Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

Last updated
Jin

936–947
Later Jin.png
Later Jin
Capital Taiyuan (936)
Luoyang (937)
Kaifeng (937–947)
Common languages Chinese
Religion
Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor  
 936–942
Shi Jingtang (Gaozu)
 942–947
Shi Chonggui (Chudi)
Historical era Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
 Shi Jingtang proclaimed Emperor by Liao
November 28, 936
 Emperor Chu's surrender to Liao
January 11, 947
Currency ancient Chinese coinage
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Later Tang
Later Han Blank.png
Liao dynasty Blank.png
Today part of China

The Later Jìn (simplified Chinese :后晋; traditional Chinese :後晉; pinyin :Hòu Jìn, 936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, who was posthumously titled "Gaozu". Liao, its original protector state, destroyed Later Jin by invading in 946 and 947, after Jin's second ruler, Shi Chonggui, fell out with them.

Contents

Founding of the Later Jin

The first sinicized Shatuo ethnicity state, [1] Later Tang, was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, son of the great Shatuo chieftain Li Keyong. It extended Shatuo domains from their base in Shanxi to most of North China, and into Sichuan.

After Li Cunxu’s death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the Shatuo relationship with the Khitans, which was vital to their rise to power, had soured. Shi Jingtang, the son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor of the Later Jin in 936.

The Later Jin founder Shi Jingtang claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. [2]

There were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and Tang dynasty in the Later Jin. [3] This practice was referred to as 二王三恪.

The Tang Imperial Longxi Li lineage 隴西李氏 also included sub lineages like the Guzang Li 姑臧李, from which Li Zhuanmei 李專美 came from, who served the Later Jin. [4]

Territorial extent

The Later Jin held essentially the same territories as the Later Tang, except for Sichuan, which had been lost by the Later Tang in its waning years and had become independent as Later Shu.

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao dynasty out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in North China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic Sixteen Prefectures to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in North China.

Relations with the Khitan

The Later Jin had often been described as a puppet of the emerging Liao dynasty. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later Jin and the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

After the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his nephew, adopted son and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Liao, resulting in the latter invading in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.

After the Liao conquest of the Later Jin, the Liao took the dynastic element Water, which follows from the Later Jin's dynastic element Metal, according to the theory of Five Elements (wuxing). [5]

List of emperors

Sovereigns of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, 907–960
Temple name Posthumous name Personal namePeriod of reign Chinese era name and dates
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936–947
高祖GāozǔToo tedious, thus not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭Shí Jìngtáng936–942Tiānfú (天福) 936–942
Did not exist出帝Chūdì Shi Chonggui 石重貴Shí Chóngguì942–947Tiānfú (天福) 942–944

Kāiyùn (開運) 944–947

Later Jin and Later Tang rulers family tree

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Shi Jingtang Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Jin

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Sixteen Prefectures

The Sixteen Prefectures, more specifically the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixteen Prefectures of You and Ji, comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and northern Hebei and Shanxi Province, that were ceded by the Shatuo Turk Emperor Shi Jingtang of the Later Jin to the Khitan Liao dynasty in 938. The subsequent Later Zhou and Song Dynasties sought to recover the ceded northern territories. Most of the Sixteen Prefectures including the two principal cities, Youzhou and Yunzhou remained in Liao hands until the 1120s, when the Jurchens of the Jin dynasty conquered the region. In 1123, the Jurchens ceded most of the territories except Yunzhou to the Song, but retook them in 1125. The loss of the Sixteen Prefectures exposed the plains of central China to further incursions by the Jurchens and the Mongols.

Liu Zhiyuan Chinese ruler

Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠), later changed to Liu Gao (劉暠), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han ( 漢高祖), was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It, if the subsequent Northern Han is not considered part of its history, was also one of the shortest-lived states in Chinese history, lasting only three years.

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Shatuo Turkic historical ethnical group

The Shatuo were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. They are noted for founding three of the five dynasties and one of the kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period and later Song Dynasty.

Shi Chonggui (914–974), known in traditional Chinese historical sources as Emperor Chu of Later Jin or Emperor Shao of Later Jin, posthumously known in Liao as the Prince of Jin (晉王), was the second and last emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Jin.

Li Congyi (李從益), known as the Prince of Xu (許王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. He was the youngest son of its second emperor Li Siyuan. In the confusion of the destruction of Later Tang's successor state Later Jin, he was forced into claiming imperial title by Xiao Han, a general of the Khitan Liao Dynasty, and was subsequently killed by Liu Zhiyuan, the founder of the succeeding Later Han.

