Legionnaires' disease

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Legionnaires' disease
SynonymsLegionellosis, [1] legion fever
PMC5258191 cureus-0008-00000000937-i01.png
Chest X-ray of a severe case of legionellosis upon admission to the emergency department.
Specialty Infectious disease, pulmonology
SymptomsCough, shortness of breath, fever, muscle pains, headaches [2]
Usual onset2–10 days after exposure [2]
Causes Bacteria of the Legionella type (spread by contaminated mist) [3] [4]
Risk factors Older age, history of smoking, chronic lung disease, poor immune function [5]
Diagnostic method Urinary antigen test, sputum culture [6]
PreventionGood maintenance of water systems [7]
Treatment Antibiotics [8]
Prognosis10% risk of death [8]
Frequency~13,000 severe cases a year (US) [9]

Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis, is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria. [3] Signs and symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, high fever, muscle pains, and headaches. [2] Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. [1] This often begins 2–10 days after exposure. [2]

Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly associated with the disease. Its clinical presentation contrasts to that of "typical" pneumonia. A variety of microorganisms can cause it. When it develops independently from another disease it is called primary atypical pneumonia (PAP).

<i>Legionella</i> genus of bacteria

The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger.


The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water. [4] It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air conditioners. [4] It is usually spread by breathing in mist that contains the bacteria. [4] It can also occur when contaminated water is aspirated. [4] It typically does not spread directly between people, and most people who are exposed do not become infected. [4] Risk factors for infection include older age, a history of smoking, chronic lung disease, and poor immune function. [5] Those with severe pneumonia and those with pneumonia and a recent travel history should be tested for the disease. [10] Diagnosis is by a urinary antigen test and sputum culture. [6]

Fresh water naturally occurring water with low concentrations of dissolved salts

Fresh water is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water includes water in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and even underground water called groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water, it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs.

Pulmonary aspiration

Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx and lower respiratory tract, the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs. A person may inhale the material, or it may be delivered into the tracheobronchial tree during positive pressure ventilation. When pulmonary aspiration occurs during eating and drinking, the aspirated material is often colloquially referred to as "going down the wrong pipe."

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease type of lung disease characterized by long-term poor airflow

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking or getting dressed, become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years.

No vaccine is available. [7] Prevention depends on good maintenance of water systems. [7] Treatment of Legionnaires' disease is with antibiotics. [8] Recommended agents include fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, or doxycycline. [11] Hospitalization is often required. [10] About 10% of those who are infected die. [8]

Vaccine biological preparatory medicine that improves immunity to a particular disease

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic, or therapeutic.

Antibiotic drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Azithromycin chemical compound

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. It may also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria. It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.

The number of cases that occur globally is not known. [1] Legionnaires' disease is the cause of an estimated 2-9% of pneumonia cases that are acquired outside of hospital. [1] An estimated 8,000 to 18,000 cases a year in the United States require hospitalization. [9] Outbreaks of disease account for a minority of cases. [1] [12] While it can occur any time of the year, it is more common in the summer and fall. [9] The disease is named after the outbreak where it was first identified, at a 1976 American Legion convention in Philadelphia. [13]

In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or impact upon thousands of people across an entire continent. Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak. Outbreaks include epidemics, which term is normally only used for infectious diseases, as well as diseases with an environmental origin, such as a water or foodborne disease. They may affect a region in a country or a group of countries. Pandemics are near-global disease outbreaks.

1976 Philadelphia Legionnaires disease outbreak

The 1976 Legionnaires disease outbreak, occurring in the late summer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the first occasion in which a cluster of a particular type of pneumonia cases were determined to be caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacteria.

American Legion U.S. war veterans organization

The American Legion is a U.S. war veterans' organization headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana. It is made up of state, U.S. territory, and overseas departments, and these are in turn made up of local posts. The legislative body of The American Legion is a national convention, held annually. The organization was founded on March 15, 1919, at the American Club near Place de la Concorde in Paris, France, by members of the American Expeditionary Forces, and it was chartered on September 16, 1919, by the U.S. Congress.

Signs and symptoms

The length of time between exposure to the bacteria and the appearance of symptoms is generally 2–10 days, but can rarely extend to as long as 20 days. [14] For the general population, among those exposed, between 0.1 and 5.0% develop the disease, while among those in hospital, between 0.4 and 14% develop the disease. [14]

Incubation period time between an infection and the onset of disease symptoms

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. In a typical infectious disease, incubation period signifies the period taken by the multiplying organism to reach a threshold necessary to produce symptoms in the host.

