León de Greiff

Last updated
León de Greiff
Leon de Greiff.jpg
BornFrancisco de Asís León Bogislao de Greiff Haeusler
(1895-07-22)July 22, 1895
Medellín, Antioquia,
Colombia
DiedJuly 11, 1976(1976-07-11) (aged 80)
Bogotá, D. E., Colombia
Pen nameLeo le Gris, Gaspar de la Nuit
OccupationPoet, civil servant, diplomat.
Language Spanish
Nationality Colombian
Period1915-1976
Genre Poetry
Subjectsolitude, the tedium of existence, and the past
Literary movement Modernismo
Notable worksTergiversaciones (1925)
Notable awards
List of Awards
Order of the Polar Star – Sweden
1964 Knight
Order of Boyaca – Colombia
1965 Commander
National Prize of Literature – Colcultura
1970
Jorge Zalamea Medal – Calarcá
1971
Symbolic Axe of Antioquia – Medellín
1971
Star of Antioquia – Antioquia
1971 Gold Rank
Civic Medal General Santander – Ministry of National Education
1971
Premio Antioquia – Coltejer
1973
Order of San Carlos – Colombia
1975 Grand Officer
SpouseMaría Teresa Matilde Bernal Nicholls (m. 1927 - † 1966)
ChildrenAstrid de Greiff Bernal
Boris de Greiff Bernal
Hjalmar de Greiff Bernal
Axel de Greiff Bernal

Books-aj.svg aj ashton 01.svg Literatureportal

Francisco de Asís León Bogislao de Greiff Haeusler (July 22, 1895 – July 11, 1976), was a Colombian poet known for his stylistic innovations and deliberately eclectic use of obscure lexicon. Best known simply as León de Greiff, he often used different pen names. The most popular were Leo le Gris and Gaspar Von Der Natch. De Greiff was one of the founders of Los Panidas, a literary and artistic group established in 1915 in the city of Medellín.

A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge. In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words."

Medellín Municipality in Aburrá Valley, Colombia

Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín, is the second-largest city in Colombia, after Bogota, and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in the Aburrá Valley, a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the city has an estimated population of 2.5 million as of 2017. With its surrounding area that includes nine other cities, the metropolitan area of Medellín is the second-largest urban agglomeration in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.7 million people.

Contents

Family and background

Leon de Greiff at the age of one. Taken by Meliton Rodriguez Roldan in 1896. Leondegreiffoneyearold-MelitonRodriguez1896.jpg
León de Greiff at the age of one. Taken by Melitón Rodríguez Roldán in 1896.

De Greiff was born on July 22, 1895 in the city of Medellín, Colombia to Luis de Greiff Obregón and Amalia Haeusler Rincón a . His father was of Swedish ancestry and was the grandson of Karl Sigismund Fromholt von Greiff b , a Swedish engineer and geographer who moved to Colombia in 1825 and whose family had played an active role in the abdication of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. [1] De Greiff's mother was of German descent, the daughter of Heinrich Häusler a (a German mechanic and cabinetmaker who emigrated to Colombia in 1839). De Greiff was also the great-grandson of Francisco Antonio Obregón Muñoz, who had been Governor of Antioquia between 1836 and 1841.

Swedes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They mostly inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland, with a substantial diaspora in other countries, especially the United States.

Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden King of Sweden between 1792-1809

Gustav IV Adolf or Gustav IV Adolph was King of Sweden from 1792 until his abdication in 1809. He was also the last Swedish ruler of Finland.

Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans.

Greiff was baptized on August 11, 1895 at the Church Parish of Veracruz by Fr. Pedro Alejandrino Zuluaga [2] with the names Francisco de Asís, in honour of Saint Francis of Assisi, and León, in honour of Leo Tolstoy. [3] His godparents were his paternal aunt Rosa Emma de Greiff Obregón and her husband Luis Vásquez Barrientos. [2] Although of mixed Scandinavian-Germanic-Spanish-Criollo heritage, de Greiff's family had a strong Colombian identity and were part of standing mainstream Colombian society. His family background influenced many of his later works. He had four siblings, Leticia, Laura, Otto, and Olaf, and a half brother, Luis Eduardo.

