Lazio

Last updated
Lazio
Lazio Coat of Arms.svg
Coat of arms
Lazio in Italy.svg
Country Italy
Capital Rome
Government
  President Nicola Zingaretti (PD)
Area
  Total17,242 km2 (6,657 sq mi)
Population
 (2019) [1]
  Total5,864,321
  Density340/km2 (880/sq mi)
Demonym(s) English: Lazian
Italian: Laziale
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code IT-62
GDP (nominal) €201 billion (2019) [2]
GDP per capita €34,300 (2019) [2]
HDI (2018)0.904 [3]
very high · 3rd of 21
NUTS Region ITE
Website www.regione.lazio.it

Lazio ( UK: /ˈlætsi/ , US: /ˈlɑːtsi/ ; Italian:  [ˈlattsjo] ; Latin : Latium , [ˈlat̪i.ʊ̃ˑ] ) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has 5,864,321 inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy (after Lombardy and just ahead of Campania) [1] – and its GDP of more than €197 billion per year means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy. The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also the capital and largest city of Italy.

Contents

Geography

Relief map of Lazio. Lazio SRTM.png
Relief map of Lazio.
Panorama of the Aniene Valley. Vallee de l'Aniene et Monts Prenestiens.JPG
Panorama of the Aniene Valley.

Lazio comprises a land area of 17,242 km2 (6,657 sq mi) and it has borders with Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche to the north, Abruzzo and Molise to the east, Campania to the south, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. The region is mainly flat, with small mountainous areas in the most eastern and southern districts.

The coast of Lazio is mainly composed of sandy beaches, punctuated by the headlands of Circeo (541 m) and Gaeta (171 m). The Pontine Islands, which are part of Lazio, are off Lazio's southern coast. Behind the coastal strip, to the north, lies the Maremma Laziale (the continuation of the Tuscan Maremma), a coastal plain interrupted at Civitavecchia by the Tolfa Mountains (616 m). The central section of the region is occupied by the Roman Campagna, a vast alluvial plain surrounding the city of Rome, with an area of approximately 2,100 km2 (811 sq mi). The southern districts are characterized by the flatlands of Agro Pontino, a once swampy and malarial area, that was reclaimed over the centuries.

The Preapennines of Latium, marked by the Tiber valley and the Liri with the Sacco tributary, include on the right of the Tiber, three groups of mountains of volcanic origin: the Volsini, Cimini and Sabatini, whose largest former craters are occupied by the Bolsena, Vico and Bracciano lakes. To the south of the Tiber, other mountain groups form part of the Preapennines: the Alban Hills, also of volcanic origin, and the calcareous Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci Mountains. The Apennines of Latium are a continuation of the Apennines of Abruzzo: the Reatini Mountains with Terminillo (2,213 m), Mounts Sabini, Prenestini, Simbruini and Ernici which continue east of the Liri into the Mainarde Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Gorzano (2,458 m) on the border with Abruzzo.

History

The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting Ancient Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today. RomaViaAppiaAntica03.JPG
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting Ancient Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today.

The Italian word Lazio descends from the Latin word Latium. The name of the region also survives in the tribal designation of the ancient population of Latins, Latini in the Latin language spoken by them and passed on to the city-state of Ancient Rome. Although the demography of ancient Rome was multi-ethnic, including, for example, Etruscans, Sabines and other Italics besides the Latini, the latter were the dominant constituent. In Roman mythology, the tribe of the Latini took their name from King Latinus. Apart from the mythical derivation of Lazio given by the ancients as the place where Saturn, ruler of the golden age in Latium, hid (latuisset) [4] from Jupiter there, [5] a major modern etymology is that Lazio comes from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", [6] expressing the idea of "flat land" meaning the Roman Campagna. Much of Lazio is in fact flat or rolling. The lands originally inhabited by the Latini were extended into the territories of the Samnites, the Marsi, the Hernici, the Aequi, the Aurunci and the Volsci, all surrounding Italic tribes. This larger territory was still called Latium, but it was divided into Latium adiectum or Latium Novum, the added lands or New Latium, and Latium Vetus, or Old Latium, the older, smaller region. The northern border of Lazio was the Tiber river, which divided it from Etruria.

