Leamington Spa

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Royal Leamington Spa
The Parade, Leamington Spa (3).jpg
The Parade
Warwickshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Royal Leamington Spa
Location within Warwickshire
Population52,213 (2019 estimate) [1]
OS grid reference SP316660
Civil parish
  • Royal Leamington Spa
Shire county
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Postcode district CV31, CV32, CV33
Dialling code 01926
Police Warwickshire
Fire Warwickshire
Ambulance West Midlands
UK Parliament
List of places
52°17′31″N1°32′13″W / 52.292°N 1.537°W / 52.292; -1.537 Coordinates: 52°17′31″N1°32′13″W / 52.292°N 1.537°W / 52.292; -1.537

Royal Leamington Spa, commonly known as Leamington Spa or simply Leamington /ˈlɛmɪŋtən/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), is a spa town and civil parish in Warwickshire, England. Originally a small village called Leamington Priors, it grew into a spa town in the 18th century following the popularisation of its water which was reputed to have medicinal qualities. [2] In the 19th century, the town experienced one of the most rapid expansions in England. [3] It is named after the River Leam, which flows through the town.


The town contains especially fine ensembles of Regency architecture, [4] particularly in parts of the Parade, Clarendon Square and Lansdowne Circus.

In 2019 Leamington had an estimated population of 52,213. [1] Leamington is contiguous with the neighbouring towns of Warwick and Whitnash; these form a combined urban area which in 2011 had a population of 95,172. [5]

Leamington lies around 8 miles (13 km) south of Coventry, 20 miles (32 km) south-east of Birmingham, and 81 miles (130 km) north-west of London.


Lansdowne Crescent SP3266 Lansdowne Crescent, Leamington Spa.jpg
Lansdowne Crescent

Formerly a small village known as Leamington Priors, Leamington began to develop as a town at the start of the 19th century. It was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Lamintone. For 400 years, the settlement was under the control of Kenilworth Priory, from which the older suffix derived. [6] [7] Its name came from Anglo-Saxon Leman-tūn or Lemen-tūn = "farm on the River Leam". [8] The spa waters had been known in Roman times, and their rediscovery in 1784 by William Abbotts and Benjamin Satchwell led to their commercialisation, with invalids beginning to resort here in 1786. Six of the seven wells were drilled for; only the original spring at the site of the Aylesford Well, adjacent to the Parish Church, occurred naturally. [6] [9]

The old village of Leamington Priors was on the southern bank of the River Leam, and early development was based around this. During the early 19th century, developers began concentrating the town's expansion on the land north of the river. This resulted in the Georgian centre of New Town with the Leam flowing between the two. [9]

Royal Pump Rooms and Baths Leamington Spa pumphouses.jpg
Royal Pump Rooms and Baths

By 1810, the town's existing bath houses could not cope with the increasing visitor numbers, and a syndicate was formed to build a new bath house north of the River Leam. A new saline spring was found on land close to the river, belonging to Bertie Greatheed, a wealthy plantation owner and landowner from Guys Cliffe, and a member of the syndicate. [10] In 1814, the Royal Pump Rooms and Baths were opened on the site, designed by C.S. Smith, who also designed The Regent Hotel and the Upper Assembly Rooms in the town. Spa water can still be sampled outside the building.

Leamington became a popular spa resort attracting the wealthy and famous, with numerous Georgian townhouses to accommodate visitors. Construction of what is now the Parade began in sections from 1808, [11] the Regent Hotel in 1818, a town hall in 1830. [12] and the Jephson Gardens in 1834. In 1838 Queen Victoria granted the town a 'Royal' prefix, and 'Leamington Priors' was renamed 'Royal Leamington Spa'. Queen Victoria had visited the town as a Princess in 1830 and as Queen in 1858. [6] In 1840 the Victoria Bridge was opened, connecting the old and new towns, replacing an old, narrow, and inconvenient bridge. [9]