Leo Tolstoy Russian writer, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. He received multiple nominations for Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906, and nominations for Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902 and 1910, and his miss of the prize is a major Nobel prize controversy.

Scandinavia Region in Northern Europe

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Germanic peoples A group of northern European tribes in Roman times

The Germanic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by Roman-era authors as distinct from neighbouring Celtic peoples, and identified in modern scholarship as speakers, at least for the most part, of early Germanic languages.

On July 23, 1927 de Greiff married María Teresa Matilde Bernal Nicholls, a Colombian of English descent whom he met through his sister Leticia. They were married in a Roman Catholic ceremony in the Cathedral of Villanueva officiated by fr. Bernardo Jaramillo Arango a mutual friend of both families. [4] Together they had four children: Astrid, an architect; Boris, a renowned chess player; Hjalmar, a cellist and editor; and Axel an architect who resettled in Sweden.

English people Nation and ethnic group native to England

The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

Metropolitan Cathedral of Medellín Church in Medellín, Colombia

The Metropolitan Cathedral of Medellín, officially the Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception is a Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary under the title of the Immaculate Conception. It is located in the central zone of the Medellín (Colombia) in the Villanueva neighborhood on the north side of Bolívar Park. Additionally, the temple was formerly called and it is still known but to a lesser extent, as Villaneuva Cathedral, especially during its construction to distinguish it from the Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria, which was the seat for the Episcopal see at the time.

Boris de Greiff Bernal was a Colombian chess master and writer, born in Medellín and son of the Colombian poet León de Greiff.

Education

Greiff was educated at the Lyceum of the University of Antioquia in Medellín and went on to study engineering at the School of Mines of the University of Antioquia. [5] In 1913 the administration expelled him along with other students for claims of being "subversive and disruptive" [6] as a result of the political turmoil of the times and his leftist tendencies and associations. In 1914 he traveled to Bogotá as secretary ad hoc to General Rafael Uribe Uribe, a personal friend of his father. [7] [5] Once in Bogotá, he attended the Free University of Colombia and studied Law. He did not finish his studies, choosing rather to drop out of school and focus on his writings and poetry. As he put it, his decision to move to Bogotá was not to become a lawyer: "It was rather to get to know Bogotá. [8]

The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies among countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.

University of Antioquia university in Colombia

The University of Antioquia, also called UdeA, is a public, departmental, coeducational, research university located primarily in the city of Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia, with regional campuses in Amalfi, Andes, Caucasia, Carmen de Viboral, Envigado, Puerto Berrío, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Segovia, Sonsón, Turbo and Yarumal. It is the oldest departmental university in Colombia, founded in 1803 by a Royal Decree issued by King Charles IV of Spain under the name Franciscan College. It is considered one of Colombia's best universities, receiving a high quality accreditation from the Ministry of Education for 9 years. Along with the University of the Andes, the two universities hold the second longest term, behind the National University of Colombia. UdeA and the Tecnológico de Antioquia have the largest number of seats in the department of Antioquia. It is also renowned for its prestigious Faculty of Medicine, which is acknowledged as one of the best medical schools in Colombia.

Engineering applied science

Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science, mathematics, and empirical evidence, to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, software, devices, systems, processes, and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

1840 Painting of Wilhelm Faxe, Bishop of Lund, great-great-grandfather of Leon de Greiff. Wilhelm Faxe 1840.jpg
1840 Painting of Wilhelm Faxe, Bishop of Lund, great-great-grandfather of León de Greiff.