Those with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Almost all experience fever, while around half have cough with sputum, and one-third cough up blood or bloody sputum. Some also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), chest pain, or diarrhea and vomiting. [15] Up to half of those with Legionnaires' disease have gastrointestinal symptoms, and almost half have neurological symptoms, [14] including confusion and impaired cognition. [16] "Relative bradycardia" may also be present, which is low or low-normal heart rate despite the presence of a fever. [17]

Sputum mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways

Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways. In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections, and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors. Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection. Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface. The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection.

Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions. Hemoptysis is considered massive at 300 mL. In such cases, there are always severe injuries. The primary danger comes from choking, rather than blood loss.

Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretching of a muscle or group of muscles. Myalgia without a traumatic history is often due to viral infections. Longer-term myalgias may be indicative of a metabolic myopathy, some nutritional deficiencies or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Laboratory tests may show that kidney functions, liver functions, and electrolyte levels are abnormal, which may include low sodium in the blood. Chest X-rays often show pneumonia with consolidation in the bottom portion of both lungs. Distinguishing Legionnaires' disease from other types of pneumonia by symptoms or radiologic findings alone is difficult; other tests are required for definitive diagnosis.

Persons with Pontiac fever experience fever and muscle aches without pneumonia. They generally recover in 2–5 days without treatment. For Pontiac fever, the time between exposure and symptoms is generally a few hours to 2 days.


Transmission electron microscopy image of L. pneumophila, responsible for over 90% of Legionnaires' disease cases Legionella pneumophila 01.jpg
Transmission electron microscopy image of L. pneumophila, responsible for over 90% of Legionnaires' disease cases

Over 90% of cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by Legionella pneumophila. Other types include L. longbeachae , L. feeleii , L. micdadei , and L. anisa .


Legionnaires' disease is usually spread by the breathing in of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the Legionella bacteria. [15] Experts have stated that Legionnaires' disease is not transmitted from person to person. [19] In 2014, one case of possible spread from someone sick to the caregiver occurred. [20] Rarely, it has been transmitted by direct contact between contaminated water and surgical wounds. [15] The bacteria grow best at warm temperatures [4] and thrive at water temperatures between 25 and 45 °C (77 and 113 °F), with an optimum temperature of 35 °C (95 °F). [21] Temperatures above 60 °C (140 °F) kill the bacteria. [22] Sources where temperatures allow the bacteria to thrive include hot water tanks, cooling towers, and evaporative condensers of large air conditioning systems, such as those commonly found in hotels and large office buildings. [23] Though the first known outbreak was in Philadelphia, cases of legionellosis have occurred throughout the world. [14]


L. pneumophila thrives in aquatic systems, where it is established within amoebae in a symbiotic relationship. [24] Legionella bacteria survive in water as intracellular parasites of water-dwelling protozoa, such as amoebae. Amoebae are often part of biofilms, and once Legionella and infected amoebae are protected within a biofilm, they are particularly difficult to destroy. [15]

In the built environment, central air conditioning systems in office buildings, hotels, and hospitals are sources of contaminated water. [21] Other places the bacteria can dwell include cooling towers used in industrial cooling systems, evaporative coolers, nebulizers, humidifiers, whirlpool spas, hot water systems, showers, windshield washers, fountains, room-air humidifiers, ice-making machines, and misting systems typically found in grocery-store produce sections. [15] [25]

The bacteria may also be transmitted from contaminated aerosols generated in hot tubs if the disinfection and maintenance programs are not followed rigorously. [26] Freshwater ponds, creeks, and ornamental fountains are potential sources of Legionella. [27] The disease is particularly associated with hotels, fountains, cruise ships, and hospitals with complex potable water systems and cooling systems. Respiratory-care devices such as humidifiers and nebulizers used with contaminated tap water may contain Legionella species, so using sterile water is very important. [28]

Other sources include exposure to potting mix and compost. [29]


Legionella spp. enter the lungs either by aspiration of contaminated water or inhalation of aerosolized contaminated water or soil. In the lung, the bacteria are consumed by macrophages, a type of white blood cell, inside of which the Legionella bacteria multiply, causing the death of the macrophage. Once the macrophage dies, the bacteria are released from the dead cell to infect other macrophages. Virulent strains of Legionella kill macrophages by blocking the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes inside the host cell; normally, the bacteria are contained inside the phagosome, which merges with a lysosome, allowing enzymes and other chemicals to break down the invading bacteria. [14]


