Leningrad Oblast

Last updated
Leningrad Oblast
Ленинградская область
Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: [1]
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 60°03′N31°45′E / 60.050°N 31.750°E / 60.050; 31.750 Coordinates: 60°03′N31°45′E / 60.050°N 31.750°E / 60.050; 31.750
Country Russia
Federal district Northwestern [2]
Economic region Northwestern [3]
EstablishedAugust 1, 1927 [4]
Administrative centerNone
Government
  Body Legislative Assembly [5]
   Governor [6] Aleksandr Drozdenko [7]
Area
[8]
  Total84,500 km2 (32,600 sq mi)
Area rank 38th
Population
(2010 Census) [9]
  Total1,716,868
  Estimate 
(2018) [10]
1,813,816 (+5.6%)
  Rank 26th
  Density20/km2 (53/sq mi)
   Urban
65.7%
   Rural
34.3%
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Blue pencil.svg [11] )
ISO 3166 code RU-LEN
License plates 47
Official languages Russian [12]
Website http://www.lenobl.ru

Leningrad Oblast (Russian :Ленингра́дская о́бласть, tr. Leningradskaya oblast’,IPA:  [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ] ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It was established on August 1, 1927, although it was not until 1946 that the oblast's borders had been mostly settled in their present position. The oblast was named after the city of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). Unlike the city, the oblast retains the name of Leningrad.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, over two decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Federal subjects of Russia official constitutional top-level political division of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.

Contents

The oblast overlaps the historic region of Ingria and is bordered by Finland (Kymenlaakso and South Karelia) in the northwest and Estonia (Ida-Viru County) in the west, as well as five federal subjects of Russia: the Republic of Karelia in the northeast, Vologda Oblast in the east, Novgorod Oblast in the south, Pskov Oblast in the southwest, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in the west.

Ingria historical region in northern Russia

Historical Ingria is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

Finland Republic in Northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Kymenlaakso Region in Finland

Kymenlaakso is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Uusimaa, Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme), Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and South Karelia and Russia. Its name means literally The Valley of River Kymijoki. Kymijoki is one of the biggest rivers in Finland with a drainage basin with 11% of the area of Finland. The city of Kotka with 55,000 inhabitants is located at the delta of River Kymijoki and has the most important import harbour in Finland. Other cities are Kouvola further in the inland which has after a municipal merger 88,000 inhabitants and the old bastion town Hamina.

The first governor of Leningrad Oblast was Vadim Gustov (in 1996–1998). The current governor, since 2012, is Aleksandr Drozdenko.

Vadim Gustov Russian governor and politician

Vadim Anatolevich Gustov is a Russian politician who served as first deputy prime minister of Russia from 1998 to 1999 and a regional leader.

Aleksandr Drozdenko Governor of Leningrad Oblast

Aleksander Yurievich Drozdenko – Russian economist and politician. Governor of Leningrad Region.

The oblast has an area of 84,500 square kilometers (32,600 sq mi) and a population of 1,716,868 (2010 Census); [9] up from 1,669,205 recorded in the 2002 Census. [13] The most populous town of the oblast is Gatchina, with 88,659 inhabitants (as of the 2002 Census). [13] Leningrad Oblast is highly industrialized.

Russian Census (2010)

The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25.

The Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat).

Gatchina Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Gatchina is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located 45 kilometers (28 mi) south of St. Petersburg, along the E95 highway leading to Pskov. Population: 92,937 (2010 Census); 88,420 (2002 Census); 79,714 (1989 Census).

Geography

Monrepos Park in Vyborg Monrepos 0550.jpg
Monrepos Park in Vyborg
The Vuoksi in Priozersk Priozersk - Vuoksa - park.jpg
The Vuoksi in Priozersk
The Oredezh River near Siversky Oredezh river.jpg
The Oredezh River near Siversky

Leningrad Oblast is located around the Gulf of Finland and south of two great lakes of the European Part of Russia, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. Its northeastern part, between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, occupies the Karelian Isthmus. Some islands in the Gulf of Finland (including Kotlin, on which the city of Kronstadt has been built) and Lake Ladoga (including Konevets) also belong to the oblast.