As a poet

Cover of the 1st issue of Panida featuring de Greiff's first published poem, Ballad of the Mad Owls. Panida.gif
Cover of the 1st issue of Panida featuring de Greiff's first published poem, Ballad of the Mad Owls.

When de Greiff returned to Medellín in 1914, he joined the tertulias that gathered in the local cafés of the city, most prominently the ones that met in the café of the bookstore El Globo. It was there that he became acquainted with the underground cultural movement of his time and began developing and experimenting the style of poetry that would define him later on.

A tertulia is a social gathering with literary or artistic overtones, especially in Iberia or in Latin America. Tertulia also means an informal meeting of people to talk about current affairs, arts, etc. The word is originally Spanish, but it has only moderate currency in English, used mainly in describing Latin cultural contexts.

Musicians, rhapsodists, prosodians,
poets, poets, poets,
painters, cartoonists,
erudites, thorough aesthetes;
Romanticists or classicists
and decadents, "if you will"
but yes, madmen and artists
the Panidas were we thirteen!

León de Greiff, [10]

A group of 13 young bohemian artist and writers that formed during that time became known as los Panidas, named after the god Pan, and included future prominent figures in the Literature of Colombia such as de Greiff and Fernando González. [6] The panidas were influenced by the modernist movement in literature, which in Latin America became known as modernismo . This movement aimed to reclaim the already established European standards of art and literature and give it a modern and local character; the panidas thus became the precursors of modernism in Colombia, transforming the foreign and strange into local and tangent. De Greiff often exposed Colombian audiences this way, for example to the mystic land of Vikings and fjords by giving it a familiar antioqueño feel, a combination of the two worlds that were part of de Greiff’s life He also became known for his eclectic use of the language often using a lexicon so unfamiliar to most Spanish speaking audiences of that time that it would sound as if it were a foreign language, and introduced references to obscure or unknown authors and works of art and literature that were not part of standard curricula. Also present in de Greiff’s and the panida’s work was the influence of symbolism, and more significant that of parnassiastic thought, of creating poetry in its purest form to more closely resemble art. De Greiff described the purpose of the panidas in these words:

We were encouraged, above all, by a purpose of renewal. At that time poetry had become too academic. It seemed a mediocre thing, a thing which we must fight against. It was essentially that generational criterion that we were trying to impose.

León de Greiff [6]

The artistic group published a quincenal literary magazine called Panida in February 1915. This short lived publication of only ten issues was illustrated by Ricardo Rendón first directed by de Greiff, and later by Félix Mejía Arango. De Greiff had its works published for the first time in this magazine under the nom de plume Leo le Gris, the first one being his Ballad of the Mad Owls.

No sooner had the magazine been published than the Roman Catholic Church in Colombia banned for fear of corrupting the youth with its pernicious and extravagant content. The public reception was not welcoming either, the writing style of de Greiff and the other panidas was at the vanguard of its time, but too far-off from what mundane Colombian society was familiar with. It did however earn the praise and support of prominent Medellín literati such as writer Tomás Carrasquilla and journalist Fidel Cano Gutiérrez.

The magazine went out of circulation in June, mostly due to the dispersion of the panidas. De Greiff moved to Bogotá, and many others went into business leaving their artistic aspirations behind. Others chose the nihilist path of suicide.[ citation needed ] In 1925, when he published his first book Tergiversaciones, de Greiff dedicated it to the memory of "The 13 Panidas".

Los Nuevos

Caricature of Leon de Greiff by fellow panida Ricardon Rendon. Leon de Greiff.jpg
Caricature of León de Greiff by fellow panida Ricardon Rendón.

In 1925 now in Bogotá, de Greiff was now a regular of the tertulias that gathered in the Windsor café and part of the publication of a new vanguard magazine called Los Nuevos (es:The New Ones). [11] Directed by Felipe and Alberto Lleras Camargo, de Greiff worked with other writers such as Jorge Zalamea and Germán Arciniegas among others as regular contributors to the magazine. Los Nuevos was of political, artistic, literary and social content, and aimed to challenge the remnants of exhausted romanticist writings, regionalist politics, and conservative society. This movement followed the path that the panidas had begun in Medellín and that was a representation of modernismo in Colombia much like the ultraist movement in Spain.