The emperor Augustus officially united almost all of present-day Italy into a single geo-political entity, Italia, dividing it into eleven regions. The part of today's Lazio south of the Tiber river – together with the present region of Campania immediately to the southeast of Lazio and the seat of Neapolis – became Region I (Latium et Campania), while modern Upper Lazio became part of Regio VII - Etruria, and today's Province of Rieti joined Regio IV - Samnium.

After the Gothic conquest of Italy at the end of the fifth century, modern Lazio became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, but after the Gothic War between 535 and 554 and conquest by the Byzantine Empire, the region became the property of the Eastern Emperor as the Duchy of Rome. However, the long wars against the Longobards weakened the region. With the Donation of Sutri in 728, the Pope acquired the first territory in the region beyond the Duchy of Rome.

The strengthening of the religious and ecclesiastical aristocracy led to continuous power struggles between secular lords ( Baroni ) and the Pope until the middle of the 16th century. Innocent III tried to strengthen his own territorial power, wishing to assert his authority in the provincial administrations of Tuscia, Campagna and Marittima through the Church's representatives, in order to reduce the power of the Colonna family. Other popes tried to do the same. During the period when the papacy resided in Avignon, France (1309–1377), the feudal lords' power increased due to the absence of the Pope from Rome. Small communes, and Rome above all, opposed the lords' increasing power, and with Cola di Rienzo, they tried to present themselves as antagonists of the ecclesiastical power. However, between 1353 and 1367, the papacy regained control of Lazio and the rest of the Papal States. From the middle of the 16th century, the papacy politically unified Lazio with the Papal States, [7] so that these territories became provincial administrations of St. Peter's estate; governors in Viterbo, in Marittima and Campagna, and in Frosinone administered them for the papacy.

Lazio was part of the short-lived Roman Republic, after which it became a puppet state of the First French Republic under the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. Lazio was returned to the Papal States in October 1799. In 1809, it was annexed to the French Empire under the name of the Department of Tibre, but returned to the Pope's control in 1815.

On 20 September 1870 the capture of Rome, during the reign of Pope Pius IX, and France's defeat at Sedan, completed Italian unification, and Lazio was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy. In 1927 the territory of the Province of Rieti, belonging to Umbria and Abruzzo, joined Lazio. Towns in Lazio were devastated by the 2016 Central Italy earthquake. [8]

Economy

Agriculture, crafts, animal husbandry and fishery are the main traditional sources of income. Agriculture is characterized by the cultivation of wine grapes, fruit, vegetables and olives. Lazio is main growing region of kiwi in Italy.

Approximately 73% of the working population are employed in the services sector, which contribute 85.8% of regional GDP; this is a considerable proportion, but is justified by the presence of Rome, which is the core of public administration, media, utility, telecommunication, transport, tourism and other sectors. Many national and multinational corporations, public and private, have their headquarters in Rome (ENI, Italiana Petroli, Enel, Acea, Terna, TIM, Poste italiane, Leonardo, Alitalia, Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane, RAI).

Lazio's limited industrial sector and highly developed service industries allowed the region to well outperform the Italian economy in 2009 in the heart of the global financial crisis. But it was strong affected from COVID-19 crisis 2020-2021 because of lock-down.

Industrial development in Lazio is limited to the areas south of Rome. Communications and - above all - the setting of the border of the Cassa del Mezzogiorno some kilometers south of Rome, have influenced the position of industry, favouring the areas with the best links to Rome and those near the Autostrada del Sole, especially around Frosinone. Additional factor was cheap energy supply from Latina Nuclear Power Plant and Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant, which are now out of the operation after Italian nuclear energy referendum.

Industry

Alfa Romeo Giulia 2017 Alfa Romeo Giulia Veloce TB Automatic 2.0 Front.jpg
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Travertine Calcareo Travertino1.jpg
Travertine

Industry contribute small part of GDP, share is 8.9% compare to 25.0% in Veneto and 24.0% in Emilia-Romagna. [9] In Rome even less with 7%, compare of 12% from tourism. Virtually no any machine building or metallurgy exists in Lazio.

Firms are often small to medium in size and operate in the

There are some R&D activity in high technology: IBM (IBM Rome Software Lab), Ericcson, Leonardo Electronics (Rome-Tiburtina, Rome-Laurentina, Pomezia, Latina), [11] Rheinmetall ("Radar House") and tire industry: Bridgestone (R&D center in Rome and proving grounds in Aprilia).

