Lawrence K. Karlton
|Senior Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California|
May 28, 2000 –July 11, 2015
|Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California|
|Preceded by||Philip Charles Wilkins|
|Succeeded by||Robert Everett Coyle|
|Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California|
July 24, 1979 –May 28, 2000
|Appointed by||Jimmy Carter|
|Preceded by||Thomas Jamison MacBride|
|Succeeded by||Morrison C. England Jr.|
Lawrence K. Karlton
May 28, 1935
Brooklyn, New York
|Died||July 11, 2015 80) (aged|
|Education||Columbia Law School (J.D.)|
Lawrence K. Karlton (May 28, 1935 – July 11, 2015) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California in Sacramento, California.
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge appointed by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of California is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit.
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Legislature and the Governor of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is also the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had a 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California.
Born in Brooklyn, New York in 1935, Karlton received a Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School in 1958, at the age of 23. He was in the United States Army from 1958 to 1960, and was a Civilian legal officer at the Sacramento Army Depot from 1960 to 1962. He was in private practice in Sacramento, California from 1962 to 1976, and also litigated civil liberties cases as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union. He was appointed by California Governor Jerry Brown as a judge of the Superior Court of California, where he served from 1976 to 1979.
Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coterminous with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York, the most populous county in the state, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States. It is New York City's most populous borough, with an estimated 2,504,700 residents in 2010. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island.
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.
The Juris Doctor degree, also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada, the United States, and some other common law countries. It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada.
On June 5, 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Karlton to a seat vacated by Judge Thomas Jamison MacBride on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 23, 1979, and received his commission on July 24, 1979. He served as Chief Judge from 1983 to 1990, and as Chief Judge Emeritus until assuming senior status on May 28, 2000, serving in that status until his death.
James Earl Carter Jr. is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. After his presidency, Carter has remained active in the private sector; in 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.
Thomas Jamison MacBride was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.
Karlton, along with Judges Stephen Reinhardt and Thelton Henderson, was a member of a special three-judge panel overseeing overcrowding in the California prison system. On April 5, 2013, Judge Karlton ruled in a 68-page decision against Governor Brown that, "this court finds that ongoing constitutional violations remain in this action and the prospective relief ordered by this court remains necessary to remedy those violations."
Stephen Roy Reinhardt was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, with chambers in Los Angeles, California. He was the last federal appeals court judge in active service to have been appointed by President Jimmy Carter.
Thelton Eugene Henderson is an inactive Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. He has played an important role in the field of civil rights as a lawyer, educator, and jurist.
On June 20, 2013 Judge Karlton, along with Reinhardt and Henderson, ordered Governor Brown to expand inmates "good-time credits" which would permit inmates to finish their prison sentences prematurely. They demanded that action be taken immediately, and that any laws that might prevent the early release of the inmates be ignored.
Good conduct time, good time credit, or time off for good behavior is a sentence reduction given to prisoners who maintain good behavior while imprisoned. Good time can be forfeited if a prisoner is determined to have committed disciplinary infractions and/or crimes while incarcerated.
During his criminal calendar on February 25, 2014, Judge Karlton announced that he would stop hearing cases at the end of August 2014.He died on July 11, 2015, in Sacramento.
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Plata v. Schwarzenegger, docket no. 3:01-cv-01351-TEH, is a federal class action civil rights lawsuit alleging that the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation's (CDCR) medical services are inadequate and violate the Eighth Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. As a result of the case, the CDCR's prison medical conditions were found to be in violation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. After repeated violations of a stipulated agreement and order for injunctive relief, the CDCR was held in civil contempt and the medical health care system was placed in receivership.
Coleman v. Schwarzenegger, docket no. 2:90-cv-00520-LKK-JFM, is a federal class action civil rights lawsuit under the Civil Rights Act of 1871, Eighth and Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 alleging unconstitutional mental health care by the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR).
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Brown v. Plata, 563 U.S. 493 (2011), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that a court-mandated population limit was necessary to remedy a violation of prisoners’ Eighth Amendment constitutional rights. Justice Kennedy filed the majority opinion of the 5 to 4 decision, affirming a decision by a three judge panel of the United States District Court for the Eastern and Northern Districts of California which had ordered California to reduce its prison population to 137.5% of design capacity within two years.
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Thomas Jamison MacBride
|Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California |
Morrison C. England Jr.
Philip Charles Wilkins
|Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California |
Robert Everett Coyle