Influenced by Vicente Huidobro, de Greiff followed creacionismos standards of poetry, reinventing himself to make each poem unique, translatable, and truly poetic. His poetry is sometimes criticized as standoffish and intricate. He was devoted to the artistic form of poetry.

Mamotretos

Starting with his first book Tergiversaciones in 1925, every one of his published books of poetry that was directed by him were named in order as mamotretos, which in Spanish loosely refers to a bulky jumbled collection of writings that could be loosely interpreted as a tome. The name was both an example of de Greiff's masterful use of language and his humbleness towards his work and himself. His eighth and last mamotreto would be Nova et Vetera, published a year before his death, and was a collection of new and old found poems of his from even before Panida.

Music and Poetry

Although de Greiff studied poetry, he had also been influenced by music as a child, and musical qualities guided both his poetry and his prose. Even though he did not follow the same musical path as his brother Otto, his knowledge and love of music drove him to seek and become Professor of Music History at the Conservatory of the National University of Colombia on September 1, 1946. The relationship of his poetry to music has been noted by Stephen C. Mohler in his doctoral thesis (The Poetic Style of León de Greiff, Ann Arbor, Michigan,1969).De Greiff had previously taught at the University from March 1940 to January 1, 1943 as Professor of Literature and Redaction at the Faculty of Engineering

Civil servant

In 1916 de Greiff received his first job as a civil servant, working as an accountant for the Bank of the Republic until 1925. He later worked as a statistician from February 16, 1926 as Manager of Bolombolo-La Pintada Railway Construction Project until June 11, 1927, when he becomes Chief Statistician for the Departmental Directorate of Roads of Antioquia until June 13, 1931, when he moved to Bogotá and becomes Chief Statistician for National Railways on June 15 until January 27, 1945.

From July 1, 1945 to February 28, 1950 he works for the Ministry of National Education working in different posts from Deputy Director of Secondary Education, and Chief of Scholarships, and Director of Cultural Promotion and Fine Arts. As part of an official commission of the Ministry, de Greiff travelled to Mexico City to repatriate the ashes of the poet Porfirio Barba-Jacob; he would again travel outside the country in 1947, when he travels to Lima, Peru as Delegate of the Ministry of National Education to the II Bolivarian Games.

In his role as Director of Cultural Promotion and Fine Arts he co-founds in 1949 with a large group of intellectuals and artists that included Alfonso López Michelsen, Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo and Baldomero Sanín Cano among others, the Colombo-Soviet Cultural Institute with the aim of improving friendship and cultural relations with the Soviet Socialist Republic. That same year on November 21 de Greiff was arrested along with Diego Montaña Cuéllar, Alejandro Vallejo, and Jorge Zalamea for “political reasons” that were never explained. De Greiff had been victim of the political and violent turmoil that had been engulfing the country known as La Violencia and his left-leaning tendencies and relations made him a target of the newly elected conservative Government. He was released on December 6; shortly after, he presented his letters of resignation to the Ministry, and steps down as Director of Cultural Promotion and Fine Arts and as Professor at the National University on March and May 1950 respectively.

Feeling betrayed and persecuted by the government, he chooses to best serve the nation as a check on the government, this time as a tax auditor for the independent government agency of the Office of the Comptroller General of Colombia on June 1, 1950 until February 25, 1957. He would return to work at the Office of the Comptroller for a short time in 1959 from January 20 to May 25. [12]

Diplomat

By 1959, de Greiff had grown in popularity and international recognition and had the opportunity to return to the land of his ancestors for the first time when he was invited to the Congress of Nations for Disarmament and International Cooperation held by the World Peace Council held from the 16th to the 22nd of July in 1958 in Stockholm. De Greiff who had not been an open communist was nevertheless of leftist tendencies and fit right in with the crowd, and after the summit he traveled to, at the invitation of the respective governments, the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, East Germany, Austria, the SFR Yugoslavia, and France. The trip lasted a total of 115 days and it would mark him politically and personally as a friend and ally of the communists.

