Lappeenranta

Last updated
Lappeenranta

Villmanstrand
City
Lappeenrannan kaupunki
Villmanstrands stad
Lappeenranta Landscape.jpg
The city landscape
Lappeenranta.vaakuna.svg
Coat of arms
Finland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lappeenranta
Location of Lappeenranta in Finland
Coordinates: 61°04′N028°11′E / 61.067°N 28.183°E / 61.067; 28.183 Coordinates: 61°04′N028°11′E / 61.067°N 28.183°E / 61.067; 28.183
CountryFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
Region Etela-Karjala.vaakuna.svg South Karelia
Sub-region Lappeenranta sub-region
Charter 1649
Government
   City manager Kimmo Jarva
Area
 (2018-01-01) [1]
  Total1,723.56 km2 (665.47 sq mi)
  Land1,433.36 km2 (553.42 sq mi)
  Water290.14 km2 (112.02 sq mi)
Area rank 47th largest in Finland
Population
 (2021-03-31) [2]
  Total72,591
  Rank 13th largest in Finland
  Density50.64/km2 (131.2/sq mi)
Population by native language
[3]
   Finnish 95.9% (official)
   Swedish 0.1%
  Others4%
Population by age
[4]
  0 to 1413.6%
  15 to 6462.1%
  65 or older24.2%
Time zone UTC+02:00 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate [5] 21%
Climate Dfc
Website www.lappeenranta.fi

Lappeenranta (Finnish:  [ˈlɑpːeːnˌrɑntɑ] ; Swedish : Villmanstrand) is a city and municipality in the region of South Karelia, about 30 kilometres (19 miles) from the Russian border. It is situated on the shore of the Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland, and because of that, it is also one of the most significant urban centers in the whole Saimaa region, along with the towns of Imatra, Mikkeli and Savonlinna. [6] With approximately 73,000 inhabitants (31 March 2021) Lappeenranta is the 13th largest city in Finland, [7] after incorporating the previous municipalities of Lappee and Lauritsala in 1967, Nuijamaa in 1989, Joutseno in 2009, and Ylämaa in 2010.

Contents

Lappeenranta is known as an international university city in Finland with Lappeenranta University of Technology and Saimaa University of Applied Sciences which together have approximately 13,000 students from 68 countries. Lappeenranta is also a commercial centre of South-East Finland and the meeting point of the EU and Russia, 215 kilometres (134 mi) from both Helsinki and St. Petersburg. Location on the southern shore of Lake Saimaa makes the city the region's centre for tourism. Lappeenranta is the second most visited city by Russian tourists in Finland after Helsinki and it competes with Helsinki for the largest share of tax-free sales in Finland. Lappeenranta is a model for renewable energies and a clean living environment. Lappeenranta was the only Finnish city among the 14 finalists in the international Earth Hour City Challenge 2014, organized by WWF.

Opened in 1918, Lappeenranta Airport, located in the center of the city, is the oldest airport still in operation in Finland.

History

Historical affiliations

Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1649–1741
Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire 1741–1812
Flag of Russia.svg Grand Duchy of Finland 1812-1917
Flag of Finland 1918 (state).svg Finland 1917–1918
Red flag.svg Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1918–present

Map of Lappeenranta in the 1890s Map of Lappeenranta 1894.jpg
Map of Lappeenranta in the 1890s

Pollen analysis has shown that the modern-day municipality of Lappeenranta has been continuously inhabited for at least 2,000 years. [8] Lappeenranta's original core settlement, Lapvesi, later Lappee, was originally formed around a headland jutting into Lake Saimaa, the site of the present fortress. The public market was established here, which became so important as a trading place that general Governor Count Per Brahe the Younger proposed that the Swedish government should grant town privileges to Lapvesi. The town was chartered in 1649 by Queen Christina of Sweden. [9] At the time, Lapvesi was an important port for tar.

Between 1721 and 1743, Lappeenranta was the capital of Kymmenegård and Nyslott County and during this period the Swedes built the fortress out in stages. [10]

In 1741, the Battle of Villmanstrand was fought between the Swedish and Russian armies in the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743. The battle ended in a Russian victory. The town was pillaged, wooden structures including the provincial chancellery were burnt and the ecclesiastical archives damaged.

