Law enforcement in Pakistan

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The police logo of Pakistan.
Police honorary ribbon. President's Police Medal 1954-86 Pakistan.svg
Police honorary ribbon.

Law enforcement in Pakistan (Urdu : نفاذ قانون کے ادارے) is one of the three main components of the criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside the courts and the prisons. [1] [2] In Pakistan, law enforcement is jointly carried out by the federal and provincial police services and other law enforcement agencies who form a chain leading from investigation of suspected criminal activity to administration of criminal punishment. [3] The court system is vested with the power to make legal determinations regarding the conduct of the other two components. [2]

The Pakistan Penal Code, abbreviated as PPC, is a penal code for all offences charged in Pakistan. It was originally prepared by Lord Macaulay with a great consultation in 1860 on the behalf of the Government of India as the Indian Penal Code. After the independence in 1947, Pakistan inherited the same code and subsequently after several amendments by different governments, in Pakistan it is now a mixture of Islamic and English Law. Presently, the Pakistan Penal Code is still in effect and can be amended by the Senate of Pakistan.


Primarily operated through the four provincial governments and the Islamabad Capital Territory, each police service has a jurisdiction extending only within the relevant province or territory. [4] Apart from investigating crime scenes, criminal acts, suspected unlawful activities, and detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action, the law enforcement agencies (primarily police) also perform duties that include the service and enforcement of warrants, writs, and other orders of the courts. [3]

Administrative units of Pakistan The Provinces and Territories of Pakistan

The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, two autonomous territories and one federal territory. Each province and territory is subdivided into divisions, which are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into tehsils, or taluka, which are further subdivided into union councils.

Islamabad Capital Territory Federal district in Pakistan

Islamabad Capital Territory is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan. The territory is bounded by Punjab on the south, west and east and by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on the north. The territory includes Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan, which covers 906 km2 (349.8 mi2) out of the total of 1165.5 km2 (450 mi2). The territory is represented in the National Assembly constituencies NA-52, NA-53 and NA-54.

The law enforcement agencies are also involved in providing first response to emergencies and other threats to public safety as well as protecting the infrastructure and maintaining order in the country. At the federal level there are a number of law enforcement agencies including the Federal Investigation Agency, Federal Board of Revenue, Intelligence Bureau, Anti Narcotics Force, National Counter Terrorism Authority, the National Highways and Motorway Police and the Railways Police. [3] The four provinces each have their own police services such as the Punjab Police, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police, Sindh Police, Balochistan Police. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police services are supported by paramilitary units such as the Frontier Constabulary and Frontier Corps. [3] Each police force has a Commissioner of Police appointed as Inspector-General who is the most senior officers from the Police Service of Pakistan— a component of the Central Superior Services of Pakistan. [5]

Federal Investigation Agency An agency the purpose of which is to make inquiry and investigation into the crimes mentioned in its schedule

The Federal Investigation Agency is a border control, criminal investigation, counter-intelligence and security agency under the control of the Interior Secretary of Pakistan, tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations against terrorism, espionage, federal crimes, fascism, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific crimes.

Federal Board of Revenue

The Federal Board of Revenue (FBR), formerly known as Central Board of Revenue (CBR), is a top federal government organization of Pakistan that investigates tax crimes and money-laundering. FBR operates through special Broadening of Tax Base Zones that keep tax evaders under surveillance and perform special tasks for FBR Headquarters. FBR performs role of collection of taxation in the country from all individuals and businesses.

Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)

The Intelligence Bureau, is a civilian intelligence agency in Pakistan. Established in 1947, the IB is Pakistan's oldest intelligence agency. Appointments and supervision of its operations are authorized by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Designations of PSP officers

