Leo J. Dulacki
LTG Leo J. Dulacki, USMC
|Birth name||Leo John Dulacki|
|Born||December 29, 1918|
Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
|Died||January 4, 2019 100) (aged|
Sun City West, Arizona, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Years of service||1941–1974|
|Commands held|| 5th Marine Division |
4th Marine Division
Chief of Staff of III MAF
1st Battalion, 7th Marines
|Battles/wars|| World War II |
|Awards|| Distinguished Service Medal (2)|
Legion of Merit (4)
Bronze Star Medal (2)
Leo John Dulacki (December 29, 1918 – January 4, 2019) was a highly decorated lieutenant general in the United States Marine Corps. During his 32 years of active service Dulacki held several important intelligence assignments including service in Moscow and Helsinki. He finished his career as Director of Personnel/Deputy Chief of Staff for Manpower at Headquarters Marine Corps.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9. Lieutenant general ranks above major general and below general. Lieutenant general is equivalent to the rank of vice admiral in the other uniformed services.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines or U.S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force. The U.S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.
During World War II he served aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, which was sunk in October 1942. He later commanded the Marine infantry battalion in Korea, where he was wounded and subsequently decorated for his bravery; he also served two tours of duty in Vietnam.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
USS Hornet (CV-8), the seventh ship to carry the name Hornet, was a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. During World War II in the Pacific Theater, she launched the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo and participated in the Battle of Midway and the Buin-Faisi-Tonolai Raid. In the Solomon Islands campaign, she was involved in the capture and defense of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands where she was irreparably damaged by enemy torpedo and dive bombers. Faced with an approaching Japanese surface force, Hornet was abandoned and later torpedoed and sunk by approaching Japanese destroyers. Hornet was in service for a year and six days and was the last US fleet carrier ever sunk by enemy fire. For these actions, she was awarded four service stars, a citation for the Doolittle Raid in 1942, and her Torpedo Squadron 8 received a Presidential Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism for the Battle of Midway. Her wreck was located in late January 2019 near the Solomon Islands.
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.
Dulacki was born on December 29, 1918 in Omaha, Nebraska as the son of Stanley and Anna (Jurczak) Dulacki, first generation Polish immigrants.He graduated from Omaha South High School in summer 1936 and subsequently enrolled at Creighton University. During his time at the university, Dulacki was active in golf and the chemistry club, and also served as president of the Polish Club and Student Union Board of Governors. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in June 1941 and was commissioned a reserve second lieutenant within ROTC unit.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County. Omaha is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 10 miles (15 km) north of the mouth of the Platte River. The nation's 40th-largest city, Omaha's 2018 estimated population was 466,061.
The term "first-immigrant" refers to the very first immigrants or to the children of such an immigrant. The term second-generation consequently may refer to either the children or the grandchildren of such an immigrant. The terms are used interchangeably because of the ambiguity between them.
Omaha South High School is an information technology and visual/performing arts magnet school which educates students in grades 9–12. It is located in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. Built in the 1930s, it is one of the largest high school buildings in the state.
Dulacki resigned his reserve commission in order to accept an appointment as a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on September 2, 1941. Dulacki was subsequently ordered to the Basic School at Philadelphia Navy Yard for basic officer training which he completed in November of that year. He was subsequently attached to the Marine Detachment aboard the newly commissioned aircraft carrier USS Hornet under Captain Marc Mitscher. At the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hornet trained out of Norfolk.
The Basic School (TBS) is where all newly commissioned and appointed United States Marine Corps officers are taught the basics of being an "Officer of Marines". The Basic School is at Camp Barrett, Quantico, Virginia, in the south-west of the Marine Corps Base Quantico complex. Each year over 1,700 new officers are trained, representing such commissioning sources as the U.S. Naval Academy, Officer Candidates School, and Marine Corps Limited Duty Officer (LDO) and Warrant Officer accession programs.
Marc Andrew "Pete" Mitscher was a pioneer in naval aviation who became an admiral in the United States Navy, and served as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the Pacific during the latter half of World War II.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.
Dulacki served aboard the Hornet during the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo in April 1942 and was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in September of that year. He was aboard when the carrier participated in the Battle of Midway in June 1942, and later when it was sunk during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands on October 26, 1942. He was rescued by escorting destroyers and sent to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii where he was promoted to the rank of captain in March 1943. Dulacki assumed command of the Marine detachment aboard the newly commissioned light aircraft career USS Belleau Wood and took part in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and Mariana and Palau Islands campaigns during 1944. He was promoted to the rank of Major in January 1944. Dulacki subsequently took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, during which Belleau Wood was severely damaged by a kamikaze in October 1944.