Gulf of Finland arm of the Baltic Sea

The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf.

Lake Ladoga freshwater lake in Russia and largest lake entirely in Europe

Lake Ladoga is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.

Lake Onega freshwater lake in Russia, second largest in Europe

Lake Onega is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is fed by about 50 rivers and is drained by the Svir River.

Much of the area of the oblast belongs to the drainage basin of the Neva, which is the only outflow of Lake Ladoga. Whereas the Neva, which flows to the Gulf of Finland (the city of Saint Petersburg is located in its river delta) is relatively short, its drainage basin is enormously big and includes Lake Onega and Lake Ilmen as well. The Svir and the Volkhov flow from Lake Onega and Lake Ilmen, respectively, to lake Ladoga. Other major tributaries of Lake Ladoga include the Vuoksi and the Syas. Rivers in the western part of the oblast flow to the Gulf of Finland; the two biggest rivers there are the Luga and the Narva, which makes the state border between Russia and Estonia. Minor areas in the east of the oblast belong to the river basin of the Chagodoshcha, a tributary of the Mologa, and of the Suda, both in the basin of the Volga. Thus, the divide between the basins of the Baltic and Caspian Seas crosses the oblast.

Neva River river in Russia connecting Lake Ladoga and the Baltic Sea

The Neva is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge.

River delta Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position.

Lake Ilmen lake in Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Lake Ilmen is a large lake in the Novgorod Oblast of Russia. It's a historically important lake, which formed a vital part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The city of Novgorod - which is a major trade center of the route - lies six kilometers below the lake's outflow.

The Karelian Isthmus is a rocky terrain which hosts a lake district. The biggest lakes on the Karelian Isthmus are Lake Vuoksa, Lake Sukhodolskoye, and Lake Otradnoye. The rest of the area of the oblast is essentially flat. The exception is the Tikhvin Ridge, a chain of hills in the east of the oblast. Most of the area is covered by forests and swamps.

Leningrad Oblast contains two nature protected areas at the federal level, the Nizhnesvirsky Nature Reserve and Mshinskoye Boloto Zakaznik, both created to protect forest and swamp landscapes of northwestern Russia.

Flora

The most taxonomically diverse vascular plant families are Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae. By far the most diverse genus is Carex (68 species). The diversity in genera Hieracium (with Pilosella), Ranunculus (with Batrachium), Alchemilla , Galium , Potamogeton , Salix , Veronica , Viola , Juncus , Artemisia , Potentilla , Rumex , Festuca , Epilobium , Poa , Trifolium , Campanula , Vicia , Lathyrus , Geranium is also considerable. The territory has no endemic plant taxa. Vascular plant species of Leningrad Oblast listed in the red data book of Russia are Botrychium simplex , Cephalanthera rubra , Cypripedium calceolus , Epipogium aphyllum , Lobelia dortmanna , Myrica gale , Ophrys insectifera , Orchis militaris , Pulsatilla pratensis , Pulsatilla vernalis .

History

Pre-Leningrad Oblast

The fortress in Staraya Ladoga Vid na krepost' i prishvartovannaia lad'ia.JPG
The fortress in Staraya Ladoga
Ivangorod fortress Ivangorod Fortress.jpg
Ivangorod fortress

The territory of present-day Leningrad Oblast was populated shortly after the end of the Weichselian glaciation and now hosts numerous archaeological remnants. [14] [15] [16] The Volga trade route and trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks crossed the territory. Staraya Ladoga, the first capital of legendary Rurik, founded in the 8th-9th century, is situated in the east of the oblast, on the Volkhov River.

In the 12th-15th century, the territory was divided between the Kingdom of Sweden and Novgorod Republic (see Swedish-Novgorodian Wars) and populated mostly by various Baltic Finns people such as Karelians (northwest), Izhorians and Votes (west), Vepsians (east), as well as Ilmen Slavs of Novgorod (south). During the Russo-Swedish Wars of the 15th-17th centuries, the border moved back and forth over the land.