Various stages of the disease: Chest radiograph (A) and high-resolution computed tomography (B) at hospital admission, repeat high-resolution computerized tomography of the chest a week after hospital admission (C, D), shown in a 42-year-old male with severe pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 11a Severe Pneumonia Caused by Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 11, Italy.jpg
Various stages of the disease: Chest radiograph (A) and high-resolution computed tomography (B) at hospital admission, repeat high-resolution computerized tomography of the chest a week after hospital admission (C, D), shown in a 42-year-old male with severe pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 11a

People of any age may suffer from Legionnaires' disease, but the illness most often affects middle-aged and older persons, particularly those who smoke cigarettes or have chronic lung disease. Immunocompromised people are also at higher risk. Pontiac fever most commonly occurs in persons who are otherwise healthy.

The most useful diagnostic tests detect the bacteria in coughed-up mucus, find Legionella antigens in urine samples, or allow comparison of Legionella antibody levels in two blood samples taken 3–6 weeks apart. A urine antigen test is simple, quick, and very reliable, but only detects L. pneumophila serogroup 1, which accounts for 70% of disease caused by L. pneumophila, which means use of the urine antigen test alone may miss as many as 30% of cases. [21] This test was developed by Richard Kohler in 1982. [30] When dealing with L. pneumophila serogroup 1, the urine antigen test is useful for early detection of Legionnaire's disease and initiation of treatment, and has been helpful in early detection of outbreaks. However, it does not identify the specific subtypes, so it cannot be used to match the person with the environmental source of infection. The Legionella bacteria can be cultured from sputum or other respiratory samples. Legionella spp. stain poorly with Gram stain, stains positive with silver, and is cultured on charcoal yeast extract with iron and cysteine (CYE agar).

A significant under-reporting problem occurs with legionellosis. Even in countries with effective health services and readily available diagnostic testing, about 90% of cases of Legionnaires' disease are missed. This is partly due to the disease being a relatively rare form of pneumonia, which many clinicians may not have encountered before, thus may misdiagnose. A further issue is that people with legionellosis can present with a wide range of symptoms, some of which (such as diarrhea) may distract clinicians from making a correct diagnosis. [31]


Although the risk of Legionnaires' disease being spread by large-scale water systems cannot be eliminated, it can be greatly reduced by writing and enforcing a highly detailed, systematic water safety plan appropriate for the specific facility involved (office building, hospital, hotel, spa, cruise ship, etc.) [14] Some of the elements that such a plan may include are:

An effective water safety plan also covers such matters as training, record-keeping, communication among staff, contingency plans, and management responsibilities. The format and content of the plan may be prescribed by public health laws or regulations. [14]


Effective antibiotics include most macrolides, tetracyclines, ketolides, and quinolones. [15] Legionella spp. multiply within the cell, so any effective treatment must have excellent intracellular penetration. Current treatments of choice are the respiratory tract quinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin) or newer macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin). The antibiotics used most frequently have been levofloxacin, doxycycline, and azithromycin.

Macrolides (azithromycin) are used in all age groups, while tetracyclines (doxycycline) are prescribed for children above the age of 12 and quinolones (levofloxacin) above the age of 18. Rifampicin can be used in combination with a quinolone or macrolide. Whether rifampicin is an effective antibiotic to take for treatment is uncertain. The Infectious Diseases Society of America does not recommend the use of rifampicin with added regimens. Tetracyclines and erythromycin led to improved outcomes compared to other antibiotics in the original American Legion outbreak. These antibiotics are effective because they have excellent intracellular penetration in Legionella-infected cells. The recommended treatment is 5–10 days of levofloxacin or 3–5 days of azithromycin, but in people who are immunocompromised, have severe disease, or other pre-existing health conditions, longer antibiotic use may be necessary. [15] During outbreaks, prophylactic antibiotics have been used to prevent Legionnaires' disease in high-risk individuals who have possibly been exposed. [15]

The mortality at the original American Legion convention in 1976 was high (29 deaths in 182 infected individuals [33] ) because the antibiotics used (including penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides) had poor intracellular penetration. Mortality has plunged to less than 5% if therapy is started quickly. Delay in giving the appropriate antibiotic leads to higher mortality.