In 1958, upon his return to Colombia and after pressure from Juan Lozano y Lozano, President Alberto Lleras Camargo appointed de Greiff as First Secretary to the Colombian Embassy in Sweden, [13] a post he held from June 16, 1959 to September 30, 1963. [14] [15] Lozano y Lozano had originally proposed de Greiff assume the post of Colombian Ambassador to Sweden, but President Lleras Camargo resisted this, considering him to be too “bohemian” to represent the nation in that post. This bohemian and independent quality put him at odds with the appointed ambassador while de Greiff was serving as secretary, especially for his indiscretions regarding a relationship he had with the Chinese Embassy, which he frequented in various occasions at their invitation. This was a breach of protocol as Bogotá did not maintain diplomatic relations with Beijing at that time. After the ambassador left his post, de Greiff became the Chargés d’affaires ad interim .

While in Sweden, de Greiff gained fame and popularity and even maintained a friendship with His Majesty King Gustaf VI Adolf, who in 1964 awarded him the Order of the Polar Star in the grade of Knight. [16]

In 1975 in recognition of his diplomatic work de Greiff was awarded the Order of San Carlos in the grade of Grand Officer by the Government of Colombia. [17]

Later life and death

The Leon de Greiff Auditorium (left building) is considered a National Monument and is home to the Bogota Philharmonic Plaza Che, Bogota.jpg
The León de Greiff Auditorium (left building) is considered a National Monument and is home to the Bogota Philharmonic
The Leon de Greiff Library and park designed by Giancarlo Mazzanti Biblioteca Leon de Greiff-Medellin2.JPG
The León de Greiff Library and park designed by Giancarlo Mazzanti

León de Greiff retired on October 1, 1963, and at that time he started to enjoy his modest pension after 34 years as a civil servant. No longer at the service of the government, de Greiff took an active interest in promoting literature and education in and out of the country.

In 1965 de Greiff was awarded the Order of Boyaca with the rank of Commander, one of Colombia's highest honours. In 1974 he was made member correspondiente of the Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, and in 1974 honorary member of the Ministry of Culture’s Instituto Caro Y Cuervo. [18] He also received various tributes including one from the Colombo-Argentinian Cultural Institute in 1955, (Instituto Cultural Colombo-Argentino), one from the National College of Journalists in 1961 (Colegio Nacional de Periodistas) presented by Gabriel García Márquez, an honoris causa doctorate in literature from the University of Valle on July 16, 1975, and in that same year another tribute from the National Association of Financial Institutions (Asociación Nacional de Instituciones Financieras, ANIF), presented to him by its then president Belisario Betancur. De Greiff traveled abroad, keeping with his cultural ambitions, and was part of the over 180 guest writers from 52 nations for the International Writer's Meeting organized by a West German writer's committee headed by Anna Seghers and Arnold Zweig in Berlin and Weimar. He also took part in the 1968 Cultural Congress of La Havana, where he was a judge in the Poetry Prize competition, as well as the 1970 Iberoamerican Community of Writers summit in Caracas, the Second Latin American Conference on Cultural Development and University Expansion in Mexico in 1972, and was part of the jury for the Quimantú (El Sol del Saber) Prize of Chile.

