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, [30] including the emperors of the Tang dynasty. [31] [30] [32] This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage (隴西李氏). According to the Simpkinses, while many (if not all) of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture. [33]

The third story in Sima Qian states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in Chengzhou and noted the kingdom's decline. He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 80. At the western gate of the city (or kingdom), he was recognized by the guard Yinxi. The sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the Tao Te Ching, although the present version of the text includes additions from later periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again. [34] In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha. Others say he was the Buddha himself. [27] [35]

A seventh-century work, the Sandong Zhunang ("Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns"), embellished the relationship between Laozi and Yinxi. Laozi pretended to be a farmer when reaching the western gate, but was recognized by Yinxi, who asked to be taught by the great master. Laozi was not satisfied by simply being noticed by the guard and demanded an explanation. Yinxi expressed his deep desire to find the Tao and explained that his long study of astrology allowed him to recognize Laozi's approach. Yinxi was accepted by Laozi as a disciple. This is considered an exemplary interaction between Taoist master and disciple, reflecting the testing a seeker must undergo before being accepted. A would-be adherent is expected to prove his determination and talent, clearly expressing his wishes and showing that he had made progress on his own towards realizing the Tao. [36]

The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Tao Te Ching, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his virtue, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Tao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Taoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment. [37]

The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Taoism took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Tao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Masters, the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the Tao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Tao Te Ching but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the Tao. [38]

Taoist myths state that Laozi was conceived when his mother gazed upon a falling star. He supposedly remained in her womb for 62 years before being born while his mother was leaning against a plum tree. (The Chinese surname Li shares its character with "plum".) Laozi was said to have emerged as a grown man with a full grey beard and long earlobes, both symbols of wisdom and long life. [39] [40] Other myths state that he was reborn 13 times after his first life during the days of Fuxi. In his last incarnation as Laozi, he lived nine hundred and ninety years and spent his life traveling to reveal the Tao. [38]

Tao Te Ching

Laozi Immortal and Grand Master of Heaven Ping Sien Si - 016 Lao zi (16135526115).jpg
Laozi Immortal and Grand Master of Heaven

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Tao Te Ching (Daodejing), though the identity of its author(s) or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history. [42] [43] It is one of the most significant treatises in Chinese cosmogony. As with most other ancient Chinese philosophers, Laozi often explains his ideas by way of paradox, analogy, appropriation of ancient sayings, repetition, symmetry, rhyme, and rhythm. In fact, the whole book can be read as an analogy – the ruler is the awareness, or self, in meditation and the myriad creatures or empire is the experience of the body, senses and desires.

The Tao Te Ching, often called simply Laozi after its reputed author, describes the Dao (or Tao) as the source and ideal of all existence: it is unseen, but not transcendent, immensely powerful yet supremely humble, being the root of all things. People have desires and free will (and thus are able to alter their own nature). Many act "unnaturally", upsetting the natural balance of the Tao. The Tao Te Ching intends to lead students to a "return" to their natural state, in harmony with Tao. [44] Language and conventional wisdom are critically assessed. Taoism views them as inherently biased and artificial, widely using paradoxes to sharpen the point. [45]

Livia Kohn provides an example of how Laozi encouraged a change in approach, or return to "nature", rather than action. Technology may bring about a false sense of progress. The answer provided by Laozi is not the rejection of technology, but instead seeking the calm state of wu wei, free from desires. This relates to many statements by Laozi encouraging rulers to keep their people in "ignorance", or "simple-minded". Some scholars insist this explanation ignores the religious context, and others question it as an apologetic of the philosophical coherence of the text. It would not be unusual political advice if Laozi literally intended to tell rulers to keep their people ignorant. However, some terms in the text, such as "valley spirit" (gushen) and "soul" (po), bear a metaphysical context and cannot be easily reconciled with a purely ethical reading of the work. [45]

Wu wei (無爲), literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the Tao Te Ching. The concept of wu wei is multifaceted, and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment". [46]

It is a concept used to explain ziran (自然), or harmony with the Tao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as zuowang "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi. [45]


Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism, intimately connected with the Tao Te Ching and "primordial" (or "original") Taoism. Popular ("religious") Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities. [47] [48]


Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower in traditional accounts, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture.

Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak. [49]

Laozi was a proponent of limited government. [50] Left-libertarians in particular have been influenced by Laozi – in his 1937 book Nationalism and Culture , the anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist Rudolf Rocker praised Laozi's "gentle wisdom" and understanding of the opposition between political power and the cultural activities of the people and community. [51] In his 1910 article for the Encyclopædia Britannica, Peter Kropotkin also noted that Laozi was among the earliest proponents of essentially anarchist concepts. [52] More recently, anarchists such as John P. Clark and Ursula K. Le Guin have written about the conjunction between anarchism and Taoism in various ways, highlighting the teachings of Laozi in particular. [53] In her rendition of the Tao Te Ching, Le Guin writes that Laozi "does not see political power as magic. He sees rightful power as earned and wrongful power as usurped... He sees sacrifice of self or others as a corruption of power, and power as available to anyone who follows the Way. No wonder anarchists and Taoists make good friends." [54]

The right-libertarian economist Murray Rothbard suggested that Laozi was the first libertarian, [55] likening Laozi's ideas on government to Friedrich Hayek's theory of spontaneous order. [56] James A. Dorn agreed, writing that Laozi, like many 18th-century liberals, "argued that minimizing the role of government and letting individuals develop spontaneously would best achieve social and economic harmony." [57] Similarly, the Cato Institute's David Boaz includes passages from the Tao Te Ching' in his 1997 book The Libertarian Reader. [58] Philosopher Roderick Long, however, argues that libertarian themes in Taoist thought are actually borrowed from earlier Confucian writers. [59]

Related Research Articles

<i>Tao Te Ching</i> Chinese classic text

The Tao Te Ching, also known as Lao Tzu or Laozi, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi. The text's authorship, date of composition and date of compilation are debated. The oldest excavated portion dates back to the late 4th century BC, but modern scholarship dates other parts of the text as having been written—or at least compiled—later than the earliest portions of the Zhuangzi.

Taoism Religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese culture

Taoism, or Daoism is a philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasises living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasising rigid rituals and social order, but is similar in the sense that it is a teaching about the various disciplines for achieving "perfection" by becoming one with the unplanned rhythms of the universe called "the way" or "tao". Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasise wu wei, "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility".

Tao or Dao is a Chinese word signifying the "way", "path", "route", "road" or sometimes more loosely "doctrine", "principle" or "holistic beliefs". In the context of East Asian philosophy and East Asian religions, Tao is the natural order of the universe whose character one's human intuition must discern in order to realize the potential for individual wisdom. This intuitive knowing of "life" cannot be grasped as a concept; it is known through actual living experience of one's everyday being.

Zhuang Zhou classic Chinese philosopher

Zhuang Zhou, commonly known as Zhuangzi, was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought. He is credited with writing—in part or in whole—a work known by his name, the Zhuangzi, which is one of the foundational texts of Taoism.

Wu wei Concept in various Chinese philosophies

Wu wei is a concept literally meaning "inexertion", "inaction", or "effortless action". Wu wei emerged in the Spring and Autumn period, and from Confucianism, to become an important concept in Chinese statecraft and Taoism, and was most commonly used to refer to an ideal form of government, including the behavior of the emperor. Describing a state of unconflicting personal harmony, free-flowing spontaneity and savoir-faire, it generally also more properly denotes a state of spirit or mind, and in Confucianism accords with conventional morality. Sinologist Jean François Billeter describes it as a "state of perfect knowledge of the reality of the situation, perfect efficaciousness and the realization of a perfect economy of energy", which in practice Edward Slingerland qualifies as a "set of ('transformed') dispositions ... conforming with the normative order".

Three teachings Term referring to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism collectively, considered as a harmonious aggregate

In Chinese philosophy, the phrase three teachings, refers to Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism when considered as a harmonious aggregate. Some of the earliest literary references to the "three teachings" idea dates back to the 6th century by prominent Chinese scholars of the time. The term may also refer to a non-religious philosophy built on that aggregation.

The Liezi is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a c. 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE.

The Three Treasures or Three Jewels are basic virtues in Taoism. Although the Tao Te Ching originally used sanbao to mean "compassion", "frugality", and "humility", the term was later used to translate the Three Jewels in Chinese Buddhism, and to mean the Three Treasures in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Bill Porter is an American author who translates under the pen-name Red Pine. He is a translator of Chinese texts, primarily Taoist and Buddhist, including poetry and sūtras. In 2018 he won the American Academy of Arts & Letters Thornton Wilder Prize for translation.

