Leonidas Paraskevopoulos ca. 1920
|Born||7 October 1860 |
|Died||16 May 1936 75) (aged|
|Years of service||1878–1920|
|Battles/wars||Greco-Turkish War of 1897, Balkan Wars, First World War, Asia Minor Campaign|
Leonidas Paraskevopoulos (Greek : Λεωνίδας Παρασκευόπουλος; 7 October 1860 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Greek military officer and politician. He played a major role in Greece's war effort during World War I, and was the commander-in-chief of the Greek Army of Asia Minor in 1919–20. In later life he was a member of the Greek Senate and served as its speaker in 1930–32.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
The Army of Asia Minor was the field army-level command controlling the Greek forces in Asia Minor (Anatolia) during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.
Leonidas Paraskevopoulos was born on 7 October 1860 on the island of Kythnos.His family hailed from Smyrna, Asia Minor.
Kythnos is a Greek island and municipality in the Western Cyclades between Kea and Serifos. It is 56 nautical miles (104 km) from the harbor of Piraeus. The municipality Kythnos is 100.187 km2 (38.68 sq mi) in area and has a coastline of about 100 km (62 mi). It has more than 70 beaches, many of which are still inaccessible by road. Of particular note is the crescent-shaped isthmus of fine sand at Kolona.
Smyrna was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Since 1930, the modern city located there has been known as İzmir, in Turkey, the Turkish rendering of the same name. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defense and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. Two sites of the ancient city are today within the boundaries of İzmir. The first site, probably founded by indigenous peoples, rose to prominence during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia. The second, whose foundation is associated with Alexander the Great, reached metropolitan proportions during the period of the Roman Empire. Most of the present-day remains of the ancient city date from the Roman era, the majority from after a 2nd-century AD earthquake.
He entered the Hellenic Army Academy and graduated in November 1881 as an Artillery 2nd Lieutenant. During the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, he served in the expeditionary corps sent to Crete under Colonel Timoleon Vassos.During the First Balkan War of 1912–13, he initially served as the commander of the 2nd Field Artillery Regiment, but already at the Battle of Sarantaporo he was appointed with the supervision of the entire artillery establishment of the Army of Thessaly, a post he held until the capture of Thessaloniki.
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065.
Timoleon Vassos or Vasos was a Greek Army officer and general. He was born in Athens in 1836, the younger son of the hero of the Greek Revolution Vasos Mavrovouniotis. He studied at the Hellenic Army Academy and continued his studies in France before being appointed as aide de camp to King George I. In February 1897, as a colonel, he was sent at the head of an expeditionary force to Crete to assist the local Cretan revolt against the Ottoman Empire, an act which precipitated the outbreak of the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. He eventually reached the rank of major general and garrison commander of Athens. He died in Athens in October 1929.
The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success.
He then succeeded Konstantinos Kallaris as commander of the 2nd Infantry Division, when the latter was transferred to the Epirus front. There again, however, he was after a few days appointed as Chief of Artillery of the Army of Epirus, playing a crucial role in the successful Battle of Bizani and the capture of Ioannina.In April 1913 he was placed in command of the newly formed 10th Infantry Division, which he led during the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria, from the Battle of Dojran to the area of Pečkovo.
Konstantinos Kallaris was a senior Greek Army officer who distinguished himself in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It lies between the Pindus Mountains and the Ionian Sea, stretching from the Bay of Vlorë and the Acroceraunian mountains in the north to the Ambracian Gulf and the ruined Roman city of Nicopolis in the south. It is currently divided between the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece and the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, and Berat in southern Albania. The largest city in Epirus is Ioannina, seat of the region of Epirus, with Gjirokastër the largest city in the Albanian part of Epirus.
The Battle of Bizani took place in Epirus on 4–6 March [O.S. 19–21 February] 1913. The battle was fought between Greek and Ottoman forces during the last stages of the First Balkan War, and revolved around the forts of Bizani, which covered the approaches to Ioannina, the largest city in the region.
In World War I, Paraskevopoulos became commander of I Army Corps on the Strymon sector on the eastern flank of the Macedonian Front in 1917–18, before being appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek Army in October 1918. [ citation needed ]After World War I, Paraskevopoulos took over direct command of the Greek forces that occupied Smyrna in 1919 in accordance with the Treaty of Sèvres. Under his command, the Hellenic Army successfully extended their occupation zone, from the greater Smyrna area, south to Aydin and north to Bursa.