The central part of the territory is known as the historical region of Ingria (or the land of Izhora) and in the 17th century, after most of the present-day territory of Leningrad Oblast was captured by Sweden with the Treaty of Stolbovo of 1617, became subject to substantial Finnish Lutheran population influx from Finnish Karelia (which included Karelian Isthmus, the northwestern part of present-day Leningrad Oblast) and Savonia. Having faced the religious pressure from Lutheran pastors and Swedish authorities, local Orthodox population of Russian and Finnic ancestry massively fled from Ingria to neighbour Russian provinces, so Ingrian Finns soon became the dominant ethnic group. [17]

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721) the territory of what is now Leningrad Oblast was returned from Sweden by Russia under Peter the Great, who founded Saint Petersburg amidst the land in 1703, which soon became the capital of the Russian Empire. In 1708, most of the territory was organized into Ingermanland Governorate under Governor General Alexander Menshikov. It was renamed Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1710 (the borders of that governorate, however, differed very significantly from those of the present-day oblast and included much of the areas of current Novgorod, Pskov, and Vologda Oblasts). In 1721, the territorial concessions of Sweden were confirmed with the Treaty of Nystad.

The life of the countryside was greatly influenced by the vicinity of the imperial capital, which became a growing market for its agricultural production as well as the main consumer of its mineral and forest resources. In 1719–1810, Ladoga Canal was dug between the Svir River and the Neva River as part of the Volga-Baltic waterway to bypass stormy waters of Lake Ladoga. Since the advent of the rail transport in the late 19th century, the areas in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg had been a popular summer resort destinations (dachas) for its residents. However, while Saint Petersburg itself from the very beginning was populated mostly by Russians, it was not until the 20th century that its surrounding population was Russified.

In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, Saint Petersburg was renamed Petrograd and the governorate was accordingly renamed Petrograd Governorate. After the Russian Revolution, in 1918, the capital was transferred from Petrograd to Moscow, farther from the borders of the country. In 1919, during the Russian Civil War, the Northwestern White Army advancing from Estonia and led by Nikolai Yudenich tried to capture Petrograd and even managed to reach its southern outskirts, but the attack against the Red Army under Leon Trotsky ultimately failed, and Yudenich retreated back. The border with Estonia was established in the Russian-Estonian Treaty of Tartu of 1920. Finland-backed Ingrian Finns of North Ingria attempted to secede in 1918–1920, but were incorporated back with the Russian-Finnish Treaty of Tartu, which settled the border between Finland and Soviet Russia. In 1924, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad and Petrograd Governorate was again renamed accordingly (Leningrad Governorate).

Leningrad Oblast

Leningrad Oblast was established on August 1, 1927, by the resolutions of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On the Establishment of Leningrad Oblast" and "On the Borders and Composition of the Okrugs of Leningrad Oblast" [4] by merging Cherepovets, Leningrad, Murmansk, Novgorod, and Pskov Governorates. The territory of the oblast corresponded to the modern territories of the present-day Leningrad Oblast (with the exception of the Karelian Isthmus and the territories along the border with Estonia), Novgorod Oblast, Pskov Oblast, parts of Vologda Oblast, most of Murmansk Oblast, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg. The total area of the oblast was 360,400 square kilometres (139,200 sq mi); [18] more than four times larger than the modern entity. Administratively, the oblast was divided into nine okrugs (Borovichi, Cherepovets, Leningrad, Lodeynoye Pole, Luga, Murmansk, Novgorod, Pskov, and Velikiye Luki), each of which was in turn subdivided into districts. [18]

In 1929, Velikiye Luki Okrug was transferred to newly formed Western Oblast. Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast in December 1931. In 1935 five southernmost districts were made part of Kalinin Oblast. In 1936 some parts of the territory of Leningrad Suburban District of Leningrad was returned to Leningrad Oblast and divided into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944). Vologda Oblast, which has included the easternmost districts of Leningrad Oblast (former Cherepovets Governorate), was created in 1937. Murmansk Oblast was split from Leningrad Oblast in 1938.