In Venezuela, architect Carlos Celis Cepero created the León de Greiff Hispanic-American Prize of Poetry (Premio Hispanoamericano de Poesía León de Greiff) which was first awarded on May 5, 1956 to the Venezuelan poet Juan Manuel González. [19] [20]

Upon his return to private life in Colombia, he remained involved with international political work. In 1967 he was elected President of the Colombo-Czechoslovak Friendship Association, and in 1971 elected President of the Colombo-Cuban Friendship Association (his son Axel would follow his father's steps by being elected President of the Swedish–Cuban Association), and was even invited to the inauguration of Mexican President Luis Echeverría Álvarez in 1970, and in 1972 was invited to Costa Rica by its President José Figueres Ferrer.

León de Greiff died at the age 80 in the early hours of Sunday July 11, 1976 in his home in Bogotá. Shortly after his death, the National University renamed its Central Auditorium in his honor. It is now a National Monument and home of the Bogota Philharmonic. [21] In 2007 when a new public library-park was built, the city choose to name the León de Grieff Library in his honor and to promote culture and education in the city. [22]

Other works

See also

Related Research Articles

Colombia Country in South America

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

Mariano Ospina Pérez Presidente de Colombia

Luis Mariano Ospina Pérez, commonly known as Mariano Ospina Pérez, was a Colombian politician and a member of the Colombian Conservative Party. He served as the 17th President of Colombia between 1946 and 1950.

José Eustasio Rivera New York writer and diplomat

José Eustasio Rivera Salas was a Colombian lawyer and poet primarily known for his national epic The Vortex.

National University of Colombia university

The National University of Colombia is a public and national research university in Colombia, with general campuses in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira, and satellite campuses in Leticia, San Andrés (island), Arauca, Tumaco and La Paz, Cesar. It was established in 1867 by an act of the Congress of Colombia, and, as of 2017, was one of the largest universities in the country with more than 53,000 students. It grants a large number of academic degrees per year and offers 450 academic programmes, including 95 undergraduate degrees, 83 academic specializations, 40 medical specialties, 167 master's degrees, and 65 doctorates. Approximately 44,000 students are enrolled for an undergraduate degree and 10,000 for a postgraduate degree. It is also one of the few universities that employs post-doctorate fellows in the country.

Mario Laserna Pinzón was a Colombian educator and politician born in Paris of Colombian parents. Laserna Pinzón is credited for being the founder of the Los Andes University in Bogotá, which was incorporated in 1948 and is a private institution modeled on the United States liberal arts educational system. He also served as Senator of Colombia, and Ambassador to France and Austria and is an author of several books.

Manuel Mejía Vallejo Colombian writer

Manuel Mejía Vallejo was a Colombian writer and journalist. The specialist Luís Carlos Molina says that Mejía represents the Andean aspect of the contemporary Colombian narrative, characterized by a world of symbols which are little by little being lost in the memory of the mountain.

Daniel Samper Pizano Colombian lawyer, journalist and writer

Daniel Samper Pizano is a Colombian lawyer, journalist, and prolific writer.

Ignacio Gomez Jaramillo was a Colombian painter, drawer, and muralist. Gomez Jaramillo was one of Colombia's most important artists of the 20th century. He was part of the Colombian Muralist Movement along with Santiago Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gómez. He won first place in painting in the 1940 and 1961 years of the Salon of Colombian Artists.

Manuel Uribe Ángel Colombian writer

Manuel María Uribe Angel was a Colombian physician, geographer and politician, he has been called the "father of medicine of Antioquia" for his contributions to the advances of the practice of medicine in Colombia and the Antioquia Department. He was also known outside the realm of medicine for his studies and works on the geography and history of Colombia. He also served as President of the then Sovereign State of Antioquia and as Senator of Colombia.

Gilberto Owen Mexican poet and diplomat

Gilberto Owen Estrada was a Mexican poet and diplomat.

Sergio Esteban Vélez Peláez is a Colombian writer, professor and journalist. He won the Premio Nacional de Periodismo Simón Bolívar 2010 », the Premio Internacional de Periodismo José María Heredia 2010 .) and the Premio Cipa a la Excelencia Periodística 2012. The poet Olga Elena Mattei says that Vélez represents the Andean aspect of the contemporary Colombian poetry. Vélez is a Communicator of the University of Antioquia, Colombia.

