The Marquess of Zetland
|Secretary of State for India and Burma|
28 May 1937 –13 May 1940
|Prime Minister||Neville Chamberlain|
|Preceded by||New office|
|Succeeded by||Leo Amery|
|Secretary of State for India|
7 June 1935 –28 May 1937
|Monarch|| George V |
|Prime Minister||Stanley Baldwin|
|Preceded by||Sir Samuel Hoare,Bt|
|Succeeded by||Office renamed Secretary of State for India and Burma|
|Governor of Bengal|
26 March 1917 –28 March 1922
|Governor General||The Viscount Chelmsford|
|Preceded by||The Lord Carmichael|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Lytton|
| Member of the House of Lords |
12 March 1929 –6 February 1961
|Preceded by||The 1st Marquess of Zetland|
|Succeeded by||The 3rd Marquess of Zetland|
| Member of Parliament |
5 June 1907 –6 December 1916
|Preceded by||Charles Balfour|
|Succeeded by||Kennedy Jones|
|Born||11 June 1876|
|Died||6 February 1961 84)(aged|
|Spouse(s)||Cicely Archdale (1886–1973)|
|Alma mater||Trinity College,Cambridge|
Lawrence John Lumley Dundas,2nd Marquess of Zetland,(11 June 1876 –6 February 1961),styled Lord Dundas until 1892 and Earl of Ronaldshay between 1892 and 1929,was a British Conservative politician. An expert on India,he served as Secretary of State for India in the late 1930s.
Zetland,born in London,was the son of Lawrence Dundas,1st Marquess of Zetland,and Lady Lillian,daughter of Richard Lumley,9th Earl of Scarbrough. He was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College,Cambridge. At Cambridge,he was a member of the University Pitt Club.
In 1900 Zetland became aide-de camp to Lord Curzon,Viceroy of India. While working for Curzon in the British Raj,Zetland travelled widely through Asia,having experiences which would later inform his fictional and non-fictional writing.
Zetland was returned to Parliament for Hornsey in 1907,a seat he held until 1916. Much of his public career centred on British India. In September 1912,he was appointed (with Lord Islington,Herbert Fisher,Mr Justice Abdur Rahim,and others) as a member of the Royal Commission on the Public Services in India of 1912–1915.He was Governor of Bengal between 1917 and 1922 and Secretary of State for India between 1935 and 1940. Although a member of the Conservative Party,his belief was that Indians should be allowed to take ever-increasing responsibility for the government of the country,culminating in Dominion status (enjoyed by Canada,Australia,and other formerly self-governing parts of the British Empire).
Zetland played an important role in the protracted negotiations which led to the Government of India Act 1935,which began,subject to the implacable opposition of Winston Churchill and the "diehards" to anything that might imperil direct British rule over India,to implement those ideals.
Zetland was also an author:Rab Butler,who served as his Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the India Office,records that he asked how he could understand better his chief's thinking about the future of India and received the answer:"Read my books!" Zetland kept Butler,who had helped to pass the Government of India Act and had enjoyed great influence under Zetland's predecessor Samuel Hoare,at arm's length,requiring him to book an appointment in advance if he wanted to see him. Butler continued to serve under him for another two years,but devotes only a single paragraph to this period in his memoirs.
Zetland was ideally placed as Secretary of State for India to implement the new Act,although the two Viceroys with whom he served,Lords Willingdon and Linlithgow,were rather less idealistic than he. In the event,Willingdon and Linlithgow were proved right when the Congress Party won the 1937 Provincial elections,much to the dismay of Zetland. Zetland's term as Secretary of State —and the experiment with democracy represented by the 1935 Act —came to an end with Churchill's assumption of the Prime Ministership in 1940:Zetland then offered his resignation,feeling that his ideas and Churchill's regarding India were so different that "I could only end by becoming an embarrassment to him." Two months prior to this,on 13 March 1940,Zetland was one of four people shot at the Caxton Hall by Indian nationalist Udham Singh;former lieutenant governor of the Punjab,Michael O'Dwyer,was killed. Zetland suffered only bruising to his ribs (the bullet was found in his clothes) and was able to take his seat in the House of Lords five days later.
Zetland,who was known to favour good relations between the UK and Germany,was associated with the Anglo-German Fellowship during the late 1930s.
Zetland was sworn of the Privy Council in 1922and made a Knight of the Garter in 1942. He also bore the Sword of State at the coronation of George VI in 1937 and was Lord Lieutenant of the North Riding of Yorkshire between 1945 and 1951. He was elected President of the Royal Geographical Society in 1922 and President of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland for 1928–31. From 1932 to 1945,he was chairman of the National Trust.
Lord Zetland married Cicely,daughter of Mervyn Henry Archdale,on 3 December 1907 and lived at Snelsmore at Chieveley in Berkshire. Zetland died in February 1961,aged 84,and was succeeded by his son,Lawrence Dundas,3rd Marquess of Zetland. The Marchioness of Zetland died in January 1973.They had five children:
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston,, was styled as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, was a British Conservative statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905. During his time as viceroy, Lord Curzon created the territory of Eastern Bengal and Assam. He resigned after a political dispute with the British military commander Lord Kitchener. During the First World War, Curzon served in the small War Cabinet of Prime Minister David Lloyd George as Leader of the House of Lords, as well as the War Policy Committee. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs at the Foreign Office from 1919 to 1924.
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Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden,, also known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative politician. The Times obituary called him "the creator of the modern educational system, the key-figure in the revival of post-war Conservatism, arguably the most successful chancellor since the war and unquestionably a Home Secretary of reforming zeal." He was one of his party's leaders in promoting the post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic policy until the 1970s, sometimes known as "Butskellism" from a fusion of his name with that of his Labour counterpart Hugh Gaitskell.
Marquess of Zetland is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 22 August 1892 for the former Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lawrence Dundas, 3rd Earl of Zetland. Zetland is an archaic spelling of Shetland. The Dundas family descends from the wealthy Scottish businessman and Member of Parliament, Lawrence Dundas. In 1762 he was created a Baronet, of Kerse in the County of Linlithgow, in the Baronetage of Great Britain. The title was created with remainder, failing heirs male of his own, to his brother Thomas Dundas and the heirs male of his body. He was succeeded by his son, the second Baronet. He represented Richmond and Stirling in the House of Commons and also served as Lord Lieutenant of Orkney and Shetland. In 1794 he was created Baron Dundas, of Aske in the North Riding of the County of York, in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Dundas notably purchased the right to the earldom of Orkney and lordship of Zetland from James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton.
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Lawrence Dundas, 1st Marquess of Zetland, known as Lawrence Dundas until 1873 and as the Earl of Zetland from 1873 to 1892, was a British Conservative statesman. He was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1889 and 1892.
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Lawrence Roger Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough, was a British Conservative politician and British Army general.
Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, was a British Liberal politician and administrator who served as Governor General of Canada, the 13th since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 22nd.
Lawrence Aldred Mervyn Dundas, 3rd Marquess of Zetland was a lawn tennis player of some note in the 1940s, known before 1961 as the Earl of Ronaldshay.
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Lawrence Dundas may refer to:
Lawrence Mark Dundas, 4th Marquess of Zetland, less formally known as Mark Zetland, is a British peer, known before 1989 as Earl of Ronaldshay.
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