The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on Saturday, April 18, 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on the island of Honshu during World War II, the first air operation to strike the Japanese Home Islands. It demonstrated that the Japanese mainland was vulnerable to American air attack, served as retaliation for the attack on Pearl Harbor, and provided an important boost to American morale. The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle of the United States Army Air Forces.
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.
The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that took place between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea. The United States Navy under Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chūichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondō near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that proved irreparable. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare".
Belleau Wood sailed for Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, California, for repairs in November of that year and Dulacki was detached from the ship in early 1945. He was then ordered to Kansas City, Missouri as officer in charge of the local Marine Corps recruiting office.
The Hunters Point Naval Shipyard was a United States Navy shipyard in San Francisco, located on 638 acres (258 ha) of waterfront at Hunters Point in the southeast corner of the city.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States. It is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated; shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after.
Dulacki served in Kansas City until the summer of 1947, when he was ordered to the Junior Course at the Marine Corps Schools, Quantico. He completed the course in August 1947 and was transferred to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, where he was tasked by Major General Franklin A. Hart with the organization of the Marine Recruiters School. Dulacki then served as officer in charge of the school until June 1948, when he was ordered to Guam and joined the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade as Assistant Operations Officer under Brigadier General Edward A. Craig. He returned to the United States in November of that year and attended Army Language School in Monterey, California where he studied Russian.
Upon graduation in October 1949, Dulacki was ordered to Washington, D.C. and attended the Strategic Intelligence School. He was then ordered to Finland and served as Assistant Naval Attache at the American Embassy in Helsinki. During his service there, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in January 1951 and received the Commander's Cross of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the Government of Finland.
Dulacki was ordered to Korea in August 1952 and assumed command of the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. His battalion was deployed on the main line of resistance, the Jamestown Line, which consisted of a series of defensive positions, bunkers, and outposts. During October of that year, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army launched a series of attacks on U.N. positions. Dulacki was wounded by enemy artillery fire, when he was knocked to the ground by the concussion of an enemy artillery round exploding nearby. He led his battalion during the defense of the Hook and successfully defended his objectives. Dulacki remained in his capacity until November 22, 1952, and received Bronze Star Medal with a Combat "V" for his service on the Jamestown Lines.
He relinquished his command and joined the Korean Truce negotiations team under Rear Admiral John C. Daniel. Dulacki then participated in the Truce talks at Panmunjom on July 27, 1953 and the repatriation of disabled prisoners of war. He distinguished himself in this capacity and received a second Bronze Star Medal.
Dulacki returned to the United States in August 1953 and attended the Senior Course at Marine Corps Schools, Quantico. He graduated in June 1954 and assumed duty as Instructor, Intelligence Section at the Schools under Lieutenant General Gerald C. Thomas. He departed Quantico in July 1956 and joined the 1st Marine Division under Major General Robert O. Bare at Camp Pendleton, California. Dulacki served as Executive Officer, 1st Marine Regiment, and subsequently joined the divisional staff as assistant logistics officer.
During the difficult years of the Cold War, Dulacki left for Moscow in June 1958 and joined the American Embassy in Moscow as assistant naval attache and then as naval attache. While in Moscow, he was promoted to the rank of colonel in November 1959 and received the Legion of Merit for his service in that country.
Upon his return to the United States in June 1961, Dulacki was attached to the Joint Chiefs of Staff under General Lyman Lemnitzer and then transferred to the Defense Intelligence Agency in January 1962. He remained in this capacity until May 1964 and received the newly established Joint Service Commendation Medal for service in that capacity. He then attended the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island and graduated in June 1965. During this period, Dulacki also earned a master's degree in International Affairs from George Washington University.
Dulacki was ordered to South Vietnam in July 1965 and joined the headquarters of III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) under Lieutenant General Lewis W. Walt in Da Nang. He served as assistant chief of staff for intelligence under Walt and coordinated collecting, compilation, and analysis of intelligence which was crucial for Operations Starlite, Piranha, and Harvest Moon.
He served in that capacity until the end of January 1966 and received a second Legion of Merit with a Combat "V" for his service. Dulacki was subsequently transferred to the headquarters of the 3rd Marine Division under Major General Wood B. Kyle and assumed duty as chief of staff. He was stationed at Chu Lai Base and participated in the planning of search and destroy operations in Quảng Nam Province. While in this capacity, he also witnessed the Buddhist Uprising.
