Lautaro (volcano)

Last updated
Lautaro
Southern Patagonian Ice Field.jpg
The volcano is visible in the upper portion of this NASA image, whereas Mount Fitz Roy is in the lower left corner.
Highest point
Elevation 3,623 m (11,886 ft) [1]
Prominence 3,345 m (10,974 ft)
Ranked 57th
Isolation 182 kilometres (113 mi)
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 49°01′10.8″S73°30′12.5″W / 49.019667°S 73.503472°W / -49.019667; -73.503472 Coordinates: 49°01′10.8″S73°30′12.5″W / 49.019667°S 73.503472°W / -49.019667; -73.503472 [1]
Geography
Relief Map of Chile.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Lautaro
Location in Chile
Location Aisén, Chile
Parent range Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Austral Volcanic Zone
Last eruption March 1979
Climbing
First ascent January 29, 1964 by Peter Skvarca and Luciano Pera [2] [3] [4]
Easiest route snow/ice climb

Lautaro Volcano is an active ice-covered stratovolcano located in Chilean Patagonia, in the northern part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Its summit rises roughly 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above the average surface of the ice cap plateau. [5] It is the tallest mountain in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park and in its vicinity lies Pío XI Glacier. In 1952 the volcano was given its name [4] in honor of Lautaro, who was a Mapuche military leader.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Patagonia Region of South America

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains and the deserts, pampas and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south.

The first ascent of Lautaro was made by Peter Skvarca and Luciano Pera, on January 29, 1964. They climbed the southeast ridge, encountering many crevasses, some steep ice walls, cornices, and a snow mushroom at the summit. They found an active crater and strong sulfurous emissions near the summit. [2] The second ascent was made by Eric Jones, Mick Coffey, and Leo Dickinson on March 2, 1973, as part of a crossing of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. [3]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 The elevation and coordinates given here are from a 2007 GPS survey. Other sources give 3,607 metres but give no primary source.
  2. 1 2 Vojslav Arko and Peter Skvarca, "Cerro Gorra Blanca and Volcán Lautaro", American Alpine Journal , 1964, p. 223.
  3. 1 2 Leo Dickinson, "Lautaro", American Alpine Journal, 1974, p. 200-201. Available at AAJ Online Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine (PDF). See the accompanying note by H. Adams Carter.
  4. 1 2 USGS. "P 1386-I - Chile and Argentina - Wet Andes: Expeditions" . Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  5. MOTOKI, Akihisa, ORIHASHI, Yuji, NARANJO, José A; et al. (January 2006). "Geologic reconnaissance of Lautaro Volcano, Chilean Patagonia". Revista geológica de Chile. Rev. geol. Chile. [online]. 33 (1): 177–187. doi:10.4067/S0716-02082006000100008. ISSN   0716-0208 . Retrieved 2006-09-08.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Global Volcanism Program American research program

The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

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The Smithsonian Institution, also known simply as the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.