The fatality rate of Legionnaires' disease has ranged from 5 to 30% during various outbreaks and approaches 50% for nosocomial infections, especially when treatment with antibiotics is delayed. [34] Hospital-acquired Legionella pneumonia has a fatality rate of 28%, and the principal source of infection in such cases is the drinking-water distribution system. [35]


Legionnaires' disease acquired its name in July 1976, when an outbreak of pneumonia occurred among people attending a convention of the American Legion at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia. Of the 182 reported cases, mostly men, 29 died. [36] On January 18, 1977, the causative agent was identified as a previously unknown strain of bacteria, subsequently named Legionella , and the species that caused the outbreak was named Legionella pneumophila . [37] [38]

Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease receive significant media attention, but this disease usually occurs in single, isolated cases not associated with any recognized outbreak. When outbreaks do occur, they are usually in the summer and early autumn, though cases may occur at any time of year. Most infections occur in those who are middle-aged or older. [34] National surveillance systems and research studies were established early, and in recent years,[ when? ] improved ascertainment and changes in clinical methods of diagnosis have contributed to an upsurge in reported cases in many countries. Environmental studies continue to identify novel sources of infection, leading to regular revisions of guidelines and regulations. About 8,000 to 18,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease occur each year in the United States, according to the Bureau of Communicable Disease Control. [39]

Between 1995 and 2005, over 32,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease and more than 600 outbreaks were reported to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections. The data on Legionella are limited in developing countries and Legionella-related illnesses likely are underdiagnosed worldwide. [14] Improvements in diagnosis and surveillance in developing countries would be expected to reveal far higher levels of morbidity and mortality than are currently recognised. Similarly, improved diagnosis of human illness related to Legionella species and serogroups other than Legionella pneumophila would improve knowledge about their incidence and spread.

A 2011 study successfully used modeling to predict the likely number of cases during Legionnaires’ outbreaks based on symptom onset dates from past outbreaks. In this way, the eventual likely size of an outbreak can be predicted, enabling efficient and effective use of public health resources in managing an outbreak. [40]


The first recognized cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in 1976 in Philadelphia; among more than 2000 attendees of an American Legion convention held at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, 182 attendees contracted the disease and 29 of them died. [1]

In April 1985, 175 people in Stafford, England, were admitted to the District or Kingsmead Stafford Hospitals with chest infection or pneumonia. A total of 28 people died. Medical diagnosis showed that Legionnaires' disease was responsible and the immediate epidemiological investigation traced the source of the infection to the air-conditioning cooling tower on the roof of Stafford District Hospital.

In March 1999, a large outbreak in the Netherlands occurred during the Westfriese Flora flower exhibition in Bovenkarspel; 318 people became ill and at least 32 people died. This was the second-deadliest outbreak since the 1976 outbreak and possibly the deadliest, as several people were buried before Legionnaires' disease had been diagnosed.

The world's largest outbreak of Legionnaires' disease happened in July 2001 with people appearing at the hospital on July 7, in Murcia, Spain. More than 800 suspected cases were recorded by the time the last case was treated on July 22; 636–696 of these cases were estimated and 449 confirmed (so, at least 16,000 people were exposed to the bacterium) and six died, a case-fatality rate around 1%.

In late September 2005, 127 residents of a nursing home in Canada became ill with L. pneumophila. Within a week, 21 of the residents had died. Culture results at first were negative, which is not unusual, as L. pneumophila is a fastidious bacterium, meaning it requires specific nutrients and/or living conditions to grow. The source of the outbreak was traced to the air-conditioning cooling towers on the nursing home's roof.

As of November 12, 2014, 302 people have been hospitalized following an outbreak of Legionella in Portugal and seven related deaths have been reported. All cases, so far, have emerged in three civil parishes from the municipality of Vila Franca de Xira in the northern outskirts of Lisbon, Portugal, and are being treated in hospitals of the Greater Lisbon area. The source is suspected to be located in the cooling towers of the fertilizer plant Fertibéria. [41]

Twelve people were diagnosed with the disease in the Bronx, New York, in December 2014; the source was traced to contaminated cooling towers at a housing development. [42] In July and August 2015, another, unrelated outbreak in the Bronx killed 12 people and made about 120 people sick; the cases arose from a cooling tower on top of a hotel. At the end of September, another person died of the disease and 13 were sickened in yet another unrelated outbreak in the Bronx. [43] The cooling towers from which the people were infected in the latter outbreak had been cleaned during the summer outbreak, raising concerns about how well the bacteria could be controlled. [44]