In the fall of 1934, the Forbidden Border Zone along the western border of the Soviet Union was established, where nobody could appear without special permission issued by the NKVD. It was officially only 7.5 km deep initially, but along the Estonian border it extended to as much as 90 km. The zone was to be free of Finnic and some other peoples, who were considered politically unreliable. [19] [20] Starting from the 1929, the Soviet authorities carried out mass deportations of the Ingrian Finnish population of the oblast, which constituted majority in many rural localities as late as in the beginning of the century, to the east, replacing them with people from other parts of the Soviet Union.

On November 30, 1939, the Soviet Union waged the Winter War against neighboring Finland and with the Moscow Peace Treaty in 1940 gained some territories, including Karelian Isthmus. Their Karelian population was hastily evacuated to inner Finland and later replaced with people from other parts of the Soviet Union. A small part of the territory (the municipalities of Kanneljärvi, Koivisto and Rautu) was incorporated into Leningrad Oblast, the rest being included within the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.

In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the Operation Barbarossa, and shortly thereafter the territory became place of the Battle of Leningrad. Wehrmacht captured the southwestern part of the oblast and reached Tikhvin in the east, while Finnish troops quickly recaptured the ceded territories in the Continuation War, encircling Leningrad from the land. In 1944 Soviet offensives managed to expel Wehrmacht and put military pressure on Finland, which ceded Karelian Isthmus again with the Moscow Armistice of September 19, 1944. This time the gained territories of the isthmus was incorporated within Leningrad Oblast (Vyborgsky and Priozersky Districts). In 1947 the territorial gains were confirmed with the Paris Peace Treaty. Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts were formed out of the southern parts of Leningrad Oblast in 1944. In January 1945 a small part of the Estonian SSR to the east of the River Narva with the town of Jaanilinn (now Ivangorod) was transferred to the Russian SFSR and incorporated into Leningrad Oblast. Since then, the territory of Leningrad Oblast hasn't changed much, although some suburbs of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) have been excluded from the oblast and incorporated into the city. [21] In October 1946 Leningrad gained from the oblast some former Finnish territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District, including the town of Terijoki.

In 1953, Pavlovsky District of the oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory including Pavlovsk were made subordinate to Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny were also transferred to Leningrad. In 1956 Boksitogorsky District of Leningrad Oblast gained a small territory of Novgorod Oblast. Uritsk was transferred from the oblast to the city of Leningrad in 1963, Krasnoye Selo and several settlements nearby—in 1973, Lomonosov—in 1978.

After a referendum in 1991, the city of Leningrad was renamed back to Saint Petersburg, but Leningrad Oblast retained its name. [22]

First secretaries of the Leningrad Oblast CPSU Committee

In the period when they were the most important authority in the oblast (1927 to 1991), the following first secretaries were appointed, [23]

Governors

Since 1991, governors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes elected, [24]

Administrative divisions

Administratively, Leningrad Oblast is divided into seventeen districts and one town of oblast significance (Sosnovy Bor). In terms of area, the largest administrative district is Podporozhsky (7,706 square kilometers (2,975 sq mi)), and the smallest is Lomonosovsky (1,919 square kilometers (741 sq mi)).

Lomonosovsky District is the only district in Russia which has its administrative center (the town of Lomonosov) located within a different federal subject. While the district is a part of Leningrad Oblast, Lomonosov is located within the federal city of St. Petersburg.

Demographics

Population: 1,716,868(2010 Census); [9] 1,669,205(2002 Census); [26] 1,661,173(1989 Census). [27]

Vital statistics for 2012

2009 - 1.18 | 2010 - 1.17 | 2011 - 1.16 | 2012 - 1.22 | 2013 - 1.23 | 2014 - 1.28 | 2015 - 1.29 | 2016 - 1.33(e)

Leningrad Oblast currently has the lowest fertility rate in all of Russia. While birth rates have risen considerably elsewhere, they have remained stuck at a very low level in Leningrad Oblast.