Lappeenranta incorporated the neighbouring municipalities of Lappee and Lauritsala on 1 January 1967, Nuijamaa on 1 January 1989, Joutseno on 1 January 2009, and Ylämaa on 1 January 2010.

Etymology

The name Lappeenranta consists of the genitive of Lappee (the name of the original core town) and the common noun ranta which means "shore". The history of Lappeenranta includes the rural municipality of Lappee and the hundred Lapvesi. The Swedish name Villmanstrand contains the words vildman meaning "wild-man" and strand also meaning "shore". A wild-man is depicted on Lappeenranta's coat of arms.[ citation needed ]

Climate

It currently has a humid continental climate of the warm-summer type (Köppen: Dfb), formerly in the continental subarctic zone (Dfc) on older data. The summers are longer, although rarely hot, and usually warm. Some of the warmest summers in the country can be found here, due to its orientation: southern but inland. Being in an eastern part of Finland, the winters are often harsh but still mild. [11] [12]

Anchorage has some similarities by being of marine influence of hot currents and at the same time of the marginal continentality. But Lappeenranta is still able to receive heat waves that cross Central Europe in a warmer climate than cool. [13]

Climate changes

Between 2000 and 2017 the temperature change was greater than the whole previous century, with +1.2 °C (higher values than Helsinki or Oulu). Since 2000 the number of warm days (> 24 °C) has become 2 per year, while the 1900 data indicates only 2 days per decade. From the first half of the twentieth century the days above 24 °C changed from rare to occasional in the second half to regular in the present century. There was also a 17.5 decrease in temperature below -1 °C for the same comparison period. 2015 was the hottest year since 1900. Having one of the less than 50 days with freezing days. [14] Work to reduce the temperature increase has been carried out, the city is again among the best 45 cities in the world in the WWF City Challenge 2016. One of the goals is to reduce carbon dioxide by 30% by 2020 and zero emissions by 2050. [15]

Climate data for Lappeenranta, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
7.5
(45.5)
13.1
(55.6)
21.6
(70.9)
28.9
(84.0)
31.2
(88.2)
33.1
(91.6)
30.7
(87.3)
27.1
(80.8)
17.4
(63.3)
11.4
(52.5)
6.7
(44.1)
33.1
(91.6)
Average high °C (°F)−6.5
(20.3)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.4
(43.5)
14.8
(58.6)
19.7
(67.5)
21.3
(70.3)
19.1
(66.4)
13.0
(55.4)
6.9
(44.4)
0.8
(33.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
7.2
(44.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.4
(15.1)
−8.8
(16.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.3
(36.1)
9.8
(49.6)
14.8
(58.6)
16.7
(62.1)
14.8
(58.6)
9.5
(49.1)
4.2
(39.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
3.6
(38.4)
Average low °C (°F)−12.7
(9.1)
−12.2
(10.0)
−7.5
(18.5)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.6
(40.3)
9.8
(49.6)
12.1
(53.8)
10.9
(51.6)
6.3
(43.3)
1.6
(34.9)
−3.4
(25.9)
−9.3
(15.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
Record low °C (°F)−36.8
(−34.2)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−16.8
(1.8)
−6.0
(21.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
4.4
(39.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
−12.1
(10.2)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−36.8
(−34.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)37.0
(1.46)
29.0
(1.14)
33.0
(1.30)
31.0
(1.22)
31.0
(1.22)
50.0
(1.97)
67.0
(2.64)
82.0
(3.23)
71.0
(2.80)
64.0
(2.52)
58.0
(2.28)
50.0
(1.97)
603
(23.75)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.08.08.07.07.08.010.012.011.012.013.012.0118
Mean monthly sunshine hours 33.272.6132.3179.9262.6267.0259.9209.1123.671.624.518.71,655
Source: NOAA [16]

Education

Lappeenranta has numerous schools at almost all levels of education, including the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Saimaa University of Applied Sciences, [17] located in a shared Skinnarila campus of around 8000 students, the Army Academy (branch of the Finnish Defence Forces), South Karelia Vocational College and South Karelia Adult Education Centre.