The Huahujing is a Taoist work, traditionally attributed to Laozi.

East Asian religions A subset of the Eastern religions

In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions or Taoic religions form a subset of the Eastern religions. This group includes Chinese religion overall, which further includes Ancestral Worship, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism and so-called popular salvationist organisations, as well as elements drawn from Mahayana Buddhism that form the core of Chinese Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism at large. The group also includes Japanese Shintoism and Korean Sindoism, which have received influences from Chinese religions throughout the centuries. Chinese salvationist religions have influenced the rise of Korean and Japanese new religions—for instance, respectively, Jeungsanism, and Tenriism; these movements draw upon indigenous traditions but are heavily influenced by Chinese philosophy and theology.

The Northern Celestial Masters Daoist movement existed in the north of China during the Southern and Northern Dynasties

The Northern Celestial Masters type of the Way of the Celestial Master Daoist movement existed in the north of China during the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Northern Celestial Masters were a continuation of the Way of the Celestial Masters as it had been practiced in Sichuan province by Zhang Lu and his followers. After the community was forced to relocate in 215 CE, a group of Celestial Masters established themselves in Northern China. Kou Qianzhi, from a family who followed the Celestial Master, brought a new version of Celestial Master Daoism to the Northern Wei. The Northern Wei government embraced his form of Daoism and established it as the state religion, thereby creating a new Daoist theocracy that lasted until 450 CE. The arrival of Buddhism had great influence on the Northern Celestial Masters, bringing monasticism and influencing the diet of practitioners. Art produced in areas dominated by the Northern Celestial Masters also began to show Buddhist influence. When the theocracy collapsed, many Daoists fled to Louguan, which quickly became an important religious center. The Northern Celestial Masters survived as a distinct school at Louguan until the late 7th century CE, when they became integrated into the wider Daoist movement.

The history of Taoism stretches throughout Chinese history. Originating in prehistoric China, it has exerted a powerful influence over Chinese culture throughout the ages. Taoism evolved in response to changing times, with its doctrine and associated practices being revised and refined. The acceptance of Taoism by the ruling class has waxed and waned, alternately enjoying periods of favor and rejection. Most recently, Taoism has emerged from a period of suppression and is undergoing a revival in China.

The Taishang Ganying Pian (太上感應篇), or Lao Tse's Treatise on the Response of the Tao, is a Taoist scripture from the 12th century that has been very influential in China. Li Ying-Chang, a Confucian scholar who retired from civil administration to teach Taoism, authored this. It is traditionally attributed to Lao Tse himself.

Taoist meditation associated with the Chinese philosophy and religion of Taoism

Taoist meditation, also spelled "Daoist" refers to the traditional meditative practices associated with the Chinese philosophy and religion of Taoism, including concentration, mindfulness, contemplation, and visualization. The earliest Chinese references to meditation date from the Warring States period. Techniques of Daoist meditation are historically interrelated with Buddhist meditation, for instance, 6th-century Daoists developed guan 觀 "observation" insight meditation from Tiantai Buddhist anapanasati "mindfulness of breath" practices.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Taoism:

Heshang Gong is the reputed author of one of the earliest commentaries on the Tao Te Ching of Laozi to survive to modern times, which is dated to the latter part of the Han dynasty. He was reputedly a reclusive Chinese hermit from the 1st century CE. Other early commentaries include the Xiang'er written between AD 190 and 220, and one written by the philosopher Wang Bi.

Taoist art art genre

Daoist Art relates to the Taoist philosophy and narratives of Lao-tzu that promote "living simply and honestly and in harmony with nature."

Taoist philosophy

Taoist philosophy also known as Taology refers to the various philosophical currents of Taoism, a tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a mysterious and deep principle that is the source, pattern and substance of the entire universe.



  1. 1 2 "Lao Zi". Collins English Dictionary .
  2. "Lao-tzu". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  3. "Lao Tzu". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language , Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016.
  4. "Laotze". Collins English Dictionary .
  5. "Lao-tzu – Founder of Taoism". Government of Hubei, China. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  6. 1 2 "Laozi". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Stanford University. 2018. The discovery of two Laozi silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern Laozi research. The manuscripts, identified simply as 'A' (jia) and 'B' (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 BC. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the 'A' manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 BC.

