Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park

Last updated
Leland Stanford House
Stanford Mansion - Sacramento, California (6007570640) (cropped).jpg
Location map Sacramento.png
Red pog.svg
USA California location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location Sacramento, California
Coordinates 38°34′34.22″N121°29′52.38″W / 38.5761722°N 121.4978833°W / 38.5761722; -121.4978833 Coordinates: 38°34′34.22″N121°29′52.38″W / 38.5761722°N 121.4978833°W / 38.5761722; -121.4978833
Built1857
Architect Seth Babson [2]
Architectural style Second Empire
NRHP reference No. 71000178 [3]
CHISL No.614 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPDecember 9, 1971
Designated NHLMay 28, 1987 [4]

The Leland Stanford Mansion, often known simply as the Stanford Mansion, is a historic mansion and California State Park in Sacramento, California, which serves as the official reception center for the Californian government and as one of the official workplaces of the Governor of California.

Contents

Built in 1856, the mansion was formerly the residence of Leland Stanford, 8th Governor of California and founder of Stanford University. The Stanford family donated the estate to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento in 1900, which maintained a children's home on the estate until 1978. Subsequently, the Californian government purchased the property to serve as the Californian capital's ceremonial reception center and as a state park, officially known as the Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park.

History

Engraving of the mansion in 1862. Photocopy of wood-engraving by Van Vleck and Keith from a photograph by Shireff of Higgins' Daguerrian Rooms, Sacramento, with figures, etc. touched up by Nahl and Brothers. HABS CAL,34-SAC,9-1 (cropped).tif
Engraving of the mansion in 1862.
The Stanford Mansion in 1872. Photocopy of 1872 photograph by Eadweard Muybridge in Stanford University Archives, PC 6. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Leland Stanford House, 800 N Street, Sacramento, Sacramento HABS CAL,34-SAC,9-3 (cropped).tif
The Stanford Mansion in 1872.

The original owner and builder of the home was Sacramento merchant Shelton C. Fogus, a wealthy Sacramento building merchant. The Renaissance Revival architecture of the original home is attributed to Seth Babson, who later designed the E.B. Crocker residence and art gallery that are now part of the Crocker Art Museum.

Stanford family

Leland Stanford, president of the Central Pacific Railroad (one of the Big Four tycoons) and a rising member of the Republican Party, purchased the home for $8,000 (equivalent to $230,000in 2020) in June 1861, shortly before his election as California governor that year. During his two-year governorship, the Stanford Mansion served as the state's executive office and living quarters. Succeeding governors Frederick Low and Henry Huntly Haight would also make the mansion their office.

Between 1871 and 1872, the Stanford family embarked on an ambitious remodeling of the residence. As Stanford had had to attend his gubernatorial inauguration by rowboat in 1862, the home was raised twelve feet in response to frequent flooding from the Sacramento River. In addition, one story was added to both the bottom and top of the mansion. The home was also expanded from 4,000 square feet (370 m2) to 19,000 square feet (1,800 m2), and redesigned to reflect the French Second Empire architecture popular of the period, particularly in the 4th floor Mansard roof that caps the home. The result was a four-story remodeled architectural sandwich in which the original 2-story house sat between the added floors.

Following Stanford's death in 1893, his widow Jane Lathrop Stanford continued to oversee the home.

Diocese of Sacramento ownership

View from the mansion's gardens. Stanford Mansion (3815117553) (cropped).jpg
View from the mansion's gardens.

In 1900, Jane Stanford donated the home to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento to be used for the children of California. It was given to the Sisters of Mercy who ran it as an orphanage named the Stanford and Lathrop Memorial Home for Friendless Children.

In 1932, the home was handed over the Sisters of Social Service who eventually transformed the mansion from an orphanage to a residence for dependent high school girls. A fire in the mansion in 1940 brought considerable damage to the fourth floor.

The mansion was designated a California Historical Landmark in 1957 [1] and a National Historic Landmark in 1987. [2] [4] [5]

Official reception house and state park

Governor Gavin Newsom meeting with Francois Legault, Premier of Quebec, at the Stanford Mansion. Gavin Newsom and Francois Legault.jpg
Governor Gavin Newsom meeting with François Legault, Premier of Quebec, at the Stanford Mansion.

In 1978, the government of California acquired the property for use as a state park. The Sisters of Social Services would remain on the grounds until 1987, when California State Parks designated the mansion and the immediate surrounding land as a state historic park. Following the state's decision, the National Park Service declared the mansion as a National Historic Landmark on May 28, 1987. It was not until September 2005 that the mansion would finally be open to public tours, after $22 million worth of renovation and rehabilitation.