The growth of Leamington was rapid; at the time of the first national census in 1801, Leamington had a population of just 315, by 1851 this had grown to 15,724, [9] and by 1901, the population had reached 26,888. [13] [14]

The Victoria Bridge over the Leam The River Leam, Royal Leamington Spa, geograph 3797956 by Ian S.jpg
The Victoria Bridge over the Leam

The London and North Western Railway opened the first railway line into Leamington; a branch line from Coventry in 1844, followed by a branch to Rugby in 1851. In 1852 the Great Western Railway's main line between Birmingham, Oxford and London opened through Leamington, upon which the first railway station at the current location was opened. [15] [16]

As the popularity of spa resorts declined towards the end of the 19th century, the focus of Leamington's economy shifted towards becoming a popular place of residence for retired people and for members of the middle class, many of whom relocated from Coventry and Birmingham. Its well off residents led to the development of Leamington as a popular place for shopping. [13]

In 1832 the town's main hospital, Warneford Hospital, opened, named after philanthropist Samuel Wilson Warneford. At first a semi-private affair it was taken over by the National Health Service after the Second World War, before succumbing to budget cuts and closing in 1993.

Leamington is closely associated with the founding of lawn tennis. The first tennis club in the world was formed in 1872 by Major Henry Gem and Augurio Pereira who had started playing tennis in the garden of Pereira. [17] It was located just behind the former Manor House Hotel and the modern rules of lawn tennis were drawn up in 1874 in Leamington Tennis Club.

During the Second World War, Leamington was home to the Free Czechoslovak Army; a memorial in the Jephson Gardens commemorates the bravery of Czechoslovak parachutists from Warwickshire. [18]


Leamington Spa Town Hall (1884) with Queen Victoria's statue Leamington Town Hall, geograph 5307580 by Julian Osley.jpg
Leamington Spa Town Hall (1884) with Queen Victoria's statue

Leamington Spa is a town and civil parish in the Warwick District, an administrative division of the county of Warwickshire. Between 1875 and 1974 Leamington was a municipal borough. [19] As part of the 1974 local government reform it was merged with Warwick, Kenilworth and Whitnash, and surrounding rural areas into the Warwick District, which has its offices in Leamington. In 2002 Leamington Spa became a civil parish and gained a new Town Council. [20]

Leamington is part of the parliamentary constituency of Warwick and Leamington. From the 1997 general election until the 2010 general election the constituency was represented in parliament by James Plaskitt of the Labour Party; until then this had been a Conservative safe seat, counting former British prime minister Anthony Eden among its Members of Parliament (MPs). The seat became highly marginal at the 2005 general election, where James Plaskitt won with a majority of just 266 votes. In the 2010 general election the seat returned to the Conservative Party, with Chris White winning the seat by 3,513 votes. White remained the MP until the 2017 general election, when the seat was won by Matt Western of the Labour Party.


Map of Leamington, Warwick and Whitnash Warwick, Leamington & Whitnash map.png
Map of Leamington, Warwick and Whitnash

Leamington is divided by the River Leam running east to west, which is susceptible to flooding in extreme weather, with especially heavy floods in 1998 and 2007. [21] [22]

The town has several parks and gardens, [23] including the Jephson Gardens, close to the Royal Pump Rooms and next to the River Leam. These were seriously damaged in the floods of 1998, but have been restored and improved with funding from the National Lottery. The other side of the River Leam, on Priory Terrace features the "Elephant Walk" 19th-century slipway down to the river located near the suspension bridge in Jephson Gardens. It was specifically constructed so that circus elephants in winter quarters in Leamington could be watered. [24] Other parks are the Mill Gardens on the opposite bank of the river to Jephson Gardens, Victoria Park, the Royal Pump Room Gardens, The Dell and Newbold Comyn which includes the nature reserves Welches Meadow and Leam Valley. [25]

The main road running through the town centre is Parade (formerly Lillington Lane until 1860). [3] This shopping street contains high street chains and The Royal Priors shopping mall.