Consumer goods

The most distinctive industry in Lazio is production of household chemicals, pharmaceutical and hygiene goods, toilet paper and tissue products: Sigma-Tau, Johnson & Johnson, Procter & Gamble, Colgate Palmolive, Henkel, Pfizer, Abott, Catalent, Angelini, Menarini, Biopharma, Wepa.

Space

Agriculture

Kiwi Kiwis 006eue.jpg
Kiwi
Cereals [13] Сultivated area, ha
Durum wheat 53,398
Barley 14,294
Wheat 12,850
Corn 11,720
Oats 5,635

From fruits the most important are kiwi (1st place in Italy) and hazel nuts "Nocciola romana". Italy itself is the second largest producer of kiwi worldwide and was surpassed only by China. Infrastructure which has been used for grape growing was easily adapted for kiwi cultivation.

Animal Husbandry

Pecorino Romano Cheese Pecorino romano cheese.jpg
Pecorino Romano Cheese
2019 [14] ItalyShare %LazioShare %% Lazio in
Italian Total
Cattle5,974,94726.0%202,12418.4%3.4%
Buffalo402,2861.8%60,8215.5%15.1%
Sheep7,000,88030.5%750,52968.2%10.7%
Goats1,058,7204.6%35,1943.2%3.3%
Pigs8,510,26837.1%51,7404.7%0.6%
Total22,947,101100.0%1,100,408100.0%4.8%

Only sheep and buffalo herds are significant nationwide. Both keep dominantly for milk, which using to production Pecorino Romano and Mozzarella di Buffalo cheese. Sheep herds is the 3rd nationwide after Sardinia and Sicily. 40% of sheep are breeding in province of Viterbo.

Viticulture

Vineyards cover 47.884 ha in Lazio. 90% of wines are white. In production of quality wine Lazio has rank 14 of 20 with 190.557 hl. There are 3 DOCG wines:

Unemployment

The unemployment rate stood at 9.1% in 2020. [15]

Year200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020
unemployment rate
(in %)
7.5%6.4%7.5%8.4%9.2%8.7%10.6%12.0%12.5%11.8%11.1%10.7%11.2%9.9%9.1%

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 356,000    
1871 1,173,000+229.5%
1881 1,257,000+7.2%
1901 1,586,000+26.2%
1911 1,771,000+11.7%
1921 1,997,000+12.8%
1931 2,349,000+17.6%
1936 2,655,000+13.0%
1951 3,341,000+25.8%
1961 3,959,000+18.5%
1971 4,689,000+18.4%
1981 5,002,000+6.7%
1991 5,140,000+2.8%
2001 5,112,000−0.5%
2011 5,732,000+12.1%
2019 5,864,321+2.3%
Source: [1]

With a population of 5,864,321 million, Lazio is the second most populated region of Italy. [1] The overall population density in the region is 341 inhabitants per km2. However, the population density widely ranges from almost 800 inhabitants per km2 in the highly urbanized Rome metropolitan area to less than 60 inhabitants per km2 in the mountainous and rural Province of Rieti. As of January 2010, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 497,940 foreign-born immigrants live in Lazio, equal to 8.8% of the total regional population. [16]

Government and politics

Rome is center-left politically oriented by tradition, while the rest of Lazio is center-right oriented. In the 2008 general election, Lazio gave 44.2% of its vote to the centre-right coalition, while the centre-left block took 41.4% of vote. In the 2013 general election, Lazio gave 40.7% of its vote to the center-left block coalition, 29.3% to the center-right coalition and 20.2 to the Five Star Movement.

Administrative divisions

Lazio is divided into four provinces and one metropolitan (province-level) city:

Latium Provinces.png


ProvinceArea (km2)PopulationDensity
(inhabitants/km2)
Province of Frosinone 3,244496,545153.1
Province of Latina 2,251543,844241.4
Province of Rieti 2,749158,54557.7
Metropolitan City of Rome Capital 5,3524,097,085765.5
Province of Viterbo 3,612314,69087.1

Cuisine

In Lazio is very popular pasta, famous dishes which was invented here are:

In many pasta sauces use a guanciale. The guanciale is the cut of pork obtained from the cheek of the pig, crossed by lean veins of muscle with a component of valuable fat, of a composition different from lardo (back fat) and pancetta (belly fat): the consistency is more harder than pancetta and more distinctive flavor. The guanciale is salted pork fat, not smoked as bacon. It is typical product for Lazio, Umbria and Abruzzo. Other important sauce ingredient is Pecorino Romano cheese.