Ethnic groups: according to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was: [9]

Religion

Religion in Leningrad Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [31] [32]
Russian Orthodoxy
55.1%
Other Orthodox
0.6%
Old Believers
0.6%
Other Christians
4.1%
Islam
0.7%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.6%
Spiritual but not religious
20.2%
Atheism and irreligion
8.5%
Other and undeclared
9.6%

According to a 2012 survey [31] 55.1% of the population of Leningrad Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims, 1% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), 1% are Old Believers. In addition, 20% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 9.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [31]

Economy

Industry

The oblast, particularly the areas adjacent to Saint Petersburg, is heavily industrialized. The major enterprises include the oil refinery in Kirishi, the Ford car assembly plant,Hyundai Russia assembly plant and the Rexam PLC Beverage Can Europe and Asia packaging plant in Vsevolozhsk, the paper mill in Syssstroy, and the paper mill and the plant producing oil platforms in Vyborg, and the Tikhvin industrial site in Tikhvin.

Agriculture

The main agricultural specializations of the oblast are cattle breeding with meat and milk production, as well as poultry production. The main agricultural lands are in the east and in the southwest of the oblast.

Transportation

Diesel train in Veymarn DT1-008, stantsiia Veimarn.jpg
Diesel train in Veymarn

Saint-Petersburg is a major railway hub, and all railways running to it cross also Leningrad Oblast. They connect Saint-Petersburg with Moscow (Saint Petersburg – Moscow Railway), Helsinki via Vyborg, Murmansk via Petrozavodsk, Sortavala via Priozersk, Tallinn via Kingisepp, Riga via Pskov, Vitebsk via Dno, and Veliky Novgorod. There is a network of railways at the Karelian Isthmus, in particular, connecting Vyborg and Priozersk, as well as south of Saint-Petersburg. There also railway lines connecting Veymarn with Slantsy, Veymarn with Petergof via Sosnovy Bor, Mga with Sonkovo via Kirishi, Volkhov with Vologda via Tikhvin and Cherepovets, Volkhov with Chudovo, and Lodeynoye Pole with Sortavala via Olonets. Most of them support intensive passenger and cargo traffic.

The western and the central parts of Leningrad Oblast are well covered by paved roads. The M10 highway connects Saint Petersburg with Moscow via Veliky Novgorod in the south and with the Finnish border, continuing across the border to Helsinki, in the north. It is split between European routes E18 (Saint Petersburg to Finland) and E105 (Saint Petersburg to Moscow), and much of it within the oblast is built as a dual carriageway. R21 highway (also part of E105) runs from Saint Petersburg to Murmansk via Petrozavodsk, and A180 (part of E20) connects Saint Petersburg with Ivangorod and continues across the Estonian border to Tallinn. R23 connects Saint Petersburg with Pskov; it is a part of the E95. A114 runs to Vologda via Cherepovets. A paid motorway between Saint Petersburg and Moscow and the new A121 from Saint-Petersburg to Sortavala, around the Western coast of Ladoga [33] are under construction. Roads are well served by bus traffic.

The Luga, the Svir, the Volkhov, and the Neva are all navigable and heavily user for cargo transport, however, there is no scheduled passenger navigation within the oblast, with exception of seasonal leisure river cruises from Saint-Petersburg. The Onega Canal, shared with Vologda Oblast, serves as a bypass of Lake Onega from the south. Similarly, the Ladoga Canal bypasses Lake Ladoga from the east, from the Svir to the Neva. It is a part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway. In contrast, the Tikhvinskaya water system, connecting the Syas and the Mologa, which provided access from the Ladoga to the river basin of the Volga, is disused. The trans-border Saimaa Canal connects Lake Saimaa in Finland with the Gulf of Finland, has special status, and is occasionally used for passenger navigation.