Suburbs and nearby places

The town has encompassed the former village of Lillington, directly to the north of the town centre. Other suburbs include Milverton to the northwest, Campion Hills to the east, Sydenham to the east and the rapidly expanding Heathcote district to the southwest.

The ancient town of Warwick lies adjoined directly to the west of Leamington, on the opposite bank of the River Avon. Also contiguous with Leamington, directly to the south, with no natural border, is the smaller town of Whitnash. The village of Cubbington is adjoined to the north-east. Just outside the town lie the villages of Old Milverton to the north and Radford Semele 2.5 miles (4 km) to the east.

Stratford-upon-Avon, famous as William Shakespeare's birthplace and the home of the Royal Shakespeare Company, lies south-west from Leamington Spa along the Warwick Road (A439).

Notable buildings

All Saints' Church All Saints Church, Victoria Terrace, Leamington Spa.jpg
All Saints' Church

Buildings in the town include a variety of Georgian and early Victorian architecture, and listed buildings such as the Grade II listed Lansdowne Crescent in neo-classical style, designed by William Thomas between 1835 and 1838. [26]

Amongst the Anglican churches in Leamington is the Gothic All Saints' Church.

St Mark's Church on Rugby Road was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott in 1879. It is a Gothic revival design, in red brick with stone dressings. It was endowed by the Carus-Wilson family, in memory of Frances Carus-Wilson (d.1872), wife of Sir Trevor Wheler. [27]

There is a Roman Catholic church, two United Reformed churches (one being in Lillington), a small mosque and a Hindu temple. In 2009, the Sikh community built the Gurdwara Sahib Leamington and Warwick in Warwick which also serves Leamington. [28] [29] There are also Christadelphian and Jehovah's Witnesses meeting halls in the town.

In August 2010, a Warwickshire Justice Centre was opened in Newbold Terrace. As well as a police station, the complex houses a magistrates' court, and the Crown Court, County Court, and other agencies such as the Probation Service and Victim Support. [30] It was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 4 March 2011. [31]

An oak tree just to the northeast of the town centre is marked by a plaque stating that it commemorates the Midland Oak, a tree that grew near the spot and was reputed to be at the centre of England.

St John the Baptist's Church (Church of England) Church of St John the Baptist, Tachbrook Street, Leamington Spa - geograph.org.uk - 1416233.jpg
St John the Baptist's Church (Church of England)


At the 2011 census, there were 49,491 residents in Leamington in 22,098 households, and the median age of Leamington residents was 34. [32]

In terms of ethnicity: [32]

In terms of religion, 51.5% of Leamington residents identified as Christian, 32.1% said they had no religion, 7.5% did not state any religion, 5.1% were Sikh, 1.5% were Hindu, 1.3% were Muslim, 0.4% were Buddhists, 0.3% were Jewish and 0.5% were from another religion. [32]



The popularity of the town's waters in the 19th century led to the town's initial growth, making tourism Leamington's primary industry in the 19th century. [33]

Christmas Lights in Livery street Christmas Lights in Livery street - geograph.org.uk - 98286.jpg
Christmas Lights in Livery street


In the town centre there are a variety of shops from high street chains to independent retailers, plus an indoor shopping centre, The Royal Priors. There is an out of town retail park is called the Leamington Shopping Park (formerly The Shires Retail Park), even though it sits within the boundaries of Warwick. [34] It opened in 1989. [35]


Tourism was initially driven by the spring waters. The arrival of the Warwick and Napton Canal (later amalgamated into the Grand Union Canal) officially opened in 1799 as the primary means of cargo transport and led to growth in other industries until rail gradually took over in the mid 19th century, [33] The canal supplied coal to the gasworks on Tachbrook Road, providing gas to light the town from 1835. Pig iron, coke and limestone were delivered by canal, allowing a number of foundries to be established in Leamington, specialising in cast iron stoves. Today the Eagle Foundry, dating from at least 1851, continues to manufacture Rangemaster Aga stoves. The Imperial Foundry, dating from around 1925, was subsequently taken over by Ford, casting engine blocks until its closure in 2008. [33]

The prominent car parts manufacturer Automotive Products based in the south of the town grew from a small garage to occupy a large site. Throughout the 20th century, while tourism took a downturn, Automotive Products expanded and built a factory in the South of the town in 1928 that is still operative in 2009, although on a much smaller scale. [33] Karobes Limited, with its headquarters in Queensway, was one of Britain's major suppliers of accessories for cars between World War II and the 1970s.

