Leonard Gyllenhaal

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Leonard Gyllenhaal
Leonhard Gyllenhaal.jpg
Leonard Gyllenhaal. Lithography.
Born(1752-12-03)3 December 1752
Ribbingsberg manor, Västergötland
Died 13 May 1840(1840-05-13) (aged 87)
Occupation Military officer, entomologist
Family Gyllenhaal

Leonard Gyllenhaal (3 December 1752 13 May 1840) was a Swedish military officer and entomologist.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.5 million has a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Entomology scientific study of insects

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs. This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use.

Born on the Ribbingsberg manor in Västergötland in west Sweden, Leonard Gyllenhaal was son of an army officer and belonged to a family of the lower nobility. He went to school (Skara trivialskola) in the cathedral town of Skara together with, among others, the future poet Johan Henrik Kellgren, and later renowned naturalists Anders Dahl and the brothers Adam and Johan Afzelius, with whom he went on natural excursions. Like some of his friends, he went to Uppsala to study under Linnaeus in 1769. He never matriculated and remained in Uppsala only one semester, before switching to a military career in accordance with the wishes and traditions of the family, enrolling in the Adelsfanan ("Banner of Nobles") cavalry regiment, and a few years later transferring to the drabantkåren (Garde du Corps). Gyllenhaal, however, remained in contact with Linnaeus through an extensive correspondence and continued to work as an amateur naturalist.

Manorialism economic and judicial Institution

Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society. It was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the Roman villa system of the Late Roman Empire, and was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe as well as China. It was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract.

Västergötland Place in Götaland, Sweden

Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden, situated in the southwest of Sweden.

Skara Place in Västergötland, Sweden

Skara is a locality and the seat of Skara Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden with 18,580 inhabitants in 2013. Despite its small size, it is one of the oldest cities in Sweden, and has a long educational and ecclesiastical history. One of Sweden's oldest high schools, Katedralskolan, is situated in Skara.

He remained in military service until 1799, when he retired with the rank of major. As this did not take all of his time different detachments of the Garde du Corps served at the royal court for only brief periods each year he worked on his father's estate Höberg in Norra Vånga parish in Västergötland, which he managed on his own from 1784. He developed the estate, experimenting with new crops such as the American maize.

Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

Maize Cereal grain

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.

His main interest ever since youth was entomology, and already in 1775 he had collected some 1300 largely unidentified beetle species from the western part of Götaland. He built a private entomological museum, library and study on Höberg which he called the "Fly house". At his death, he had a collection of 400 boxes of prepared and identified insects, which he left to the Royal Swedish Society of Sciences in Uppsala (later deposited at the Uppsala University Museum of Zoology). His main publication was the Insecta Suecica, describing the insects of Sweden, which took him 30 years to complete and was awarded the gold medal of the Academy of Sciences. Another claim to fame for Gyllenhaal is the fact that he named the common beetle family of Histeridae. He was also elected an honorary member of the French Société entomologique. He was appointed a Knight of the Royal Order of Vasa.

Götaland Place

Götaland is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises ten provinces. Geographically it is located in the south of Sweden, bounded to the north by Svealand, with the deep woods of Tiveden, Tylöskog and Kolmården marking the border.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is one of the royal academies of Sweden. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for ptomoting the natural sciences and mathematics and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

Histeridae family of insects

Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as Clown beetles or Hister beetles. This very diverse group of beetles contains 3,900 species found worldwide. They can be easily identified by their shortened elytra that leaves two of the seven tergites exposed, and their elbowed antennae with clubbed ends. These predatory feeders are most active at night and will fake death if they feel threatened. This family of beetles will occupy almost any kind of niche throughout the world. Hister beetles have proved useful during forensic investigations to help in time of death estimation. Also, certain species are used in the control of livestock pests that infest dung and to control houseflies. Because they are predacious and will even eat other Hister beetles, they must be isolated when collected.

Curculio elephas , a beetle described by Gyllenhaal Curculio elephas01.jpg
Curculio elephas , a beetle described by Gyllenhaal

Leonard Gyllenhaal was a leading Swedenborgian who supported the printing and spreading of Swedenborg's writings. His grandson, the Swedish-American journalist Anders Leonard Gyllenhaal, retained the faith of his grandfather and was a member of the Swedenborgian New Church. His descendants in the American branch of the family include the actor siblings Jake and Maggie Gyllenhaal.

Emanuel Swedenborg 18th-century Swedish scientist and theologian

Emanuel Swedenborg was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher and mystic. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758).

The New Church is the name for several historically related Christian denominations which developed as a new religious movement, influenced by the writings of scientist and Swedish Lutheran theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772). According to Swedenborg, he received a new revelation from Jesus Christ in visions he experienced over a period of at least twenty-five years. He predicted in his writings that God would replace the traditional Christian Church, establishing a New Church which would worship God as Jesus Christ. According to New Church doctrine, each person must cooperate in repentance, reformation, and regeneration.

Jake Gyllenhaal American actor

Jacob Benjamin Gyllenhaal is an American actor. A member of the Gyllenhaal family and the son of director Stephen Gyllenhaal and screenwriter Naomi Foner, Gyllenhaal began acting as a child with a screen debut in City Slickers (1991), followed by roles in A Dangerous Woman (1993) and Homegrown (1998). His breakthrough performance was as Homer Hickam in October Sky (1999) and he garnered an Independent Spirit Award nomination for Best Male Lead for playing the title character in the indie cult hit Donnie Darko (2001), in which he played a psychologically troubled teenager, alongside his older sister, Maggie Gyllenhaal. He subsequently appeared in another indie film, The Good Girl (2002) and the climate fiction-disaster film The Day After Tomorrow (2004), portraying a student caught in a cataclysmic climate event.

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References

Svenskt biografiskt lexicon is a Swedish biographical dictionary, started in 1917. The first volume, covering names Abelin to Anjou, was published in 1918. As of 2017, names from A to S are covered. It is renowned for its very high quality standards; all facts are thoroughly checked.

Nordisk familjebok is a Swedish encyclopedia that was published in print form between 1876 and 1957, and that is now fully available in digital form via Project Runeberg at Linköping University.

<i>Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon</i> Swedish biographical encyclopedia

Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon is a compact Swedish dictionary of biography first published in 1873–1876 by the physician and antiquarian Herman Hofberg (1823–1883). The second, updated edition was published in 1906, under the editorship of Frithiof Heurlin, Viktor Millqvist, and Olof Rubenson. The second edition, two volumes of all together 1,445 pages, contains 4,419 articles on families and individuals, "renowned Swedish men and women from the reformation until the present times", and more than 3,000 miniature portraits.

See also