Leine Uplands

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View over the Leine Uplands north of Gottingen Leinebergland.JPG
View over the Leine Uplands north of Göttingen
The Leine trough between Gottingen and Niedernjesa with the Leine Uplands. Leinetal von Gottingen bis Niedernjesa.jpg
The Leine trough between Göttingen and Niedernjesa with the Leine Uplands.

The Leine Uplands [1] (German : Leinebergland, Loudspeaker.svg German pronunciation  ) is a region in Germany's Central Uplands which forms a part of the Lower Saxon Hills and lies along the River Leine between Göttingen and Hanover. It borders on the Weser Uplands in the west, the Innerste Uplands in the northeast, the Harz in the east and Untereichsfeld in the southeast.

Contents

Geography

The Leine Uplands, which merge into the Weser Uplands to the east and the Harz to the west, are not a clearly defined landscape in terms of being a natural region but are nevertheless relatively easily delineated. Their extent from south to north is determined by the river that lends them their name and their extent from east to west by high ridges.

From north to south the uplands can be broadly divided into a southern half around the wide trough of the River Leine's middle course and a northern half by the lower reaches of the same river.

Landscapes either side of the Leine trough

The River Leine flows from Friedland via Göttingen and Northeim to Einbeck through the Leine trough [1] (Leine-Ilm Basin), an important north-south orientated geological rift valley. On the hilltops along the valley of the Leine there are many castles that controlled the north-south road network in the valley during the Middle Ages and could also block it entirely.

In the southeastern part of the Leine Uplands, east of the valley, is the plateau of the Göttingen-Northeim Forest which is founded on Bunter sandstone and Muschelkalk. The western edge of the forest (in a northerly direction) reaches from Friedland via Göttingen and Nörten-Hardenberg to Northeim. It is here that the largest group of abris in central Europe may be found. They are often located in the narrowest places in the ravine-like rocky valleys between the Leine and the Eichsfeld. In an area about 30 km long and 6 to 10 km wide around 1600 abris have been discovered. The woods (largely beech forests) are utilised by the forestry industry.

To the north this landscape transitions into the equally thickly wooded escarpments and fault-block landscape of the Southwest Harz Foreland, in which Jurassic limestone is found alongside Bunter and Muschelkalk. Immediately north of Einbeck the Hube, an outlier of the Southwest Harz Foreland, reaches the western side of the Leine and "blocks" the Leine trough to the north.

West of the trough is the heath landscape of the latter opposite the intensively farmed Solling Foreland.

Not counted as part of the Leine Uplands is the extreme east of the Southwest Harz Foreland and the extreme northwest of the Solling Foreland around the Vogler.

Overview map: The Leine at its exit from the Alfeld Uplands into the Calenberg Loess Borde Ith-Hils-Karte.png
Overview map: The Leine at its exit from the Alfeld Uplands into the Calenberg Loess Börde

Alfeld Uplands

After the Leine trough has been blocked and flows around the Hube, it runs through the Alfeld Uplands (Alfelder Bergland), also called the Ith-Hils Upland (Ith-Hils-Bergland), which is characterised by a succession of closely spaced ridges and finger valleys running in a northwest-southeast direction.

East of the massifs that give the region its alternative name, the Ith and the Hils, which are up to 480 m high, the ridges fall steeply on both sides of the Leine into the valley and are dissected by various tributaries. Beech woods dominate the heights whilst the valleys are used for arable farming.

Large areas of the countryside are protected. On the ridges east of the Leine, besides the mesophilic beech and ravine woods, there are xeric grasslands, dry bushlands, mesophilic grasslands and dry chalk hillside forests that are particularly worthy of conservation.

Near Gronau the Leine finally leaves the Leine Uplands and, simultaneously, the Central Uplands and enters funnel-shaped basin of the Calenberg Loess Börde which opens out into the North German Plain and which abuts on the Calenberg Uplands in the west and the Innerste Uplands and Hildesheim Forest in the east.

Natural regions

The landscape regions of the Leine Uplands are grouped into the following major units, whereby the numbers not prefixed by the letter D represent the old categorisation into major unit groups (double figures) and major units (triple figures), whilst the new major unit group, D 36, contains the two older groups.

Hills

The following hills are counted as part of the Leine Uplands (roughly north to south):

NameHeight above NN Landscape region
Kleiner Deister 345,7 mCalenberg Uplands (l)
Nesselberg 378,2 mCalenberg Uplands (l)
Osterwald 419,2 mCalenberg Uplands (l)
Ith 439 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Thüster Berg 441 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Külf 260 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Sieben Berge 395 mAlfeld Uplands (r)
Vorberge 353,0 mAlfeld Uplands (r)
Duinger Berg 330 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Sackwald 374 mAlfeld Uplands (r)
Hils 480,4 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Selter 395,0 mAlfeld Uplands (l)
Helleberg 297,5 mAlfeld Uplands (r)
Elfas 409,6 mSolling Foreland (l)
Hube 346,2 mSouthwest Harz Foreland (l)
Heber 317,6 mInnerste Uplands (r)
Ahlsburg 411,4 mSolling Foreland (l)
Amtsberge 392,2 mSolling Foreland (l)
Holzberg 444,5 mSolling Foreland (l)
Weper 379 mSolling Foreland (l)
Imbshausen Forest 323,3 m(r)
Edesheim Forest 270 m(r)
Wieter 358,4 mGöttingen-Northeim Forest (r)
Göttingen Forest 427,5 mGöttingen-Northeim Forest (r)

Towns

Towns in the Leine valley (from north to south):

other towns in the Leine Uplands:

Literature

See also

Related Research Articles

Holzberg

The Holzberg is a small range of hills up to 444.5 m above sea level (NHN) in south Lower Saxony, Germany.