Commercial parks for service providers and light industry and offices are primarily located to the south of the town: Althorpe Street Industrial Estate, Queensway Trading Estate, Shires Gate Trading Estate and Sydenham Industrial Estate.

In June 2014, Detroit Electric announced that they would be building their SP.01 all-electric roadster in Leamington Spa. [36]

Digital media and the video game industry

Leamington Spa and the surrounding area, known as Silicon Spa, [37] [38] is a significant global centre for the video game industry, [39] with a higher than average proportion of digital media companies involved in games development, digital design and publishing, [40] [41] and over a thousand employed directly in game development. [37] Companies based in or around the town include Third Kind Games, Super Spline Studios, Lab42, Sumo Leamington, Caperfly, Widgit Software, [37] DNA Interactive, Fish in a Bottle, Ubisoft Leamington, Unit 2, Electric Square, Full Fat, Kwalee, Pixel Toys, [37] Playground Games, Red Chain Games, [42] Stickman Studios, [43] Supersonic Software and Midoki. [44] Codemasters are based in the countryside outside Leamington and were the initial impetus behind the cluster, providing many of the staff for the companies in Leamington. [45] In 2013, Sega's mobile platform studio Hardlight Studio [46] set up in Leamington, and Exient [47] opened a satellite studio. Former companies were Blitz Games Studios, FreeStyleGames, Bigbig Studios and Titus Software UK Limited. [48]


Local hospitals include the Royal Leamington Spa Rehabilitation Hospital [49] and the Warwickshire Nuffield Hospital. [50] On 13 July 2021 a coronavirus "mega lab" was opened in the town. Named after English chemist Rosalind Franklin, the laboratory is intended to be capable of processing hundreds of thousands of samples a day, making it the largest of its kind in the UK. It is expected to create up to 1,500 jobs. [51]


There are a number of schools either located within Leamington, or which include Leamington in their priority (catchment) area. Those within Leamington include the state secondary schools of North Leamington School, Campion School, Trinity Catholic School, and the independent schools of Arnold Lodge School, a co-educational school for pupils aged 3 to 18, and Kingsley School, a school for girls. Myton School in Warwick, although located just outside Leamington, includes parts of Leamington as being within its priority area. [52]

As well as these schools, Leamington children can attend Stratford-upon-Avon Grammar School for Girls, a state run selective school, Warwick School, an independent school for boys, the King's High School for Girls, Warwick's twin school and Princethorpe College, a mixed independent school in the nearby village of Princethorpe.

Leamington is the location of the first of Warwickshire College's six sites, and additionally another site is located just outside the town. The closest higher education institutions are the prestigious University of Warwick, in southwestern Coventry, and Coventry University. The town is particularly popular with Warwick University students seeking housing and entertainment.

Leamington is also home to two national educational charities – The Smallpeice Trust and The Arkwright Scholarships Trust. They specialise in making young people aware of how STEM fields studied in school can lead to fulfilling and exciting careers in science and engineering sectors of industry.


Leamington Spa Art Gallery & Museum is located in the Royal Pump Rooms, on the Parade. It holds a collection of over 12,000 objects, including fine and decorative arts, as well as items relating to local and social history. [53] It provides exhibitions in the visual arts and about the history of the town, supported by workshops, talks and other events.

Community centres

There are several local community centres.