There are some vegetable dishes, especial popularity has artichokes (it: Carciofi):

Other region specific vegetables are romanesco broccoli, asparagus, fava bean, cima di rapa, romaine lettuce, pumpkin, zucchini, chicory.

Spices

In Lazio cuisine spices are widely used. Among the most used are lesser cat-mint also called "Nepetella" (for artichokes and mushrooms), squaw mint also called "Poleggio" (for lamb and tripe), laurel, rosemary, sage, juniper, chili and truffle.

Quinto quarto

Although Roman and Lazio cuisine use cheep ingredients like vegetable and pasta, but poor people need a source of protein. Therefore they use so called "Quinto quarto" (The fifth quarter), leftovers from animal carcasses that remained after the sale of prized parts to the wealthy.

It contains tripe (the most value part of reticulum, also called "cuffia", "l'omaso" or "lampredotto"), kidneys (which need to be soaked long time in water with lemon to remove urine smell), heart, liver, spleen, sweetbreads (pancreas, thymus and salivary glands), brain, tongue, ox tail and trotters. But the most awful was using of pajata, which is intestines of a calf, which is fed only with mother's milk. The intestines are cleaned and skinned, but the chyme (mass of partly digested food) is left inside. Typical dishes of this style are:

Meat Dishes

"Classical" meat dishes are Saltimbocca alla Romana, which use veal, Prosciutto di Parma, sage and Marsala wine and Abbacchio alla Romana (roasted lamb with garlic, rosemary, pepper, chopped prosciutto)

See also

Related Research Articles

Umbria Region of Italy

Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, and is crossed by the River Tiber. The regional capital is Perugia.

Tivoli, Lazio Comune in Lazio, Italy

Tivoli is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about 30 kilometres east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills. The city offers a wide view over the Roman Campagna.

Sora, Lazio Comune in Lazio, Italy

Sora is a town and comune of Lazio, Italy, in the province of Frosinone. It is built in a plain on the banks of the Liri. This part of the valley is the seat of some important manufacturing, especially of paper mills. The area around Sora is famous for the costumes of its peasants.

Cassino Comune in Lazio, Italy

Cassino is a comune in the province of Frosinone, central Italy, at the southern end of the region of Lazio, the last city of the Latin Valley.

Province of Frosinone Province of Italy

The Province of Frosinone is a province in the Lazio region of Italy, with 91 comuni. Its capital is the city of Frosinone. It has an area of 3,247 square kilometres (1,254 sq mi) and a total population of 493,605 (2016).

Roman Campagna Low-lying area surrounding Rome

The Roman Campagna is a low-lying area surrounding Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, with an area of approximately 2,100 square kilometres (810 sq mi).

Latium adiectum

Latium adiectum or Latium Novum is an ancient Roman geographical term used at least as early as the 1st century AD, when mention of it occurs in Pliny in conjunction with Latium antiquum, the original territory of the Latini tribe. Says Pliny of the latter:

"Its inhabitants have often changed: at various times it has been occupied by various peoples — the Aborigines, the Pelasgi, the Arcades, the Siculi, the Aurunci, the Rutuli ..."

Province of Rome Place in Lazio, Italy

The Province of Rome was one of the five provinces that formed part of the region of Lazio in Italy. It was established in 1870 and disestablished in 2014. It was essentially coterminous with the Rome metropolitan area. The city of Rome was the provincial capital. During the 1920s, the boundary of the province shrank as land was ceded to establish new provinces. The Province of Rome was the most populous province in Italy. On 1 January 2015, it was superseded by a new local government body - the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital.