The I Army Corps was an army corps of the Hellenic Army, founded in December 1913. Originally based in Athens and covering southern Greece, since 1962 it was responsible for covering Greece's northwestern borders. It was disbanded in 2013.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front, was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. The expedition came too late and in insufficient force to prevent the fall of Serbia, and was complicated by the internal political crisis in Greece. Eventually, a stable front was established, running from the Albanian Adriatic coast to the Struma River, pitting a multinational Allied force against the Bulgarian Army, which was at various times bolstered with smaller units from the other Central Powers. The Macedonian Front remained quite stable, despite local actions, until the great Allied offensive in September 1918, which resulted in the capitulation of Bulgaria and the liberation of Serbia.
The Treaty of Sèvres was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros. The treaty was signed on 10 August 1920, in an exhibition room at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres porcelain factory in Sèvres, France.
With the electoral victory of the pro-royalist United Opposition in November 1920, he was dismissed on 25 November 1920. [ citation needed ]After the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), Paraskevopoulos entered politics. He was appointed to the Greek Senate in 1929 "on merit", and served as President of the Senate in 1930–32. He died on 16 May 1936 in Paris, France, aged 75.
The United Opposition was a coalition of anti-Venizelist Greek political parties for the elections of 1920.
The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922. It is known as the Western Front of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey and the Asia Minor Campaign or the Asia Minor Catastrophe in Greece.
The Greek Senate was the upper chamber of the parliament in Greece, extant several times in the country's history.
Nikolaos Trikoupis was a Greek general and politician, most notable for his service in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, where he was taken as a prisoner of war. He also participated in the 1896 Summer Olympics, where he came third at the military rifle.
Anastasios Papoulas was a Greek general, most notable as the Greek commander-in-chief during most of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22. Originally a firm royalist, after 1922 he shifted towards the republican Venizelists, and was executed in 1935 for supporting a failed republican coup.
Georgios Hatzianestis was a Greek artillery and general staff officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. He is best known as the commander-in-chief of the Army of Asia Minor at the time of the Turkish August 1922 offensive, which he failed to stop. Relieved, he was later tried and condemned in the Trial of the Six as one of the main culprits of the Greek defeat in the Asia Minor Campaign, and executed.
Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos was a distinguished Greek army Lieutenant General who served in World War I, the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, World War II and the Greek Civil War, rising to become Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff. He also served as Greece's Ambassador to Yugoslavia.
Konstantinos Sapountzakis was a Greek Army officer. He is notable as the first head of the Hellenic Army General Staff and as the first commander of the Army of Epirus during the First Balkan War.
The following is the order of battle of the Hellenic Army during the First Balkan War.
Konstantinos Moschopoulos was a senior Greek Army officer who distinguished himself in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 and served as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff.
Dimitrios Ioannou was a senior Greek Army officer who fought in the Macedonian Front during World War I and in the opening stages of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.
Alexandros Merentitis was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of Major General. He participated in all Greek wars of the early 20th century, served as effective Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff in 1928–1929, General Secretary of the newly established Aviation Ministry in 1930–1934, and briefly as General-Governor of Northern Greece and Minister of Military Affairs in 1945.
Nikolaos Vlachopoulos was a Greek Army officer who rose to the rank of lieutenant general. He participated in all the Greek wars of the early 20th century, and served twice as chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff, in 1922–24 and in 1927–28.
Panagiotis Demestichas was an officer of the Greek Army who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General, leading an army corps in the Greco-Italian War. He also briefly served as Minister of the Interior in the first collaborationist government under general Georgios Tsolakoglou during the Axis occupation of Greece.
Christos Hatzipetros was a Greek artillery officer who rose to the rank of Major General.
Nikolaos Zafeiriou was a Greek artillery officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.
Charalambos Tseroulis was a distinguished Greek infantry officer who rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.
Ioannis Trilivas was a Greek Army officer who reached the rank of Lieutenant General, and fought in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the Balkan Wars, the Macedonian Front of World War I, and in the Asia Minor Campaign.
Dimitrios Papadopoulos was a Hellenic Army officer who reached the rank of Lieutenant General. He is most notable for his leadership in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41.
Leonidas Papagos was a Greek general.
Aristeidis Chasapidis was a Greek army officer who reached the rank of lieutenant general and served as Chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff in 1935–36.
Georgios Leonardopoulos was a Greek army major general who fought in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the Balkan Wars, World War I, and the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, and leader of a failed coup attempt in 1923.
Lt. General Panagiotis Danglis
| Commander-in-chief of the Greek Army |
October 1918 – 12 November 1920
Lt. General Anastasios Papoulas
as Commander-in-chief of the Army of Asia Minor