后蜀 / trad. 後蜀
Later Shu shown in light red
|Common languages||Ba-Shu Chinese|
|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
• Established in Chengdu
• Surrendered to Song
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Shu (referred to as Later Shu (simplified Chinese :后蜀; traditional Chinese :後蜀; pinyin :Hòu Shǔ) to differentiate it from other states named Shu in Chinese history), also known as Meng Shu (Chinese :孟蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was located in present-day Sichuan with its capital in Chengdu and lasted from 934 to 965. It was the fourth and latest state of this name on the same territory.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
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The other Shu kingdom of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, today known as the Former Shu, was founded in 907 after the end of the Tang dynasty. It was conquered in 925 by the Later Tang, the second of the five dynasties that would rule the Central Plain during this period.
Great Shu called in retrospect Former Shu or occasionally Wang Shu (王蜀), was one of the Ten Kingdoms formed during the chaotic period between the rules of the Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty. It existed in 907–925 CE. It was the third state named "Shu" on the same territory, the second one having been Shu Han.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.
Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.
Meng Zhixiang, one of the Later Tang military governors assigned to the conquered Shu territories, became remarkably powerful in the years following the invasion. In 930 he entered into open rebellion with fellow military governor Dong Zhang; although their rebellion was initially successful, Meng wished to submit once more to the rule of the Later Tang and so in 932 the two rebel leaders turned on each other. Meng defeated Dong and, in addition to taking control of Dong's lands, was given even greater authority than before by the Later Tang government. This arrangement did not last long: in December of 933 the emperor Li Siyuan died of an illness and was succeeded by the 19-year-old Li Conghou, and in the spring of 934 Meng declared himself the Emperor of a newly independent Shu.
Meng Zhixiang was a general of the Later Tang who went on to found the independent state of Later Shu during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Meng Zhixiang was an in-law of the Later Tang ruling family, who went by the family name Li. Meng married the eldest sister or perhaps a cousin of the founding emperor, Zhuangzong. Meng served the Later Tang as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xichuan Circuit, after the conquest of Former Shu. After Emperor Zhuangzong's death, Meng was more distant to the succeeding emperor. The new emperor was Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother, Emperor Mingzong. Meng, fearing accusations by Emperor Mingzong's chief advisor An Chonghui, rebelled, in alliance with Dong Zhang, military governor of neighboring Dongchuan Circuit. The Meng-Dong alliance repelled subsequent attempts to suppress or control them, although they continued as nominal subjects of Mingzong. Eventually, Meng overpowered Dong, thus assuming control of both allied domains. Meng continued as titular vassal to Mingzong for the rest of that emperor's reign; but, afterwards, Meng Zhixiang declared himself suzerain of an independent state named Shu, in 934, now called Later Shu to avoid confusion with other political entities sharing the same name.
Dong Zhang (董璋) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang. After submitting to Later Tang after Later Liang's destruction, he became a general favored by both Later Tang's founding emperor Li Cunxu and Li Cunxu's chief of staff Guo Chongtao, causing Guo to commission Dong as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Dongchuan Circuit after Guo's conquest of Former Shu. Because of this, after Li Cunxu's downfall and succession by his adoptive brother Li Siyuan, Li Siyuan's chief of staff An Chonghui came to suspect both Dong and Meng Zhixiang, the military governor of neighboring Xichuan Circuit. Dong and Meng jointly rebelled against Li Siyuan and were successful military, forcing the imperial government to eventually move into a reconciliatory posture. Dong, however, as his son Dong Guangye (董光業) and Dong Guangye's family were slaughtered, refused the imperial overture, and later launched an attack on Meng, as Meng was moving to reconciliation with the imperial government. Meng defeated him, and he was later killed by his own subordinates.
Li Siyuan, also known by his temple name Mingzong (明宗), was the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Tang during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 926 until his death. He was an ethnic Shatuo originally named, in the Shatuo language, Miaojilie (邈佶烈).
The Later Shu kingdom held essentially the same territory as the Former Shu kingdom. The kingdom held most of present-day Sichuan, along with southern Gansu and Shaanxi, western Hubei and all of present-day Chongqing. As with the Former Shu, the capital of the kingdom was at Chengdu.
Sichuan is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 81 million.
Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.
Meng Zhixiang died less than a year after declaring himself emperor of Shu. His son Meng Chang ruled for thirty years until the kingdom was invaded by and incorporated into the expanding Song empire in 965.