Yang Guangyuan (楊光遠), né Atan (阿檀), later known as Yang Tang (楊檀) before changing name to Guangyuan, courtesy name Deming (德明), formally the Prince of Qi (齊王), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang and Later Jin. He rebelled against Later Jin in 944, believing that he would prevail with aid from the Khitan Liao Dynasty, but after Liao aid forces were repelled by Later Jin forces, his son Yang Chengxun (楊承勳) put him under arrest and surrendered. He was subsequently killed by soldiers sent by the Later Jin general Li Shouzhen.

Liu Xu (劉昫) (888–947), courtesy name Yaoyuan (耀遠), formally the Duke of Qiao (譙公), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chancellor during both of those short-lived dynasties. He was the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the official histories of the preceding Tang Dynasty, completed during Later Jin, although most of the work was probably completed during the term of his predecessor Zhao Ying.

Empress Li was a princess of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang and an empress of the succeeding Later Jin.

Zhao Ying (趙瑩), courtesy name Yuanhui (元輝), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chancellor during Later Jin.

Sang Weihan (桑維翰), courtesy name Guoqiao (國僑), formally the Duke of Wei (魏公), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Jin, serving as chief of staff (Shumishi) during the reigns of both of Later Jin's emperors, Shi Jingtang and Shi Chonggui. While not a soldier by training, he was said to be capable and respected as the overseer of the armies of the realm.

Jing Yanguang (景延廣), courtesy name Hangchuan (航川), was a general and official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Jin. He was instrumental in the enthronement of Later Jin's second emperor Shi Chonggui, and therefore became a powerful chancellor early in Shi Chonggui's reign. Under his advocacy, Shi Chonggui turned away from the peaceful, submissive relationship that Later Jin had with its northern neighbor Liao, and became confrontational against Liao. The adversarial relationship continued even after Jing's removal as chancellor, such that Later Jin was eventually destroyed by a Liao invasion. Emperor Taizong took Jing captive, intending to deliver him to Liao proper, but Jing committed suicide.

Consort Dowager An was the mother of Shi Chonggui, the second and final emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Jin. As he inherited his throne from his uncle Shi Jingtang, he honored Shi Jingtang's wife Empress Li empress dowager, leaving Lady An with the lesser title of consort dowager. After Later Jin's destruction by the Khitan state Liao, she followed him into exile deep in Liao territory and died there.

Zhang Li (張礪), courtesy name Mengchen (夢臣), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang, as well as the Khitan state Liao.

Du Chongwei (杜重威), known as Du Wei (杜威) during the reign of Shi Chonggui, was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Jin, as a brother-in-law to its founding emperor Shi Jingtang and uncle to Shi Jingtang's successor Shi Chonggui. He, however, would betray Shi Chonggui and surrender to Later Jin's rival, the Khitan state Liao's Emperor Taizong, hoping that Emperor Taizong would make him the emperor of China, and would later rebel against the succeeding Later Han state's founding emperor Liu Zhiyuan. He eventually surrendered again to Later Han, but was executed at Liu Zhiyuan's directions following Liu Zhiyuan's death. He was one of the reviled figures of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, due to his treachery and mistreatment of the people.

Zhang Yanze (張彥澤) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, as well as the Khitan state Liao. He was reviled in traditional sources for his cruelty, avarice, and lack of faithfulness to Later Jin.

Li Shouzhen was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Jin and Later Han, as well as (briefly) the Khitan Liao dynasty. During the reign of Later Han's second emperor Liu Chengyou, he became concerned that he was being targeted by the officials assisting the young emperor, and therefore rebelled. His rebellion was defeated by the Later Han general Guo Wei, however, and he committed suicide.

References

Citations

  1. Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. pp. 12–13.
  2. Wudai Shi , ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
  3. Ouyang, Xiu (5 April 2004). Historical Records of the Five Dynasties. Translated by Richard L. Davis. Columbia University Press. pp. 76–. ISBN   978-0-231-50228-3.
  4. Ong, Chang Woei (2008). Men of Letters Within the Passes: Guanzhong Literati in Chinese History, 907-1911. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 29. ISBN   978-0-674-03170-8.
  5. Chen, Yuan Julian. ""Legitimation Discourse and the Theory of the Five Elements in Imperial China." Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 44 (2014): 325-364". doi:10.1353/sys.2014.0000.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Sources