On August 28, 2015, an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected at San Quentin State Prison in Northern California; 81 people were sickened and the cause was sludge that had built up in cooling towers. [45]

Between June 2015 and January 2016, 87 cases of Legionnaires' disease were reported by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services for the city of Flint, Michigan, and surrounding areas. Ten of those cases were fatal. [46]

In November 2017, an outbreak was detected at Hospital de São Francisco Xavier, Lisbon, Portugal, with up to 53 people being diagnosed with the disease and five of them dying from it. [47]

In Quincy, Illinois, at the Illinois Veterans home, a 2015 outbreak of the disease killed 12 people and sickened more than 50 others. It was believed to be caused by infected water supply. Three more cases have been identified as of November 2017. [48]

In the fall of 2017, 22 cases were reported in a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Anaheim, CA's Disneyland theme park. It was believed to have been caused by a cooling tower that releases mist for the comfort of visitors. The contaminated droplets likely spread to the people in and beyond the park. [49]

Related Research Articles

Plague (disease) contagious and frequently fatal human disease

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache. Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure. In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur.

Typhoid fever A bacterial infectious disorder contracted by consumption of food or drink contaminated with Salmonella typhi. This disorder is common in developing countries and can be treated with antibiotics.

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days; weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, and mild vomiting also commonly occur. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Diarrhea is uncommon. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever, along with paratyphoid fever.

Pneumonia Infection of the lungs

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.

Pontiac fever is an acute, nonfatal respiratory disease caused by various species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Legionella. It causes a mild upper respiratory infection that resembles acute influenza. Pontiac fever resolves spontaneously and often goes undiagnosed. Both Pontiac fever and the more severe Legionnaire's disease are caused by the same bacteria, but Pontiac fever does not include pneumonia.

Shigellosis Human disease

Shigellosis is an infection of the intestines caused by Shigella bacteria. Symptoms generally start one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and feeling the need to pass stools even when the bowels are empty. The diarrhea may be bloody. Symptoms typically last five to seven days. Complications can include reactive arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Tularemia primary bacterial infectious disease that has material basis in Francisella tularensis, which is transmitted by dog tick bite (Dermacentor variabilis), transmitted by deer flies (Chrysops sp) or transmitted by contact with infected animal tissues.

Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Symptoms may include fever, skin ulcers, and enlarged lymph nodes. Occasionally, a form that results in pneumonia or a throat infection may occur.

Campylobacteriosis genus of Gram-negative bacteria

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni. It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

<i>Legionella pneumophila</i> species of bacterium

Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L. pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in this group and is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis.

Legionella longbeachae is one species of the family Legionellaceae. It was first isolated from a patient in Long Beach, California. It is found predominantly in potting soil and compost. In humans, the infection is sometimes called Pontiac fever. Human infection from L. longbeachae is particularly common in Australia, but cases have been documented in other countries including the United States, Japan, Greece and the UK.

Waterborne diseases diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms transmitted in water

Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water. Disease can be spread while bathing, washing or drinking water, or by eating food exposed to contaminated water. While diarrhea and vomiting are the most commonly reported symptoms of waterborne illness, other symptoms can include skin, ear, respiratory, or eye problems.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.

1999 Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak

The Bovenkarspel legionellosis outbreak began on 25 February 1999 in Bovenkarspel, the Netherlands, and was one of the largest outbreaks of legionellosis in history. With at least 32 dead and 206 severe infections, it was the deadliest legionellosis outbreak since the original 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia, USA.

Legionella anisa is a Gram-negative bacterium, one of more than 40 species in the family Legionellaceae. After Legionella pneumophila, this species has been isolated most frequently from water samples. This species is also one of the several pathogenic forms of Legionella having been associated with rare clinical cases of illness including Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease.

Legionella cherrii is an aerobic, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella. It was isolated from a heated water sample in Minnesota. L. cherrii is similar to another Legionella species, L. pneumophila, and is believed to cause major respiratory problems.

2015 Bronx Legionnaires disease outbreaks

In 2015, there were two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the Bronx, New York City, United States. Between January and August 2015, one hundred and thirty people in New York City were infected with Legionnaires', but the majority of them were in the Bronx.

Legionella clemsonensis was isolated in 2006, but was discovered in 2016 by Clemson University researchers. It is a Gram-negative bacterium.


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