The mansion is also the state's official reception center for leaders from around the world. [6]

Prior to the reopening of the mansion, California did not have a location for the hosting of official functions for nearly 40 years. Today the mansion is frequently used by the Government of California to host foreign dignitaries. The Governor also retains an office in the mansion. Tours of the mansion are offered daily but can be impacted by official functions on behalf of the Governor's Office or the California State Legislature leadership.

Restoration

The mansion is built in a Renaissance Revival style. Leland Stanford Mansion (1).JPG
The mansion is built in a Renaissance Revival style.

Beginning in 1991, with the help of Sacramento businessman and former Stanford University professor Peter McCuen, the Stanford Mansion underwent a 14-year renovation at a cost of $22 million ($41.8 million in 2020). Accurate restoration of the home and its rooms was aided by both an extensive study of the home in 1986 through the Historic American Buildings Survey, and through a large collection of photographs of the home taken in 1868 by Alfred A. Hart, and again in 1872 by Eadweard Muybridge.

The repairs and restoration were completed in 2005, when the mansion opened to the public. California State Parks offers guided tours through the fully refurbished home. Rooms of the house have been restored to their 1872 appearance. The Leland Stanford Mansion is physically accessible, including the gardens, Visitor Center and restrooms. Elevators provide access to the upper floors of the mansion's tour route. A tactile model of the Mansion is also available in the Visitor Center.

See also

Related Research Articles

Leland Stanford American politician and railroad tycoon

Amasa Leland Stanford was an American industrialist and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the 8th Governor of California from 1862 to 1863 and represented California in the United States Senate from 1885 until his death in 1893. He and his wife Jane were also the founders of Stanford University, which they named after their late son. Prior to his political career, Stanford was a successful merchant and wholesaler who built his business empire after migrating to California during the Gold Rush. As president of the Central Pacific Railroad and later the Southern Pacific from 1885 to 1890, he held tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California. Stanford is widely considered a robber baron.

Bidwell Mansion State Historic Park Historic place in Chico, California, United States

Bidwell Mansion, located at 525 Esplanade in Chico, California, was the home of General John Bidwell and Annie Bidwell from late 1868 until 1900, when Gen. Bidwell died. Annie continued to live there until her death in 1918. John Bidwell began construction of the mansion on his 26,000 acres (110 km²) Rancho del Arroyo Chico in 1865, during his courtship of Annie Ellicott Kennedy. After their marriage in 1868, the three-story, 26-room Victorian house became the social and cultural center of the upper Sacramento Valley. Now a museum and State Historic Park, it is California Historical Landmark #329 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The mansion was a $60,000 project, and was finished in May 1868.

Terrace Hill United States historic place

Terrace Hill, also known as Hubbell Mansion, Benjamin F. Allen House or the Iowa Governor's Mansion, is the official residence of the Governor of Iowa, United States. Located at 2300 Grand Avenue in Des Moines, it is an example of Second Empire architecture. The home measures 18,000 square feet. It sits on a hill overlooking downtown Des Moines, and has a 90-foot (27 m) tower that offers a commanding view of the city. The building's steeply pitched mansard roof, open verandas, long and narrow and frequently paired windows, and bracketed eaves give this house an irreplaceable design. The house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2003.

Old Sacramento State Historic Park United States historic place

Old Sacramento State Historic Park occupies around one third of the property within the Old Sacramento Historic District of Sacramento, California. The Old Sacramento Historic District is a U.S. National Historic Landmark District. The Historic District is sometimes abbreviated as Old Sacramento, or Old Sac, and since the 1960s has been restored and developed as a significant tourist attraction.

Drumthwacket United States historic place

Drumthwacket is the official residence of the governor of New Jersey. The mansion is located at 354 Stockton Street in Princeton, near the state capital of Trenton.

Ralston Hall historic house in Belmont, California

Ralston Hall Mansion located in Belmont, California, was the country house of William Chapman Ralston, a San Francisco businessman, a founder of the Bank of California, and a financier of the Comstock Lode. It is an opulent Italianate Villa, modified with touches of Steamboat Gothic and Victorian details. It is a California Historical Landmark and is designated a National Historic Landmark. It is now part of Notre Dame de Namur University.

Executive Mansion (Virginia) United States historic place

The Virginia Governor's Mansion, better known as the Executive Mansion, is located in Richmond, Virginia, on Capitol Square and serves as the official residence of the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Designed by Alexander Parris, it is the oldest occupied governor's mansion in the United States. It has served as the home of Virginia governors and their families since 1813. This mansion is both a Virginia and a National Historic Landmark, and has had a number of successive renovations and expansions during the 20th century.

Crocker Art Museum American art museum in Sacramento, California

The Crocker Art Museum, formerly the E. B. Crocker Art Gallery, founded in 1885, is the oldest art museum west of the Mississippi River. Located in Sacramento, California, the museum holds one of the state's premier collections of Californian art. The collection includes American works dating from the Gold Rush to the present, European paintings and master drawings, one of the largest international ceramics collections in the U.S., and collections of Asian, African, and Oceanic art.