Ust-Luga, Vyborg, Vysotsk, and Primorsk are the major sea terminals on the Gulf of Finland.

There is a number of airfields in Leningrad oblast that are now used only by the general aviation. Scheduled and international flights are available exclusively from Pulkovo airport in Saint-Petersburg [34] .

Energy

Lock at the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station. Verkhnesvirskaia GES (8).JPG
Lock at the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station.

The Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant is located in the city of Sosnovy Bor. There are four major hydroelectric plants in the oblast. The Volkhov Hydroelectric Station, on the Volkhov River, was constructed in 1921 and became the first major hydropower station in the Soviet Union. The others are the Upper Svir Hydroelectric Station and the Lower Svir Hydroelectric Station, both on the Svir River, and the Narva Hydroelectric Station on the Narva River.

Science and High-tech

There is a fair amount of science and high-tech institutions around Saint Petersburg, some of which are located in the oblast. For example, Gatchina is the site of the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. [35] and Sosnovy Bor hosts the Research Institute of Optical and Electronic Devices.

Culture and recreation

Architecture

The historical center of Vyborg Vyborg June2012 View from Olaf Tower 06.jpg
The historical center of Vyborg
The Gimreka Ensemble Gimoretskii pogost.jpg
The Gimreka Ensemble

The Volkhov and the Neva Rivers were constituents of major trade routes since prehistory, and their banks are dotted by archaeological sites. Staraya Ladoga has a number of pre-1700 sites, including two of about a couple of dozens standing pre-Mongol churches in Russia. Both of them were built in the 1160s. The Oreshek Fortress in Shlisselburg and the Koporye Fortress, both built in the 14th century, and the Ivangorod Fortress, originally built in 1492, are excellent examples of Russian fortification art. Podporozhsky District contains the best samples of wooden ecclesiastical architecture in Leningrad Oblast, some of which are collectively referred to as Podporozhye Ring: The Resurrection Church in the settlement of Vazhiny, the Saint Nicholas Church in the village of Soginitsy, the Sts Peter and Paul Chapel in the village of Zaozerye, and the Saint Athanasy chapel in the village of Posad. The two other notable wooden churches are located in the villages of Gimreka and Shcheleyki close to the Onega Lake shore. The center of Vyborg preserves many examples of medieval Swedish architecture, unique for Russia.

After Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703, many estates and residences were founded around he city. Some of them still stand and are listed as World Heritage sites, aggregated into the site of Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. includes, among others, estates in Gostilitsy, Ropsha, and Taytsy.

Localities in the Karelian Isthmus preserve some fine inter-war Finnish architecture. The best known example is the Viipuri Municipal Library by Alvar Aalto.

Twin regions

Related Research Articles

Staraya Ladoga Selo in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Staraya Ladoga ; Finnish: Vanha Laatokka; Old Norse: Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district.

Priozersk Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Priozersk (Russian: Приозе́рск, known before 1948 in Finnish as Käkisalmi is a town and the administrative center of Priozersky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the northwestern shore of Lake Ladoga, at the estuary of the northern armlet of the Vuoksi River on the Karelian Isthmus. It is served by a station of the same name on the St. Petersburg—Khiytola railway. Population: 18,933  ; 20,506  ; 20,557  .

Volkhov Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Volkhov is an industrial town and the administrative center of Volkhovsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River 122 kilometers (76 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 47,182 (2010 Census); 46,596 (2002 Census); 50,325 (1989 Census).

Toksovo Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Toksovo is an urban locality in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the north of St. Petersburg on the Karelian Isthmus. It is served by two neighboring stations of the Saint Petersburg-Khiytola railroad: Toksovo and Kavgolovo (1929). Population: 6,127 (2010 Census); 5,893 (2002 Census); 5,699 (1989 Census).

Kamennogorsk Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kamennogorsk, known under the Finnish name of Antrea before 1948, is a town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus on the left bank of the Vuoksa River 170 kilometers (110 mi) northwest of St. Petersburg. Population: 6,739 (2010 Census); 6,084 (2002 Census); 5,694 (1989 Census).