Meng Chang (孟昶), originally Meng Renzan (孟仁贊), courtesy name Baoyuan (保元), formally Prince Gongxiao of Chu (楚恭孝王), was the second emperor of Later Shu during imperial China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He ruled from 934 until 965, when his state was conquered by the Song Dynasty. He died soon afterwards.
The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.
|Temple name||Posthumous name||Family name and given name||Reign||Era names and their corresponding years|
|高祖||Emperor Wénwǔ Shèngdé Yīngliè Míngxiào (文武聖德英烈明孝皇帝)||Mèng Zhīxíang (孟知祥)||934||Míngdé (明德) 934|
|後主||Prince Gongxiao of Chu (楚恭孝王)||Mèng Chǎng (孟昶)||934–965||Míngdé (明德) 934–938|
Guǎngzhèng (廣政) 938–965
Year 934 (CMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in South China. It was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history.
The Ten Kingdoms was a period in the history of Southern China that followed the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907. It lasted until the rise of the Song dynasty, which was founded in 960. Nine of the kingdoms were in the South and one small kingdom was in the far North. Many states were de facto independent long before the Tang Empire dissolved. The last of the Ten Kingdoms, the Northern Han, survived until 979.
Empress Dowager Li was the mother of Meng Chang, the last emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Shu. She was a concubine of Meng Chang's father Meng Zhixiang.
Zhao Jiliang (趙季良), courtesy name Dezhang (德彰), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Jin, Later Tang, and Later Shu, serving as a chancellor during Later Shu.
Kang Yanxiao (康延孝), known as Li Shaochen (李紹琛) from 923 to 926, was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang. It was his defection from Later Liang to Later Tang in 923 and subsequent offering of intelligence to Later Tang's emperor Li Cunxu that persuaded Li Cunxu to launch a surprise attack on the Later Liang capital Daliang that resulted in the fall of Later Liang, for which Kang was rewarded and given the imperially-bestowed name of Li Shaochen. He subsequently had major contributions in Later Tang's conquest of Former Shu as well. After Former Shu's fall, however, with Li Cunxu killing the major generals Guo Chongtao and Li Jilin, Li Shaochen became apprehensive and decided to rebel, but was subsequently defeated and executed.
Li Hao (李昊) (891?/893?‒965?), courtesy name Qiongzuo (穹佐), was an official for the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Former Shu, Later Tang, and Later Shu, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Later Shu's last emperor Meng Chang.
Li Renhan (李仁罕), courtesy name Demei (德美), was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period Later Shu. He contributed greatly to the campaigns that allowed Later Shu's founding emperor Meng Zhixiang to control his realm. However, later in his career, he became arrogant and greedy, such that Meng Zhixiang's son and successor Meng Chang and other high-level officials came to see him as a threat to Meng Chang's governance, so they had him arrested and executed.
Zhao Tingyin (趙廷隱), formally Prince Zhongwu of Song (宋忠武王), was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Shu.
Kui Prefecture, Kuizhou Circuit, or Kuizhou was initially established in 619 CE, as a renaming of the existing Xin Prefecture. Kuizhou was an important area from the beginning and through the end of the Tang Dynasty of China, when it was alternatively part of several of the Circuits which made up typical large scale political structural organizations of the Tang era. Kuizhou continued as a political entity through the end of the Song Dynasty, during which it was of Provincial level, a typical large scale political organization of Song era. Kui Prefecture was located in what is now eastern Chongqing. During the Song Dynasty, Kuizhou's capital was located in what is now Fengjie County, Chongqing, and the extent of the province was to what today includes Chongqing, eastern Sichuan, and Guizhou. Part of the importance of Kuizhou was related to its prominent location along the Yangzi River. Kui was also known for its spectacular scenerary, and being a location in which exiled poets wrote their laments.
Wang Chuhui (王處回), courtesy name Yaxian (亞賢), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Shu, serving as the chief of staff (Shumishi) for both emperors of Later Shu, Meng Zhixiang and Meng Chang.
Wu Zhaoyi (毋昭裔) or Guan Zhaoyi (毌昭裔) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Shu, serving as a chancellor during the reign of its second emperor Meng Chang.
Zhang Ye (張業), né Zhang Zhiye (張知業), was a general and official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Tang and Later Shu, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Later Shu's second emperor Meng Chang.
Zhang Gongduo (張公鐸) was a general and official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Shu.
The military history of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms covers the period of Chinese history from the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907 to the demise of Northern Han in 979. This period of Chinese history is noteworthy for the introduction of gunpowder weapons and as a transitional phase from the aristocratic imperial system to the Confucian bureaucracy which characterized the Song, Ming, and Qing dynasties.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.