GradePolice RanksDirectorial/Secretarial Appointment
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police
  • Deputy Superintendent of Police
  • Assistant Director, Intelligence Bureau
  • Assistant Director, Federal Investigation Agency
  • Assistant District Officer, Frontier Constabulary
  • Sub-Divisional Police Officer (SDPO)
  • Additional Superintendent of Police
  • Superintendent of Police
  • Deputy Director, Intelligence Bureau
  • Deputy Director, Federal Investigation Agency
  • District Officer, Frontier Constabulary
  • District Police Officer (DPO) of smaller districts
  • Assistant Inspector General of Police
  • Senior Superintendent of Police
  • Director, Intelligence Bureau
  • Additional Director, Federal Investigation Agency
  • Director, National Police Academy
  • Course Commander, National Police Academy
  • Additional Director, Financial Monitoring Unit
  • Additional Director, Special Security Unit
  • Additional Director, National Crisis Management Cell
  • District Police Officer (DPO) of larger districts
  • City Police Officer (CPO)
  • Deputy Inspector General of Police
  • Director General, NACTA Headquarters
  • Deputy Director General, Intelligence Bureau
  • Director, Federal Investigation Agency
  • Deputy Commandant, Frontier Constabulary
  • Director, Special Security Unit
  • Director, National Crises Management Cell
  • Deputy Commandant, National Police Academy
  • Director, National Police Bureau
  • Director, Financial Monitoring Unit
  • Director, National Police Academy
  • Regional Police Officer (RPO) of a division
  • Capital City Police Officer (CCPO)
  • City Police Officer (CPO)
  • Inspector General of Police
  • Additional Inspector General of Police
  • Director General, National Police Bureau
  • Joint Director General, Intelligence Bureau
  • Director General, National Crises Management Cell
  • Additional Director General, Federal Investigation Agency
  • Commandant, Frontier Constabulary
  • Commandant, National Police Academy
  • Deputy National Coordinator, National Counter Terrorism Authority
  • Inspector General of Police
  • National Coordinator, National Counter Terrorism Authority
  • Director General, Intelligence Bureau
  • Director General, Federal Investigation Agency
  • Inspector General, Pakistan Railways

See also

The paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various uniformed organisations largely equipped with light infantry weapons and charged with a range of internal and external duties.

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Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the provincial government of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Its powers and structure are set out in the provisions of the 1973 Constitution, in which 32 districts come under its authority and jurisdiction. The government includes the cabinet, selected from members the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly, and the non-political civil staff within each department. The province is governed by a unicameral legislature with the head of government known as the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet. The Chief Minister and Cabinet are thus responsible the functioning of government and are entitled to remain in office so long as it maintains the confidence of the elected Assembly. The head of state of the province is known as the Governor, while the administrative boss of the province is Chief Secretary Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The Pakistan Rangers are a paramilitary law enforcement organization in Pakistan and have a primary mission of securing important sites such as Pakistan's International Border with India as well as employed in internal security operations, and providing assistance to the police in maintaining law and order.

Frontier Corps

The Frontier Corps, is a Paramilitary force of Pakistan that is currently stationed in the Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to maintain the law and order while overseeing the border control of the country's frontiers with the Afghanistan and Iran. It is an umbrella term for the two western provincial auxiliary forces part of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan along the western provinces of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and are the direct counterparts to the Rangers of the eastern provinces. The Frontier Corps comprises two separate organizations: FC NWFP stationed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, and includes the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and FC Balochistan stationed in Balochistan province. Each subdivision is headed by a seconded inspector general, who is a Pakistan Army officer of at least major-general rank, although the force itself is under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry.

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Malakand Levies

Malakand Levies is a paramilitary force in the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Malakand Division. It operates as the primary law enforcement agency tasked with maintaining law and order within the division. The force has its origins back in the days of the British Raj, and has continued to function for over a century.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly Provincial Assembly of a Province in Pakistan

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly is the unicameral legislative body of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of the Pakistan. The assembly previously had 124 elected members, 99 regular seats, 22 seats reserved for women and 3 seats for Non-Muslims. After the merger of FATA with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, the assembly seats rose from 124 to 145 by adding 16 general seats, 4 seats reserved for women and 1 for a Non-Muslim.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police

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Administrative System of FATA is the system by which semi-autonomous tribal region of Federally Administered Tribal Areas was governed.

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The Pakistan Levies, also called the Federal Levies, are paramilitary law enforcement organizations (gendarmerie) in Pakistan that have a primary mission of providing law enforcement, providing assistance to the police in maintaining law and order, and conducting internal security operations below the federal level. Pakistan Levies is an umbrella term for the various Levies Forces which operate under their own separate chains of command and wear distinct patches and badging.


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  2. 1 2 Hassan, Abbas (2011). "Reforming Pakistan's Police and Law Enforcement Infrastructure" (PDF). U.S. Institute of Peace. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Our Partners". National Police Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
  4. Abbas, Hassan. "Police Reforms in Pakistan". Hassan Abbas, special report published by USIP. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  5. Jones, Mark; Johnstone, Peter (2011). "Time Capsule: Policing in pakistan". History of Criminal Justice (google books). New York, U.S.: Routledge. ISBN   131752246X . Retrieved 5 March 2015.