Sabina (region) Traditional region in Italy

Sabina, also called the Sabine Hills, is a region in central Italy. It is named after Sabina, the territory of the ancient Sabines, which was once bordered by Latium to the south, Picenum to the east, ancient Umbria to the north and Etruria to the west. It was separated from Umbria by the River Nar, today's Nera, and from Etruria by the River Tiber. Today, Sabina is mainly northeast of Rome in the regions Lazio, Umbria and Abruzzo. Upper Sabina is in the province of Rieti. Sabina Romana is in the province of Rome. Part of Sabina is in the regions of Umbria and Abruzzo.

Central Italian

Central Italian is a group of Italo-Dalmatian Romance lects spoken in central Italy in Lazio, Umbria, central Marche, the far south of Tuscany, and a small part of Abruzzo. The differences between these dialects are slight, mainly in inflection and stress of certain words.

Lazio is a region in central Italy that includes the city and province of Rome. This article is about the music of the region of Lazio excluding Rome, itself. For that, see Music of Rome.) Lazio is surrounded by music.

Cappadocia, Abruzzo Comune in Abruzzo, Italy

Cappadocia is a comune and town with approximately 550 inhabitants in the province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It is part of Marsica. It's also part of the "Borghi autentici d'Italia" club

Borgorose Comune in Latium, Italy

Borgorose is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Rieti in the Italian region Lazio, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northeast of Rome and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Rieti.

Cervaro Comune in Lazio, Italy

Cervaro is a town and comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio. It is located in the Liri valley, about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Frosinone.

Rocca dArce Comune in Lazio, Italy

Rocca d'Arce is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of Rome and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Frosinone.

Latium Historic region of west-central Italy

Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.

Ciociaria

Ciociaria is the name by which, starting from the modern era, some impoverished territories southeast of Rome were called at a popular level, without defined geographical limits. Starting from the Fascist period and the creation of the province of Frosinone, the same name was arbitrarily imposed by the local fascist organizations and then misused by the local press, by promotional associations and folkloristic events as a synonym for Frosinone and all the popular traditions of its territory. The local dialect, now improperly known as ciociaro, was historically referred to as campanino. In more recent times, the term Campagna Romana, or Roman Campagna, a favorite subject of countless painters from all over Europe, has referred to the adjoining region to the north of Ciociaria, but part of the Province of Rome.

Rocca (fortification)

A rocca is a type of Italian fortified stronghold or fortress, typically located on a hilltop, beneath or on which the inhabitants of a historically clustered village or town might take refuge at times of trouble. Generally under its owners' patronage, the settlement might hope to find prosperity in better times. A rocca might in reality be no grander than a fortified farmhouse. A more extensive rocca would be referred to as a castello.

Valle Latina an Italian geographical and historical region

Valle Latina is an Italian geographical and historical region that extends from south of Rome to Cassino, corresponding to the eastern area of ancient Roman Latium.

Roman cuisine comes from the Italian city of Rome. It features fresh, seasonal and simply-prepared ingredients from Roman Campagna. These include peas, globe artichokes and fava beans, shellfish, milk-fed lamb and goat, and cheeses such as Pecorino Romano and ricotta. Olive oil is used mostly to dress raw vegetables, while strutto and fat from prosciutto are preferred for frying. The most popular sweets in Rome are small individual pastries called pasticcini, gelato and handmade chocolates and candies. Special dishes are often reserved for different days of the week; for example, gnocchi is eaten on Thursdays, baccalà on Fridays, and trippa on Saturdays.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it.
  2. 1 2 "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018" (Press release). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. Aeneid, VIII.323.
  5. Bevan 1875 , pp. 530–531
  6. "latin | Origin and meaning of the name latin by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
  7. Jacobs, Frank. "Bigger Than You Think: the Vatican and its Annexes". Big Think. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
  8. Powerful Earthquakes in Italy.
  9. "Prodotto interno lordo lato produzione - dati territoriali (milioni di euro) - edizioni precedenti ottobre 2014". Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  10. "Stellantis Report 2020" (in Italian).
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 "Leonardo locations in Italy".
  12. "Societa del Travertino Romano" (in Italian).
  13. Istat:Censimento Agricoltura 2010
  14. Annuario statistico Regione Lazio
  15. "Unemployment NUTS 2 regions Eurostat".
  16. "Foreign-born population in Italy, 1 January 2010" (PDF). Istat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2011.

Coordinates: 41°54′N12°43′E / 41.900°N 12.717°E / 41.900; 12.717