Anabel Torres Restrepo is a Colombian poet and translator.

Ospina Coffee Company

Ospina Coffee was established in Colombia, by Don Mariano Ospina Rodríguez in 1835. Ospina Rodríguez was one of the pioneers of coffee growing in Colombia and in Guatemala.

Gustavo de Greiff Restrepo was a Colombian lawyer, educator and activist, who served as Attorney General of Colombia and Ambassador to Mexico. He was an outspoken critic of the United States' War on Drugs in Colombia, and an advocate for drug liberalization policies.

Guillermo Abadía Morales was a Colombian linguist, academic, anthropologist, folklore researcher and indigenous language expert. Morales was one of the first to champion the study of indigenous languages in Colombia.

Luis Antonio Robles Suárez Afro-Colombian lawyer and politician

Luis Antonio Robles Suárez also known as "El Negro Robles", was a Colombian lawyer and politician. He was the first Afro-Colombian to hold a cabinet-level ministry in Colombia serving as Secretary of the Treasury and Public Credit during the administration of President Aquileo Parra Gómez, as well as being the first Afro-Colombian Congressperson as Member of the Chamber of Representatives for Magdalena, and the first Afro-Colombian Governor of a Department, as the 16th President of the Sovereign State of Magdalena. He graduated a lawyer from Our Lady of the Rosary University in 1872, thus also becoming the first Afro-Colombian to ever serve as a lawyer in Colombia.

Fernando Maldonado. Colombian artist, Bogotá, Colombia, born 1962. Painter, draftsman and sculptor. He studied Fine Arts at the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University. Represented Colombia in the Hall Comparaisons Paris, France (2008), and the VI International Painting Biennial of Cuenca, Ecuador (1994).

Giancarlo Mazzanti Colombian Architect

Giancarlo Mazzanti is a Colombian architect based in Bogota.

Alfonso Dávila Ortiz Colombian businessman and politician

Alfonso Dávila Ortiz was a Colombian civil engineer, diplomat, businessman and forester, former ambassador to Spain and Kuwait, Chargé d'Affaires in the United States of America, Governor of the Province of Cundinamarca, President of the Colombian Banker’s Association, twice President of the Colombian Association of Engineers, Councilor of the city of Bogotá, lifelong President of Bogotá’s Jockey Club and member of Colombia’s National Council of Public Works.

Candelario Obeso Colombian writer (1849-1884)

Candelario Obeso was a Colombian poet. He is known as a precursor of the Poesía Negra y oscura in Colombia.