    "Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the Laozi. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in Guodian, Jingmen city, Hubei, has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the Laozi. The dated around 300 BC.
  7. Kohn (2000 , p. 4)
  8. "Lao-tse".
  9. Han Fei Tzu, the paradigm legalist, wrote one of the earliest commentaries on the Lao Tzu (cf. University of Hong Kong page).
  10. 1 2 3 4 Baxter, William; Sagart, Laurent (20 September 2014). "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction" (PDF). Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  11. Luo (2004 , p. 118)
  12. Kramer (1986 , p. 118)
  13. Kohn (2000 , p. 2)
  14. 1 2 3 "Sima Qian identifies the old master as a "Lao Dan"...." in Rainey, Lee Dian (2013). Decoding Dao: Reading the Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu). John Wiley & Sons. p. 31. ISBN   978-1-118-46567-7.
  15. "The 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary Laodan, more commonly known as Laozi (Old Master)" in Carr, Dr Brian; Mahalingam, Indira (2002). Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Routledge. p. 497. ISBN   978-1-134-96058-3.
  16. Also encountered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tzu.
  17. 1 2 Franz, Alex et al. ed. Google corpus. 2008. Retrieved 17 Jan;2014.
  18. Also encountered as Lao Tse and Lao-Tse.
  19. Also encountered as Lao Tze and Lao-Tze.
  20. Also encountered as Lao Tsu and Lao-Tsu.
  21. "Lao Zi and the Canon of Virtue".
  22. 傅勤家 (1996). 道教史概論 (in Chinese). Taipei: 臺灣商務印書館. p. 82. ISBN   978-957-05-1324-0.
  23. Watson (1968 , p. 8)
  24. Fowler (2005 , p. 96)
  25. Robinet (1997 , p. 26)
  26. "Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Scroll Paintings and Posters". Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  27. 1 2 Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 12–13)
  28. Morgan (2001 , pp. 223–24)
  29. Morgan (2001)
  30. 1 2 Woolf, Greg (2007). Ancient civilizations: the illustrated guide to belief, mythology, and art. Barnes & Noble. pp. 218–19. ISBN   978-1-4351-0121-0.
  31. Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1934), The Chinese: their history and culture, Volume 1 (2 ed.), Macmillan, p. 191, retrieved 8 February 2012, T'ai Tsung's family professed descent from Lao Tzu (for the latter's reputed patronymic was likewise Li)
  32. Hargett, James M. (2006). Stairway to Heaven: A Journey to the Summit of Mount Emei. SUNY Press. pp. 54–. ISBN   978-0-7914-6682-7.
  33. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , p. 12)
  34. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , pp. 14, 17, 54–55)
  35. Morgan (2001 , pp. 224–25)
  36. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , p. 55)
  37. Kohn & Lafargue (1998 , pp. 55–56)
  38. 1 2 Kohn (2000 , pp. 3–4)
  39. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 11–12)
  40. Morgan (2001 , p. 303)
  41. Renard (2002 , p. 16)
  42. Simpkins & Simpkins (1999 , pp. 11–13)
  43. Morgan (2001 , p. 223)
  44. Van Norden & Ivanhoe (2005 , p. 162)
  45. 1 2 3 Kohn (2000 , p. 22)
  46. Watts (1975 , pp. 78–86)
  47. Maspero (1981 , p. 41)
  48. Robinet (1997 , p. 63)
  49. Roberts (2004 , pp. 1–2)
  50. Dorn (2008 , pp. 282–283)
  51. Rocker (1997 , pp. 256, 82)
  52. "Britannica: Anarchism". Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  53. Clark, John P. "Master Lao and the Anarchist Prince". Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  54. Le Guin (2009 , p. 20)
  55. Rothbard, Murray (2005). Excerpt from "Concepts of the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Toward Laissez Faire", The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IX, No. 2 (Fall 1990) at
  56. Rothbard, Murray (2005). "The Ancient Chinese Libertarian Tradition", Mises Daily, (5 December 2005) (original source unknown) at
  57. Dorn (2008)
  58. Boaz (1997)
  59. Long (2003)


Further reading

Translations into English