Lawrence Kenneth Creamer
23 October 1937
Christchurch, New Zealand
|Died||7 September 2019 81) (aged|
Wellington, New Zealand
|Alma mater||University of Canterbury|
|Fields||Milk protein chemistry|
|Thesis||The Ladenburg rearrangement (1963)|
|Doctoral advisors||Jack Vaughan|
Lawrence Kenneth Creamer(23 October 1937 – 7 September 2019) was a New Zealand chemist specializing in milk protein chemistry. In 2004, he received the International Dairy Federation Award.
Born in Christchurch on 23 October 1937, Creamer was the son of Gladys Henrietta Creamer (née Hopkins) and William Henry Creamer.He was educated at Christchurch Boys' High School, and went on to study chemistry at Canterbury University College, graduating Master of Science with second-class honours in 1961. He completed a PhD at the same institution, by then called the University of Canterbury, in 1963; the title of his doctoral thesis, supervised by Jack Vaughan and Alfred Fischer, was The Ladenburg rearrangement.
Creamer joined the New Zealand Dairy Research Institute (DRI), later part of Fonterra, in Palmerston North in 1963, and between 1964 and 1966 he undertook protein research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Returning to DRI, he rose to become a principal research scientist in 1990. He led a research team that investigated the chemistry of milk proteins and their interactions. His research covered both fundamental chemistry and practical aspects of the manufacturing of dairy products.
His early work resulted in improvements to the manufacture and consistency of cheese and milk powders.He carried out research into milk protein structures, and the effect of heat on milk and the aggregation of the proteins in whey. As a result, whey proteins, previously only used as animal feed, became ingredients in a range of food products. His research into casein hydrolysis in cheese led to greater understanding of the relationship between cheese composition, texture and flavour.
The current system under which New Zealand dairy farmers are paid for their milk based on its content of milk fat and protein solids was a direct result of work by Creamer.
From the 1990s, much of Creamer's research was on the structure of the whey protein β-lactoglobulin, how it is affected by heat, and its ability to bind vitamins.His research found that the structure of β-lactoglobulin is altered at high temperature, forming a new protein that reacts with smaller milk proteins.
In 1973, Creamer received the ICI New Zealand Prize, for outstanding achievement in chemical research, and the following year he was elected a Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry.In 1984, the American Dairy Science Association awarded him the Miles-Marschall International ADSA Award, for research outside of North America leading to improved dairy products; he was, at the time, the youngest ever recipient of the award. Creamer was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1995, and won the society's Scott Medal in 1999, for pre-eminence in fundamental, strategic and applied New Zealand dairy science and technology. In 2004, Creamer received the world's top dairy honour, the International Dairy Federation Award, in recognition of his contributions to the dairy industry over more than 40 years.
Creamer died in Wellington on 7 September 2019 at the age of 81.
Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals. They are primarily produced from mammals such as cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels and humans. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, cheese and butter. A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy, or dairy factory. Dairy products are consumed worldwide, with the exception of most of East and Southeast Asia and parts of central Africa.
Lactose is a disaccharide. It is a sugar composed of galactose and glucose subunits and has the molecular formula C12H22O11. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by weight). The name comes from lac (gen. lactis), the Latin word for milk, plus the suffix -ose used to name sugars. The compound is a white, water-soluble, non-hygroscopic solid with a mildly sweet taste. It is used in the food industry.
Pizza cheese encompasses several varieties and types of cheeses and dairy products that are designed and manufactured for use specifically on pizza. These include processed and modified cheese such as mozzarella-like processed cheeses and mozzarella variants. The term can also refer to any type of cheese suitable for use on pizza. The most popular cheeses used in the preparation of pizza are mozzarella, provolone, cheddar and Parmesan. Emmental, Romano and ricotta are often used as toppings, and processed pizza cheeses manufactured specifically for pizza are mass-produced. Some mass-produced pizza cheeses are frozen after manufacturing and shipped frozen.
Casein is a family of related phosphoproteins. These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk. Sheep and buffalo milk have a higher casein content than other types of milk with human milk having a particularly low casein content.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a byproduct of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. Sweet whey is a byproduct produced during the manufacture of rennet types of hard cheese, like cheddar or Swiss cheese. Acid whey is a byproduct produced during the making of acid types of dairy products, such as cottage cheese or strained yogurt.
Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited is a New Zealand multinational dairy co-operative owned by around 10,500 New Zealand farmers. The company is responsible for approximately 30% of the world's dairy exports and with revenue exceeding NZ$17.2 billion, is New Zealand's largest company.
Cheesemaking is the craft of making cheese. The production of cheese, like many other food preservation processes, allows the nutritional and economic value of a food material, in this case milk, to be preserved in concentrated form. Cheesemaking allows the production of the cheese with diverse flavors and consistencies.
Whey protein is a mixture of proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production. The proteins consist of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and immunoglobulins. Whey protein is commonly marketed as a dietary supplement, and various health claims have been attributed to it. An authoritative review published in 2010 concluded that the provided literature did not adequately support the proposed claims. For muscle growth, whey protein has been shown to be slightly better compared to other types of protein, such as casein or soy.
Easy Cheese is the trademark for a processed cheese spread product distributed by Mondelēz International. It is also referred to as aerosol cheese, spray cheese or simply cheese in a can, and is similar to squeeze cheese. Easy Cheese is packaged in a metal can filled with air covered with a plastic cap that reveals a straight, flexible nozzle where the cheese is extruded.
A2 milk is a variety of cows' milk that mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1, and instead has mostly the A2 form. Cows' milk like this was brought to market by The a2 Milk Company and is sold mostly in Australia, New Zealand, China, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Non-cow milk, including that of humans, sheep, goats, donkeys, yaks, camels, buffalo, and others, also contain mostly A2 β-casein, and so the term "A2 milk" is also used in that context.
β-Lactoglobulin is the major whey protein of cow and sheep's milk, and is also present in many other mammalian species; a notable exception being humans. Its structure, properties and biological role have been reviewed many times.
Westland Milk Products is a dairy company which is owned by Chinese dairy company Yili Group since 2019.
Davisco Foods is a company mainly concerned with dairy products headquartered in Le Sueur, Minnesota. The company markets such brands as BiPRO and BioZate. They also own Cambria, the sole producer of quartz work surfaces in the U.S.
Κ-casein, or kappa casein, is a mammalian milk protein involved in several important physiological processes. In the gut, the ingested protein is split into an insoluble peptide and a soluble hydrophilic glycopeptide (caseinomacropeptide). Caseinomacropeptide is responsible for increased efficiency of digestion, prevention of neonate hypersensitivity to ingested proteins, and inhibition of gastric pathogens.
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is any type of concentrated milk product that contains 40–90% milk protein. The United States officially defines MPC as "any complete milk protein concentrate that is 40 percent or more protein by weight." In addition to ultrafiltered milk products, the MPC classification includes concentrates made through other processes, such as blending nonfat dry milk with highly concentrated proteins, such as casein.
In 2013 a wide-scale recall of products sold by dairy producer Fonterra was announced after suspected botulism-causing bacteria were found during safety tests. The contaminated whey products had been sold to third parties who use it to produce infant formula and sports drinks. Approximately 1,000 tonnes of consumer product was affected by the recall across seven countries, but no cases of sickened consumers were reported. China, which imports most of its powdered milk from New Zealand, instituted a temporary ban on the import of the ingredient from New Zealand.
Corran Norman Stuart McLachlan was a New Zealand research scientist and entrepreneur. McLachlan is noted for his work on epidemiological research surrounding the effects of the A1 beta-casein. He believed the existence of this protein in cows’ milk to be a public health issue contributing to both heart disease and type 1 diabetes. In February 2000, McLachlan and his business partner, Howard Paterson, established A2 Corporation Limited to market A2 cows’ milk, which was free from the A1 beta-casein.
Vegan cheese is a category of non-dairy or plant-based cheeses and cheese analogues. Vegan cheeses range from soft fresh cheeses to aged and cultured hard grateable cheeses like plant-based Parmesan. The defining characteristic of vegan cheese is the exclusion of all animal products.
Sour cream or soured cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring.
The a2 Milk Company Limited is an ASX 200 public listed company that commercialises intellectual property relating to A1 protein-free milk that is sold under the a2 and a2 MILK brands, as well as the milk and related products like infant formula.