Ith

The Ith is a ridge in Germany's Central Uplands which is up to 439 m high. It lies about 40 km southwest of Hanover and, at 22 kilometres, is the longest line of crags in North Germany.

Natural regions of Germany

This division of Germany into major natural regions takes account primarily of geomorphological, geological, hydrological, and pedological criteria in order to divide the country into large, physical units with a common geographical basis. Political boundaries play no part in this, apart from defining the national border.

Hils

The Hils is a range of hills in Germany's Central Uplands that is up to 480.4 m high. It is located in the districts of Holzminden, Hildesheim and Northeim, in the state of Lower Saxony.

The Innerste Uplands is a landscape region up to 359 m high and covering an area of over 900 km² in the northern part of the German Central Uplands. It lies within the eastern part of the Weser-Leine Uplands in Lower Saxony (Germany).

Ahlsburg

The Ahlsburg is a range of bunter sandstone hills, relatively small in area and up to 411.4 m above sea level (NN), in the southern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. It lies within the Solling foreland and is part of the Weser-Leine Uplands.

Elfas

The Elfas is a range of hills up to 409.6 m above sea level (NN) in the districts of Holzminden and Northeim in Lower Saxony (Germany). Its name is derived from the Lower Saxon word Fast, which means an area of upland that descends on two sides.

Sieben Berge

The Sieben Berge are a ridge of hills up to 395 m above sea level (NN) in the Lower Saxon Hills in the district of Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany. Together with the Vorberge and the Sackwald the Sieben Berge belong to the geological formation of the Sackmulde.

South Lower Saxony

South Lower Saxony refers to the southern part of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. The region so described is neither historically nor geographically clearly defined to the north within Lower Saxony. It cuts across the more obviously delineated natural regions of the Weser Uplands, Leine valley, Leine Uplands and the western parts of the Harz mountains as well as the western part the historical region of Eichsfeld.

Solling-Vogler Nature Park

The Solling-Vogler Nature Park is a nature park in South Lower Saxony in Germany. It has an area of 52,000 hectares (200 sq mi) and was established in 1966.

Leine-Heide Cycle Path

The Leine-Heide Cycle Path is a long-distance cycle path in Germany that has a total length of 410 kilometres (250 mi) and runs through the German federal states of Thuringia, Lower Saxony and Hamburg. Until 2009, it was called the Leine Cycle Path, after the River Leine; it ended north of the river's confluence with the Aller in Hodenhagen. Heide (‘heath’) refers to the Lüneburg Heath.

Salzgitter Hills

The Salzgitter Hills is an area of upland up to 322.9 metres (1,059 ft) in height, in the Lower Saxon Hills between Salzgitter and Goslar in the districts of Wolfenbüttel and Goslar and in the territory of the independent town of Salzgitter. The hills lie in the German federal state of Lower Saxony.

Göttingen Forest

The Göttingen Forest is a ridge in Germany's Central Uplands that is up to 427.5 metres high. It forms part of the Lower Saxon Hills in South Lower Saxony.

Hube (hills)

The Hube is a ridge, up to 346.2 m above sea level (NN), in the Leine Uplands and district of Northeim, in the German state of Lower Saxony.

Duinger Berg

The Duinger Berg is a hill range, up to 331 m above NN, in the Lower Saxon Hills and the district of Landkreis in the German state of Lower Saxony.

Reuberg

The Reuberg is a ridge, up to 328.2 m above NN, in the Lower Saxon Hills in the districts of Holzminden and Hildesheim in the German state of Lower Saxony.

Heber (hills)

The Heber is a hogback ridge, relatively small in area and up to 313.5 metres high, in the Lower Saxon Hills within the districts of Goslar, Northeim and Hildesheim in the German state of Lower Saxony.

Rotenberg (hills)

The Rotenberg is a hill range, up to 317.3 m high, in the Lower Saxon Hills in southeastern Lower Saxony, Germany.

Külf Mountain ridge in Germany

The Külf is a ridge, up to 260 m above NN, in the Leine Uplands in the district of Hildesheim in the German state of Lower Saxony.

The Weser-Aller Plains and Geest is a natural regional unit of the North German Plain in Germany. It extends over most of the southern catchment of the Aller including the lower reaches of the Oker and Leine and is bounded in the west by the Middle Weser.

References

  1. 1 2 Dickinson, Robert E. (1964). Germany: A regional and economic geography (2nd ed.). London: Methuen. p. 502.

Coordinates: 51°58′0″N9°49′0″E / 51.96667°N 9.81667°E / 51.96667; 9.81667