Dulacki returned to the United States in May of that year and received a third Legion of Merit for his service with the 3rd Marine Division. Following his return stateside, he assumed duty at Headquarters Marine Corps as the director of the Marine Corps Command Center. He served in this capacity until August 1967, when he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and appointed assistant director of personnel. The next year, in June 1968, Dulacki transferred to Camp Pendleton, California and was appointed assistant division commander, 5th Marine Division under his former superior, Major General Wood B. Kyle. The division served as a component of the Marine Corps Reserve and trained reservists and replacements during Vietnam War. Following the retirement of General Kyle one month later, Dulacki assumed command of the division and served in this capacity until the end of May 1969. He was decorated with a fourth Legion of Merit for his service with that command.
Dulacki returned to South Vietnam in June 1969 and assumed duty as operations officer of the III MAF under Lieutenant General Herman Nickerson Jr.. He participated in the planning of the redeployment of the 3rd Marine Division, which was detached from III MAF and transferred to Okinawa within Operations Keystone Eagle and Keystone Cardinal. Throughout the rest of 1969, he participated in the planning and execution of several search and destroy operations including Oklahoma Hills, Pipestone Canyon. The units of III MAF inflicted severe losses on the enemy and captured over 17,000 weapons and tons of enemy munitions, supplies, and foodstuffs. Dulacki served in that capacity until December 22, when he succeeded Brigadier General George E. Dooley as chief of staff of III MAF.Dulacki continued in that capacity until mid-June 1970, when he was relieved by Brigadier General Thomas H. Miller and ordered back to the United States.
For his service with III MAF during his second tour in Vietnam, Dulacki was decorated with the Navy Distinguished Service Medal and also received the National Order of Vietnam, Rank Knight, Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm and Korean Order of Military Merit, 5th Class.
Following his return, Dulacki assumed command of the 4th Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, California and was again responsible for the training of Marine reservists. He was promoted to the rank of major general on August 17, 1970 and held command of the division until March 1973.
Dulacki then briefly served at Headquarters Marine Corps as Inspector General of the Marine Corps, before he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general on May 14, 1973 and appointed Director of Personnel/Deputy Chief of Staff for Manpower. He retired from the Marine Corps after almost 32 years of active service on January 1, 1974 and received his second Navy Distinguished Service Medal at his retirement ceremony.
Dulacki settled in Carlsbad, California and was active in several organizations. He served as a member of the board of trustees at the Kosciuszko Foundation between 1974-89, and later in the same capacity with the Devil Pups Youth Foundation until 1990. He also held additional duties as an advisory board member at the National Armed Forces Museum, Smithsonian Institution, and as an honorary trustee of the San Diego Paderewski Society.
Dulacki was awarded the Alumni Merit Award from his alma mater , Creighton University in 1974 and was inducted into the Attache Hall of Fame of the Defense Intelligence Agency in 1990. His high school, Omaha South High School inducted him into its Hall of Fame in 2013.He died on January 4, 2019, at his retirement home in Sun City West, Arizona, at the age of 100, six days after his birthday.
A complete list of the general's medals and decorations include:
|Navy Distinguished Service Medal with one 5⁄16" Gold Star|
|Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and three 5⁄16" Gold Stars||Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V" and one 5⁄16" Gold Star||Joint Service Commendation Medal||Navy Commendation Medal|
|Purple Heart||Navy Presidential Unit Citation with one star||Navy Unit Commendation||American Defense Service Medal|
|American Campaign Medal||Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with two 3/16 inch silver and two bronze service stars||World War II Victory Medal||National Defense Service Medal with one star|
|Korean Service Medal with three 3/16 inch silver service star||Vietnam Service Medal with four 3/16 inch bronze service stars||Order of the Lion of Finland, rank Commander||Korean Order of Military Merit, 5th Class|
|National Order of Vietnam, Knight||Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Bronze Star||Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation||Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation|
|Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation||Philippine Liberation Medal with one star||United Nations Korea Medal||Vietnam Campaign Medal|
Donn J. Robertson
| Commanding General of the 4th Marine Division |
July 15, 1970 – March 4, 1973
John N. McLaughlin
Wood B. Kyle
| Commanding General of the 5th Marine Division |
July 18, 1968 – May 1, 1969
Donn J. Robertson
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