Transport

Steam Locomotive VR Class Hr1 1009 at Lappeenranta Lokomo HR1 in Lappeenranta August 6th 2014.jpg
Steam Locomotive VR Class Hr1 1009 at Lappeenranta
The Lappeenranta Airport terminal Flughafen Lappeenranta.JPG
The Lappeenranta Airport terminal
Jouko sub-urban buses in city center of Lappeenranta, Koulukatu street, 29th of September 2020. Jouko sub-urban buses.jpg
Jouko sub-urban buses in city center of Lappeenranta, Koulukatu street, 29th of September 2020.
Jouko-themed Waltti-travel card, which works in Lappeenranta, and most of the biggest finnish cities. Jouko-travel card.jpg
Jouko-themed Waltti-travel card, which works in Lappeenranta, and most of the biggest finnish cities.
Jouko route guide app (Digitransit) in mobile phone. Jouko route guide.jpg
Jouko route guide app (Digitransit) in mobile phone.

Lappeenranta is connected to neighbouring cities and municipalities by road. The city is located 215 kilometres (134 mi) from Helsinki and 195 kilometres (121 mi) from St. Petersburg. From Lappeenranta, the distance to Joensuu, the capital of North Karelia, is 233 kilometres (145 mi) along Highway 6.

There are multiple daily train departures to destinations within Finland from the Lappeenranta and Joutseno stations and to Russia from Vainikkala station. The Allegro train service operating between Helsinki and St. Petersburg stops in Vainikkala, a village in Lappeenranta. The journey time to Helsinki is about 2 hours and St. Petersburg about 1.5 hours.

During the summer, when Lake Saimaa and the Saimaa Canal are accessible by water, there is a visa-free connection by ship from Lappeenranta to Vyborg, Russia.

The regionally owned Lappeenranta Airport is located west of the city center. [18] The airport predominantly serves charter flights to southern Europe, the Canary Islands and Madeira.

The city transport is operated by buses and is called with name Jouko. [19] The Jouko-buses are pink-colored and they serve 12 sub-urban lines (1, 1Z, 2, 2H, 3, 3K, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12 and 47) and 21 regional lines (100, 101, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 120, 121, 130, 131, 200, 201, 300, 301, 500, 601, 602, 603, 610, 620). Jouko has Waltti-travel card, to which you can charge a 30-day season ticket (travel zones A-D) or a value tickets, which works also in other finnish cities which do have the Waltti-ticket system. Other ways to buy a ticket in Jouko-buses are single tickets (payment with cash or credit card), mobile-tickets (PayIQ, etc.) and 24-hour ticket. Jouko has also own route-guide (https://lappeenranta.digitransit.fi/), where you can plan a route, see timetables and also see all the Jouko-buses in the map. You can also view delays, exceptions, and other releases. Jouko sub-urban transport is operated by Savonlinja. Regional lines are operated by Savonlinja, Rantanen, Vento and Mikkonen. The bus fleet consists of low-floor city buses, and the bus models are Scania Lahti Scala (9 units) (ones in Jouko-traffic built in 2010 and 2012), Volvo 8900 (7 units) (ones in Jouko-traffic built in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019) and Scania Citywide (3 units) (CNG-powered ones built in 2018 and diesel-powered one built in 2020).

Jouko sub-urban routes

Economy

The city's main employers [20] are the:

Sports

Finland against Norway during the 2004 Women's Bandy World Championship Damebandy.jpg
Finland against Norway during the 2004 Women's Bandy World Championship

Lappeenranta has several sports teams playing in top levels of Finnish sports leagues.

SaiPa is an Ice hockey team playing in the highest level in Finland, SM-liiga. SaiPa was fourth in the national Ice hockey league in the season of 2013–2014. 2014 IIHF Ice Hockey U18 World Championship - Tournament was played Kisapuisto Ice Hall, Lappeenranta & Imatra Ice Hall during 17–27 April 2014. United States won the tournament, Czech Republic was second and Canada was the third.

Namika Lappeenranta is a basketball team playing in the highest level in Korisliiga and have won two championships in 2005 and 2006.