References

^a Alternative transliterated spelling from German to Spanish used: Häusler=Haeusler.
^b Alternative transliterated spelling from Swedish to Spanish used: Carlos Fromholt Sigismundo de Greiff. See von.
  1. Bäckstedt, Eva, ed. (2009-09-15), "Axel von Greiff" (PDF), Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish), Stockholm, p. 15, retrieved 2009-11-28[ dead link ]
  2. 1 2 Vásquez Lopera, Julián (2006). El gran viaje atávico: Suecia y León de Greiff[The great atavistic journey: Sweden and León de Greiff] (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Medellín: El Tambor Arlequín. p. 196. ISBN   978-958-97844-0-2. OCLC   145745763.
  3. De Greiff Bernal, Hjalmar (1995-07-23). "Deshilvanadas precisiones acerca de León de Greiff" [Disjointed details about León de Greiff]. El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  4. De Greiff, León (April 2004). "Introducción". Obra poética[Poetic Work] (in Spanish). Revised by Hjalmar de Greiff. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. p. vii. ISBN   958-701-378-6 . Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  5. 1 2 Luque Cavallazzi, Gino (2004-12-09). "León de Greiff". Gran Enciclopedia de Colombia del Círculo de Lectores (in Spanish) (Virtual ed.). Biblioteca Virtual del Banco de la República. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  6. 1 2 3 Escobar Calle, Miguel (October 1995). "Los Pánidas de Medellín, Crónica sobre el grupo literario y su revista de 1915" [The Pánidas of Medellín, Chronicle of the literary group and its 1915 magazine]. Revista Credencial Historia (in Spanish). Bogotá: Biblioteca Virtual del Banco de la República (70). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  7. De Greiff, León (April 2004). "Introducción". Obra poética[Poetic Work] (in Spanish). Tome 1. Revised by Hjalmar de Greiff. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. p. v. ISBN   958-701-378-6 . Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  8. De Greiff, León (September 1973). "Unos Vodkas con León de Greiff" (PDF). Revista Arco. Nº 152 (transcript). Interviewed by Jaime Sanín Echeverri. Bogotá. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-11-28.[ permanent dead link ]
  9. De Greiff, León (September 1973). "Unos Vodkas con León de Greiff" (PDF). Revista Arco. Nº 152 (transcript). Interviewed by Jaime Sanín Echeverri. Bogotá. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2009-11-28.[ permanent dead link ]
  10. Trivial Ballad of the 13 Panidas, Verse I (1915)
  11. M. Ángeles Vázquez (2006-02-02). "Las Vanguardias en Nuestras Revistas" (in Spanish). Centro Virtual Cervantes. ISSN   1885-5008 . Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  12. Carvajal Celemín, Luis Bedredím (September–October 2003). "Los "mesteres oficinescos de don León"" [The "clerical mesters of don León"](PDF). Economía Colombiana (in Spanish). Bogotá: Contraloría General de la República (298): 101–102. ISSN   0120-4998 . Retrieved 2009-12-02.[ dead link ]
  13. Espinosa, Germán. "El millón de sombreros y otros recuerdos" [The million hats and other memories]. Arquitrave (in Spanish). ISSN   1692-0066. Archived from the original on 2009-11-19. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  14. Vásquez Lopera, Julián (2006). El gran viaje atávico: Suecia y León de Greiff[The great atavistic journey: Sweden and León de Greiff] (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Medellín: El Tambor Arlequín. p. 47. ISBN   978-958-97844-0-2. OCLC   145745763.
  15. De Greiff, León (April 2004). "Introducción". Obra poética[Poetic Work] (in Spanish). Tome 1. Revised by Hjalmar de Greiff. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. p. xiii. ISBN   958-701-378-6 . Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  16. Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación; Facultad de Comunicación y Relaciones Corporativas & Facultad de Comunicación (2001). Con-Textos (in Spanish). Medellín: Universidad de Medellín (Nº 28): 125. ISSN   0122-9184. OCLC   13405559.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. Decreto Nº 1401, Registrado bajo el Nº 3002 de 1975.
  18. Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Resolución Nº 2793 del 29 de noviembre de 1974
  19. De Greiff, León (April 2004). "Introducción". Obra poética[Poetic Work] (in Spanish). Tome 1. Revised by Hjalmar de Greiff. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. p. xii. ISBN   958-701-378-6 . Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  20. Venezuela, Ministerio de Educación; Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Bellas Artes.; Consejo Nacional de la Cultura (Venezuela); Fundación La Casa de Bello (1958). Revista nacional de cultura = National Magazine of Culture (in Spanish). Caracas: Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Bellas Artes (131–136): 138. ISSN   0035-0230. OCLC   1639896.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. "Auditorio León de Greiff" (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Retrieved 2009-11-30.[ dead link ]
  22. Fajardo Valderrama, Sergio; Jorge Humberto Melguizo (2006-11-21). "Informe de Ponencia. Proyecto de Acuerdo No. 281 de 2006" [Paper Report. Draft Agreement No. 281 of 2006](DOC) (in Spanish). Medellín: Concejo de Medellín. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 2009-11-30.

Further reading