Peace Festival

Since 1978, the annual free festival and celebration of alternative culture called the Peace Festival has been held in the Pump Room Gardens. [54]


Live music is provided by local bands in a variety of venues. In December 2005 the band Nizlopi from Leamington, reached Number 1 in the UK Singles Chart with The JCB Song. [55] The Woodbine Street Recording Studios has been used by several well-known music acts such as local band The Shapes, whose single "Batman in the Launderette" charted first in 1979, Paul Weller, Ocean Colour Scene, Felt and The Specials. [56] Classical music concerts are organised throughout the year in the Leamington and Warwick area, including the International String Quartet series at the Royal Pump Rooms. [57] The Assembly, is a 1,000 capacity music venue attracting national and international artists, [58] and was awarded 'Live Music Venue of the Year' at the 2010 Music Week Awards. [59] and the Leamington Spa Competitive Festival for Music Dance and Drama is staged annually.[ citation needed ] There is a brass band called the Royal Spa Brass. In May 2016, 92 of the local musicians participated in A great day in Leamington Spa, a reconstruction of the 1958 photograph A Great Day in Harlem.[ citation needed ]

Theatre and cinema

Two theatres are located in Leamington: the Spa Centre and the amateur The Loft, with outdoor summer productions in Jephson Gardens. Leamington also has two cinemas: the Spa Centre and a multiplex.

Sport and leisure

There are a number of sports clubs and leisure facilities in Leamington Spa, including the oldest purpose built Real Tennis court in the world at Leamington Tennis Court Club, the football club Leamington F.C., a disc golf course Quarry Park, a leisure centre including swimming pool Newbold Comyn Leisure Centre, rugby grounds Leamington Rugby Union Football Club, Leamington Rugby Club – Youth Section and Old Leamingtonians Rugby Football Club, Leamington Cricket, Khalsa Leamington Hockey Club, Leamington Cycling club, Leamington Athletics club, Spa Striders Running Club, Royal Leamington Spa Canoe Club, Leamington Chess Club, formed in 1851, and municipal tennis courts. The Royal Leamington Spa Bowling Club in Victoria Park hosts the annual National Lawn Bowls Championships. [60] [61]

Leamington has been featured in a number of television series, including the 1990s BBC situation comedy Keeping Up Appearances – filmed in and around the area. Notable episodes included one with Walton Hall which had footage of the actual town in them, including the River Leam being featured as a fishing and boating spot. Other series include the drama Dangerfield and comedy detective series Mayo .

In September 2010 scenes for a re-make of the series Upstairs, Downstairs were shot on Clarendon Square and in The Jephson Gardens. In Jonathan Strange and Mr. Norrell , the Duke of Devonshire owns a house here, and offers it to Mr. Norrell as a place to set up a magic school upon the advice of the Earl of Liverpool.

The cover of the Ocean Colour Scene album Moseley Shoals features the Jephson Memorial in Jephson Gardens. [62]


Leamington Spa experiences the oceanic climate which covers most of the United Kingdom.

Climate data for Leamington Spa
Average high °C (°F)6.0
Average low °C (°F)0.3
Average precipitation mm (inches)53
Source: [63]



From Leamington's centre, it is 3 miles (5 km) to the M40 motorway which links it to Birmingham and London. It is also served by the A46, which links it to Coventry and Stratford-upon-Avon


Leamington Spa railway station Leamington Spa railway station exterior (crop).jpg
Leamington Spa railway station

Leamington Spa railway station is served by the Chiltern Main Line, which links London Marylebone to Birmingham Snow Hill and onwards to Kidderminster. Fast train services on this route are operated by Chiltern Railways. Chiltern Railways also run trains via Warwick to Stratford-upon-Avon. West Midlands Trains operate local services to Birmingham and onwards to Worcester Shrub Hill. A line connecting Leamington Spa to Coventry is used by a West Midlands Trains local service to Nuneaton, as well as CrossCountry who provide services to Banbury, Oxford, Reading and Bournemouth to the south; and to Coventry, Birmingham (New Street), Manchester, Newcastle and Edinburgh to the north.