NST plays floorball in the Salibandyliiga and Rajaritarit is an American football team in the Vaahteraliiga.

Lappeenrannan Veiterä, or just Veiterä, plays in Bandyliiga and has been Finnish champions five times, including in 2017. They have been the champions for women and for girls born in 1995 and 1998. [23] The city hosted the first ever Women's Bandy World Championship in 2004 and in 2014 the tournament was again played in Lappeenranta. The Old Boys World Cup is annually hosted in town, in 2017 for the seventh time. [24]

In women's sports Catz Lappeenranta plays basketball and Pesä Ysit plays Finnish baseball, both in the top leagues of the nation. Catz has won Finnish national basketball championship four times in a row.

Notable people

Tourism

Autumn in Lappeenranta Harbour autumn.jpg
Autumn in Lappeenranta
A huge sand art in Lappeenranta Lappeenranta, Finland - panoramio (4).jpg
A huge sand art in Lappeenranta

Lappeenranta is known as a summer city, mostly due to its closeness to the Lake Saimaa. Europe's 4th largest lake. The eponymous GoSaimaa (www.gosaimaa.com) provides all the touristic activities in the area. In addition, its inland location means that summers tend to be warmer and winters colder than along the coastal areas.

Lappeenranta does have a healthy winter tourism industry. Various cabins around Lake Saimaa, as well as numerous snowmobiles, Nordic skating, floating in the river, reindeer rides, paragliding, skiing and sledding tracks draw a fair number of winter visitors.

The proximity of the Russian border is increasingly evident in the number of Russian tourists visiting the city. In fact, Lappeenranta is closer to Saint Petersburg (195 km or 121 miles) than it is to Helsinki, the capital of Finland (220 km or 140 miles). The presence of Russian tourists is noticeable by the many Russian registered cars on the streets and the use of Cyrillic letters in signs of some shops. [ citation needed ]

Places and events

In media

Lappeenranta is the setting for Bordertown , the Finnish police drama broadcast by Netflix.

Twin towns – sister cities

Lappeenranta is twinned with: [27]

See also

Related Research Articles

Savonlinna Municipality in Southern Savonia, Finland

Savonlinna is a town and a municipality of 32,667 inhabitants in the southeast of Finland, in the heart of the Saimaa lake region, which is why the city is also nicknamed the "Capital of Saimaa". The town is internationally known for its medieval St. Olaf's Castle and the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. Its surrounding the enclaved municipality of Enonkoski.

Imatra Town in South Karelia, Finland

Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland. Imatra is dominated by Lake Saimaa, the Vuoksi River and the border with Russia.

Saimaa Largest lake in Finland and the fourth largest in Europe

Saimaa is a lake located in the Finnish Lakeland area in southeastern Finland. At approximately 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi), it is the largest lake in Finland, and the fourth largest natural freshwater lake in Europe.

Joensuu City in North Karelia, Finland

Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia, Finland, located on the northern shore of Lake Pyhäselkä at the mouth of the Pielinen River (Pielisjoki). It was founded in 1848. The population of Joensuu is 76,833, and the economic region of Joensuu has a population of 115,000. It is the 12th largest city in Finland. The nearest major city, Kuopio in North Savonia, is located 136 kilometres (85 mi) to the west. From Joensuu, the distance to Lappeenranta, the capital of South Karelia, is 233 kilometres (145 mi) along Highway 6.

Ruokolahti Municipality in South Karelia, Finland

Ruokolahti is a municipality of Finland, situated in south-eastern Finland, in the region of South Karelia. Neighbouring municipalities are Imatra, Lappeenranta, Taipalsaari, Puumala, Sulkava, Punkaharju, Parikkala and Rautjärvi. Ruokolahti covers an area of 1,219.85 square kilometres (470.99 sq mi) of which 23% is water.

The former Province of Southern Finland in Finland was divided into six regions, 16 sub-regions, and 88 municipalities.

Mikkeli Town in Etelä-Savo, Finland

Mikkeli is a town and municipality in Finland. It is located in what used to be the province of Eastern Finland and is part of the Etelä-Savo region. The municipality has a population of 52,530 and covers an area of 3,229.57 square kilometres (1,246.94 sq mi) of which 424.7 km2 (164.0 sq mi) is water. The population density is 30.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (80/sq mi) The town is located on lake Saimaa.