Rancho Petaluma Adobe

Rancho Petaluma Adobe is a historic ranch house in Sonoma County, California. It was built from adobe bricks in 1836 by order of Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. It was the largest privately owned adobe structure built in California and is the largest example of the Monterey Colonial style of architecture in the United States. A section of the former ranch has been preserved by the Petaluma Adobe State Historic Park and it is both a California Historic Landmark and a National Historic Landmark. The Rancho Petaluma Adobe State Historic Park is located on Adobe Road on the east side of the present-day town of Petaluma, California.

Hayes Mansion United States historic place

The Hayes Mansion is a historic mansion estate in the Edenvale neighborhood of San Jose, California. The mansion currently operates as a hotel resort and is currently known as The Hayes Mansion Hotel.

Brigham Young Complex Historic buildings in Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.

The Brigham Young Complex is a collection of buildings historically associated with religious leader Brigham Young on East South Temple in the center of Salt Lake City, Utah.

Harry F. Sinclair House Mansion in Manhattan, New York

The Harry F. Sinclair House is a mansion at the southeast corner of East 79th Street and Fifth Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City. The house was built from 1897 to 1899. Over the first half of the 20th century, the house was successively the residence of businessmen Isaac D. Fletcher and Harry F. Sinclair, and then the descendants of Peter Stuyvesant, the last Director of New Netherland. The Ukrainian Institute of America acquired the home in 1955. After the house gradually fell into disrepair, the institute renovated the building in the 1990s. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places and was named a National Historic Landmark in 1978.

Governors Mansion State Historic Park United States historic place

The California Governor's Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of California, located in Sacramento, the capital of California. Built in 1877, the estate was purchased by the Californian government in 1903 and has served as the executive residence for 14 governors since. Since 1967, the mansion has been managed by California State Parks as the Governor's Mansion State Historic Park. The mansion was not occupied by governors between 1967 and 2015 and is again unoccupied since 2019.

Old Governors Mansion (Milledgeville, Georgia) United States historic place

Georgia's Old Governor's Mansion is a historic house museum located on the campus of Georgia College & State University (GCSU) at 120 South Clarke Street in Milledgeville, Georgia. Built in 1839, it is one of the finest examples of Greek Revival architecture in the American South, and was designated a National Historic Landmark for its architecture in 1973. It served as Georgia's executive mansion from 1839- 1868, and has from 1889 been a university property, serving for a time as its official president's residence. It is an accredited museum of the American Alliance of Museums and in 2015 was named an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution.

Big Four House United States historic place

The Big Four Building is a historic 19th-century building in Downtown Sacramento, California. It is now located within Old Sacramento State Historic Park and the Old Sacramento National Historic District.

Banning House United States historic place

Banning House, also known as the General Phineas Banning Residence Museum, is a historic Greek Revival-Victorian home in the Wilmington section of Los Angeles, California. Built in 1863 by Phineas Banning near the original San Pedro Bay, it remained in the Banning family until 1925 and has been owned by the City of Los Angeles since 1927. The home, barn and gardens are now operated as a museum. The Banning House property, also known as Banning Park, has been designated as a city Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument and state California Historical Landmark and has been federally listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Sacramento Historic City Cemetery Historic site

The Sacramento Historic City Cemetery, located at 1000 Broadway, at 10th Street, is the oldest existing cemetery in Sacramento, California. It was designed to resemble a Victorian garden and sections that are not located in level areas are surrounded by brick or concrete retaining walls to create level terraces. The cemetery grounds are noted for their roses which are said to be among the finest in California.

Heilbron House United States historic place

The Heilbron House is a historic mansion in Downtown Sacramento, California. Built in 1881, it was initially the home of August Heilbron, a cattle rancher, merchant, and landowner who came from Germany.

Nob Hill, San Francisco Neighborhood in San Francisco, California, United States

Nob Hill is a neighborhood of San Francisco, California that is known for its numerous luxury hotels and historic mansions. Nob Hill has historically served as a center of San Francisco's upper class. Nob Hill is among the highest-income neighborhoods in the United States, as well as one of the most desirable and expensive real estate markets in the country.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Stanford-Lathrop House". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  2. 1 2 Regnery, Dorothy F. (January 30, 1987). "Leland Stanford House" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Inventory Nomination Form. National Park Service . Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  3. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  4. 1 2 NHL Summary Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Leland Stanford House" (pdf). Photographs. National Park Service . Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  6. "Leland Stanford Mansion SHP". California Department of Parks and Recreation. 2010-11-03. Retrieved 5 February 2014.