Bus and coach

Regular bus services to Kenilworth, the University of Warwick and Coventry are operated by Stagecoach in Warwickshire and National Express Coventry. Services to Warwick, Banbury, Stratford-upon-Avon and Rugby are operated by Stagecoach in Warwickshire and by other independent companies. Coaches to locations nationally and internationally are available.


Leamington's nearest international passenger airport is Birmingham Airport. Coventry Airport is a nearby general aviation airport and former tourist charter hub. It currently (2018) has no scheduled passenger services.


The Grand Union Canal is used for recreation. This crosses the River Avon between Leamington and Warwick, and then passes the town to the south, parallel to the River Leam to the north. The rivers are not used for transportation, but there are proposals to render them navigable.[ citation needed ]


There are national and local cycleways into and around Leamington.


Between 1881 and 1930, Leamington & Warwick Tramways & Omnibus Company operated trams between the two towns.

Notable residents

Famous people who were born in Leamington include the world champion boxer Randolph Turpin (1928–1966), [64] and the poet, mountaineer, magician, and occultist Aleister Crowley (1875–1947) and the pathologist Sir Bernard Spilsbury (1877–1947) [65]

Other famous people to live or have lived in Leamington include the inventor of the jet engine Frank Whittle (1907–1996) who lived in Leamington as a child, [66] the television presenter Anne Diamond, the comedian Russell Howard. [65] and the professional footballer for Coventry City F.C. Jordan Shipley.[ citation needed ] Grime artist Stormzy lived in Leamington while studying for an apprenticeship. [67] [68]

Twin towns – sister cities

Royal Leamington Spa is twinned with: [69]


Royal Leamington Spa has friendship agreements with: [69]

See also

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Jephson Gardens

The Jephson Gardens are formal gardens, together with a grassed park, in the town of Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. The gardens, once a place for the wealthy to 'take the air' and 'be seen', are found in the centre of the town on the Parade, with the River Leam flowing to the south of them. One of the town's most popular tourist attractions, they have facilities such as cafes and floral displays. The gardens are often marketed in tandem with the nearby all-grassed Mill Gardens on the south side of the river. The gardens have a total area of 14.6 acres (59,000 m2) with Mill Gardens and its boating lake, both on the opposite side of the river, providing an extra 3.9 acres (16,000 m2).

Royal Pump Rooms

The Royal Pump Rooms is a cultural centre on the Parade in Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England. It was the most famous of several spa baths opened in Leamington between the late-18th and mid-19th centuries. People would travel from throughout the country, and indeed Europe, to benefit from treatments using the town's healing waters. When 'taking the waters' became less fashionable after the mid-19th century the Pump Rooms became Leamington's only surviving spa facility, later also being extended to include the town's public swimming pool. After a major redevelopment in 1997-99 the building now houses Leamington Spa Art Gallery & Museum, a public library, a Tourist Information Centre, cafe and assembly rooms. It is a Grade II listed building.

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Coventry–Leamington line

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Rugby–Leamington line Disused railway in Warwickshire, England

The Rugby to Leamington Line was a railway running from Rugby to Leamington Spa. It was a 15-mile (24 km) branch line built by the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) and opened in 1851. The branch connected Leamington with the mainline from London to Birmingham which had been opened in 1838 by the LNWR's predecessor, the London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR).

The Loft Theatre Company is a troupe of actors based in Royal Leamington Spa, United Kingdom, founded in 1922. The company is an amateur theatre.

Victoria Park is a public park in Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England. It is situated about half a mile west of the town centre and is on the south bank of the River Leam. The total area of the park as it stands today is 18.5 acres (7.5 ha).

Parade is a 0.51 mile long street in the town of Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England. Running in a north-south direction, it forms part of the longer B4087 which runs from the A445 in Leamington to the B4086 in Wellesbourne. The road is the central shopping hub of the town, and upon it sit many of the town’s high street stores, as well as some of the best examples of Regency architecture, for which the town is known. It is often erroneously called "The Parade", and spoken of as such, but all maps and resources such as the Royal Mail's postcode database simply have "Parade".


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Further reading