Novaya Ladoga Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Novaya Ladoga is a town in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the point where the Volkhov River flows into Lake Ladoga, 140 kilometers (87 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 8,838 (2010 Census); 9,920 (2002 Census); 11,310 (1989 Census).

Syasstroy Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Syasstroy is a town in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located near the mouth of the Syas River, at its confluence with the Valgonka, close to Lake Ladoga, 140 kilometers (87 mi) east of St. Petersburg. Population: 13,745 (2010 Census); 13,969 (2002 Census); 16,122 (1989 Census).

Primorsk, Leningrad Oblast Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Primorsk is a coastal town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia and is the second largest Russian port on the Baltic, after St. Petersburg. It is located on the Karelian Isthmus, 137 kilometers (85 mi) west of St. Petersburg, at the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, near Beryozovye Islands which are protected as a sea bird sanctuary. Population: 6,119 (2010 Census); 5,332 (2002 Census); 6,637 (1989 Census).

Roshchino, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Roshchino, Raivola before 1948, is an urban locality in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, and a station on the Saint Petersburg-Vyborg railroad. It is situated on the Karelian Isthmus 60 kilometers (37 mi) northwest of St. Petersburg, approximately halfway to Vyborg. Population: 13,439 (2010 Census); 9,393 (2002 Census); 8,436 (1989 Census).

Priozersky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Priozersky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Vsevolozhsky District in the south, and Vyborgsky District in the west. In the east, the district is bounded by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 3,597.5 square kilometers (1,389.0 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Priozersk. Population : 43,260 (2010 Census); 42,859 ; 40,231 (1989 Census)..

Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Oblast District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Vyborgsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast on the Karelian Isthmus and borders with Priozersky District in the northeast, Vsevolozhsky District in the east, Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the south, Kymenlaakso and South Karelia regions of Finland in the northwest, and Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north. From the southwest, the district is limited by the Gulf of Finland. The area of the district is 7,475.472 square kilometers (2,886.296 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Vyborg. Population : 120,446 (2010 Census); 113,748 ; 108,571 (1989 Census).

Vsevolozhsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Vsevolozhsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central northwestern part of the oblast on the Karelian Isthmus and borders with Priozersky District in the north, Kirovsky District in the south, Vyborgsky District in the northwest, Nevsky, Krasnogvardeysky, Kalininsky, Vyborgsky, and Kurortny Districts of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the west, and is washed by Lake Ladoga in the east. The area of the district is 3,036.4 square kilometers (1,172.4 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Vsevolozhsk. Population : 153,045 (2010 Census); 131,233 ; 135,318 (1989 Census).

Kuznechnoye Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kuznechnoye is an urban locality in the northern part of Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, located on the Karelian Isthmus. Population: 4,458 (2010 Census); 4,738 (2002 Census); 5,017 (1989 Census).

Sovetsky, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Sovetsky is an urban locality in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is situated on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Vyborg on the Karelian Isthmus. Population: 7,131 (2010 Census); 6,607 (2002 Census); 6,471 (1989 Census).

Kirishsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kirishsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central southern part of the oblast and borders with Volkhovsky District in the north, Tikhvinsky District in the northeast, Lyubytinsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the southeast, Malovishersky District of Novgorod Oblast in the south, Chudovsky District of Novgorod Oblast in the southwest, Tosnensky District in the west, and Kirovsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 3,019.3 square kilometers (1,165.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kirishi. Population : 11,455 (2010 Census); 12,075 ; 14,521 (1989 Census).

Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kirovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast and borders with Volkhovsky District in the east, Kirishsky District in the southeast, Nevsky and Kolpinsky Districts of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the west, Tosnensky District in the southwest, and with Vsevolozhsky District in the northwest. From the north, the district is bounded by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 2,590.46 square kilometers (1,000.18 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kirovsk. Population : 62,533 (2010 Census); 60,221 ; 74,725 (1989 Census).

Lodeynopolsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Lodeynopolsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Olonetsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Podporozhsky District in the east, Tikhvinsky District in the south, and Volkhovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 4,900 square kilometers (1,900 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Lodeynoye Pole. Population : 9,795 (2010 Census); 12,185 ; 13,426 (1989 Census).

Podporozhsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Podporozhsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Prionezhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Vytegorsky District of Vologda Oblast in the east, Babayevsky District of Vologda Oblast in the southeast, Tikhvinsky District in the south, Lodeynopolsky District in the southwest, and Olonetsky and Pryazhinsky Districts of the Republic of Karelia in the northwest. In the northeast, the district is bounded by Lake Onega. The area of the district is 7,679 square kilometers (2,965 sq mi), which makes it the largest district in Leningrad Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Podporozhye. Population : 13,000 (2010 Census); 14,845 ; 18,075 (1989 Census).

Volkhovsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Volkhovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central eastern part of the oblast and borders with Lodeynopolsky District in the northeast, Tikhvinsky District in the southeast, Kirishsky District in the south, and with Kirovsky District in the west. In the north, it is washed by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 5,124.4 square kilometers (1,978.5 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Volkhov. Population : 48,000 (2010 Census); 50,799 ; 58,939 (1989 Census).

Nikolsky, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Nikolsky is an urban locality in Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Svir River, several kilometers west of the town of Podporozhye. Municipally, it is incorporated as Nikolskoye Urban Settlement, one of the four urban settlements in the district. Population: 2,989 (2010 Census); 2,931 (2002 Census); 2,953 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. Article 8 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. A contest was held in April 2014 and a winner was selected; however, as of October 2014, no law is officially in place.
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. 1 2 Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 33–34
  5. Charter of Leningrad Oblast, Article 25
  6. Charter of Leningrad Oblast, Article 18
  7. Official website of Leningrad Oblast. Alexander Yuryevich Drozdenko, Governor of Leningrad Oblast (in Russian)
  8. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. Federal State Statistics Service ,  Wikidata Q2624680
  11. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  12. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  13. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. Лапшин В. А. "Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 1: Западные районы". Leningrad, 1990.
  15. Лапшин В. А. "Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 2: Восточные и северные районы". Saint-Petersburg: Изд. СПбГУ, 1995. ISBN   5-87403-052-2.
  16. Лебедев Г. С. "Археологические памятники Ленинградской области". Leningrad: Лениздат, 1977.
  17. Lieven, Dominic (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume 2, Imperial Russia, 1689-1917. Cambridge University Press. p. 495. ISBN   0521815290.
  18. 1 2 Administrative-Territorial Division of Leningrad Oblast, p. 10
  19. Matley, Ian M. (1979). "The Dispersal of the Ingrian Finns". Slavic Review . 38 (1): 1–16. doi:10.2307/2497223. ISSN   0037-6779. JSTOR   2497223 via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
  20. Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing" (PDF). The Journal of Modern History . University of Chicago Press. 70 (4): 813–61. doi:10.1086/235168. ISSN   1537-5358. JSTOR   10.1086/235168 via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
  21. Ленинградская область в целом: Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области Archived June 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  22. "Что и почему переименовывали в Ленинградской области". Общая газета Ленинградской области (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  23. Справочник по истории Коммунистической партии и Советского Союза 1898 - 1991 (in Russian). knowbysight.info. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  24. Губернаторы Ленинградской области (in Russian). ProTown.ru. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  25. "Medvedev Appoints Buryatia, Leningrad Region Governors". The Moscow Times. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  26. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  27. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  28. "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  29. "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  30. "ВПН-2010". www.perepis-2010.ru. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  31. 1 2 3 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  32. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  33. "Трасса А121 "Сортавала" (бывш. А129) на карте". www.rudorogi.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  34. "Соколов: аэропорт Сиверский в Ленобласти может работать как порт малой авиации". ТАСС (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  35. "Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"". pnpi.spb.ru. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015.

Sources

Further reading

Nature

History