South Karelia Region of Finland

South Karelia is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Kymenlaakso, South Savo and North Karelia, as well as Russia.

Karelia, the land of the Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Russia, the USSR, Finland and Sweden. It is currently divided among the northwestern Russian Federation and Finland.

Joutseno

Joutseno is a former town and municipality of Finland. It is located in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the South Karelia region. Joutseno had a population of 10,821 (2004) and covers an area of 498,8 km² of which 187,7 km² is water. The region shares nine kilometers of borderline with Russia. The population density is 34,8 inhabitants per km². Joutseno is unilingually Finnish. Until 2005, Joutseno's status was changed to city. Joutseno was consolidated with Lappeenranta on 2009-01-01. A referendum was held, by public demand, before the amalgamation and the result was 73.9% against joining Lappeenranta. The referendum result was not considered binding, however, and the merger was carried out regardless.

Huhtiniemi mass grave is a mass grave site with two graves and at least 15 bodies in Huhtiniemi, Lappeenranta, eastern Finland. Further 10 bodies were excavated already in 1971, leading for the more recent studies, and fragments of two other individuals were found in 2005 in rough examinations by City of Lappeenranta.

Lappeenranta Airport international airport in Finland

Lappeenranta Airport is an international airport in Lappeenranta, Finland. It is 2.5 kilometers southwest of the city center and Lappeenranta Central Station. Opened in 1918, Lappeenranta Airport is the oldest airport still in operation in Finland. The Karelia Aviation Museum is in the airport. Flight go on low altitude straight over Lappeenranta midtown which is located 1½ kilometer from the eastern end of the runway.

Lappeenranta Central Station train station in Finland

Lappeenranta Central Station is a train station located in the city of Lappeenranta in Finland. The station is served by traffic to Helsinki and Joensuu.

Finnish Lakeland landscape region of Finland

Finnish Lakeland or Finnish lake district is the largest of the four landscape regions into which the geography of Finland is divided.

Viipuri Province

The Viipuri Province was a historical province of Finland from 1812 to 1945.

The Suomen Palloliiton Saimaan piiri(SPL Saimaa district) was a district organisation of the Football Association of Finland operating from 1924 to 1994. Until the Second World War the district was known as the Suomen Palloliiton Viipurin piiri . It administered football and bandy initially in and around Viipuri, later expanding to cover the southern part of the historical Finnish Karelia, and ultimately in the Lake Saimaa area. Currently it's part of the Suomen Palloliiton Kaakkois-Suomen piiri.

Nuijamaa former municipality in South Karelia, Finland

Nuijamaa is a former municipality in the province of South Karelia in Finland. The municipality had 1,199 inhabitants and an area of 136 km² in 1988. Nuijamaa was a Finnish-speaking municipality. Nuijamaa bordered the municipalities of Lappee, Lappeenranta, Lauritsala, Taipalsaari, Lemi, Luumäki, Ylämaa, and Joutseno. It also shared a border with Russia.

Lauritsala Place in South Karelia, Finland

Lauritsala is a former Finnish market town. It was closed down on 1 January 1967 and was incorporated into Lappeenranta. The present district of Lauritsala comprises only the center of the former town.

Joutseno railway station Railway station in Lappeenranta, Finland

The Joutseno railway station is located in the town of Lappeenranta, Finland, in the district of Joutseno. It is located along the Kouvola–Joensuu railway, and its neighboring stations are Lappeenranta in the west and Imatra in the east.

Port of Lappeenranta Port in Lappeenranta, Finland

The Port of Lappeenranta is an inland harbour in the city of Lappeenranta, Finland, on the southern shore of Lake Saimaa. It is located in the city centre on the Kaupunginlahti bay, and is therefore also known as the Kaupunginlahti harbour.

References

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  23. "Kampparit new Finnish Champions in bandy". Archived from the original on April 19, 2014.
  24. http://veitera.fi/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OldBoys-2017-Bandylogouusi.jpg
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