Leopold II, Margrave of Austria

Last updated
Leopold II
Margrave of Austria
Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg
Leopold the Fair at the Battle of Mailberg, Babenberger Stammbaum, Klosterneuburg Monastery, 1489–1492
Margravate1075–1095
Predecessor Ernest
Successor Leopold III
Born1050
Died(1095-10-12)12 October 1095
Gars am Kamp(?), Austria
Noble family Babenberg
Spouse Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg
Issue
Father Ernest
Mother Adelaide of Eilenburg

Leopold II (1050 – 12 October 1095), known as Leopold the Fair (German : Luitpold der Schöne), a member of the House of Babenberg, [1] was Margrave of Austria from 1075 until his death. A supporter of the Gregorian Reforms, he was one of the main opponents of the German king Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy.

Contents

Biography

Leopold the Fair was born in 1050, the son of Margrave Ernest of Austria and his wife Adelaide of Eilenburg, the daughter of the Wettin margrave Dedi I of Lusatia. His Babenberg ancestors had ruled the Margraviate of Austria since the appointment of Leopold's great-grandfather Leopold I in 976.

Leopold II succeeded as margrave upon his father's death in June 1075, at the time when the Investiture Dispute broke out between King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. He first sided with the German monarch and stayed at his court even after Henry's Walk to Canossa in January 1077. However, he switched sides under the influence of his wife Ida and Bishop Altmann of Passau, a loyal supporter of Pope Gregory who was expelled from his diocese by Henry's forces in 1078. Altmann fled to Austria and Margrave Leopold had to face an invasion by royal troops the next year, which led to the final break with the king.

In summer 1081, while King Henry IV was on campaign in Italy, Leopold backed the election of anti-king Count Hermann of Salm and convened an Austrian diet at Tulln where he officially dissociated from Henry. Subsequently, he was declared deposed by the king, who gave the Imperial fief to his loyal supporter Duke Vratislav II of Bohemia. The Přemyslid duke invaded Austria and defeated Leopold in the 1082 Battle of Mailberg, from where the margrave narrowly escaped with his life. Ultimately, however, he managed to retain his position, while Vratislav was elevated to a King of Bohemia in 1085. Leopold lost some territory in Southern Moravia north of the Thaya river, ruled by Prince Luitpold of Znojmo, who was, nevertheless, his son-in-law.

Leopold II and Abbot Sigibold of Melk, ceiling fresco in Melk Abbey, c. 1745 Leopold II und Sigibold.jpg
Leopold II and Abbot Sigibold of Melk, ceiling fresco in Melk Abbey, c.1745

While Bishop Altmann of Passau stayed in Austria, the margraviate obtained a leading position in promoting the Gregorian Reforms, overruling the concept of proprietary churches and marriages of priests. Altmann introduced the Cluniac oberservance to Kremsmünster Abbey and in 1083 established the Augustinian monastery of Göttweig near Krems. In 1089 Margrave Leopold helped pay for the construction of Melk Abbey in the Wachau region by donating extended premises high above the shore of the Danube for the new monastery. The ruins of Gars am Kamp castle, the last margravial residence of Leopold, are 68 kilometres (42 mi) away. [2]

Marriage and children

In 1065 Leopold married Ida (1055–1101), a Bavarian countess of Formbach (Vornbach). Ida was the daughter of Count Rapoto IV and Matilda and a relative of Archbishop Thiemo of Salzburg. She is said to have died during the Crusade of 1101. Leopold and Ida had a son:

as well as six daughters:

Related Research Articles

Babenberg Austrian noble dynasty from c. 962 to 1246

Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes. Originally from Bamberg in the Duchy of Franconia, the Babenbergs ruled the Imperial Margraviate of Austria from its creation in 976 AD until its elevation to a duchy in 1156, and from then until the extinction of the line in 1246, whereafter they were succeeded by the House of Habsburg.

Frederick II, Duke of Austria Duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 to 1246

Frederick II, known as Frederick the Quarrelsome, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 until his death. He was the fifth and last Austrian duke from the House of Babenberg, since the former margraviate was elevated to a duchy by the 1156 Privilegium Minus. He was killed in the Battle of the Leitha River, leaving no male heirs.

Leopold I, Margrave of Austria

Leopold I, known as the Illustrious, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Margrave of Austria from 976 until his death. He was the first margrave of the Babenberg dynasty which ruled the March and Duchy of Austria until its extinction in 1246.

Leopold III, Margrave of Austria

Leopold III, known as Leopold the Good, was the Margrave of Austria from 1095 to his death in 1136. He was a member of the House of Babenberg. He was canonized on 6 January 1485 and became the patron saint of Austria, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, and Vienna. His feast day is 15 November.

Leopold V, Duke of Austria Duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194

Leopold V, known as the Virtuous, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death.

Henry II, Duke of Austria

Henry II, called Jasomirgott, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1140 to 1141, Duke of Bavaria and Margrave of Austria from 1141 to 1156, and the first Duke of Austria from 1156 until his death.

Leopold, Duke of Bavaria

Leopold, known as Leopold the Generous, was Margrave of Austria as Leopold IV from 1136, and Duke of Bavaria as Leopold I from 1139 until his death in 1141.

Ernest, Margrave of Austria

Ernest, known as Ernest the Brave, was the Margrave of Austria from 1055 to his death in 1075. He was a member of the House of Babenberg.

Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg 11th and 12th-century Austrian noblewoman

Ida of Austria was a Margravine of Austria by marriage to Leopold II of Austria. She was a crusader, participating in the Crusade of 1101 with her own army.

Přemyslid dynasty Czech royal dynasty during the Middle Ages

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

Frederick, Duke of Bohemia

Frederick, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1172 to 1173 and again from 1178 to his death.

Conrad II, Duke of Bohemia Duke of Bohemia

Conrad II Otto, a member of Přemyslid dynasty, was the first margrave of Moravia from 1182 to 1189 and duke of Bohemia from 1189 until his death.

Duchy of Austria Medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus

The Duchy of Austria was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct in male line, there was as much as three decades of rivalry on inheritance and rulership, until the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria became the patrimony and ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was officially acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III.

March of Carniola

The Marchof Carniola was a southeastern state of the Holy Roman Empire in the High Middle Ages, the predecessor of the Duchy of Carniola. It corresponded roughly to the central Carniolan region of present-day Slovenia. At the time of its creation, the march served as a frontier defense against the Kingdoms of Hungary and Croatia.

Margraviate of Austria Southeastern frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire, c. 972–1156

The Margraviate of Austria was a medieval frontier march, centered along the river Danube, between the river Enns and the Vienna Woods (Wienerwald), within the territory of modern Austrian provinces of Upper Austria and Lower Austria. It existed from c. 972 to 1156.

Gertrude of Babenberg, Duchess of Bohemia

Gertrude of Babenberg, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duchess consort of Bohemia from 1140 until her death, by her marriage to the Přemyslid duke Vladislaus II.

Maria of Bohemia

Maria of Bohemia, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Margravine of Austria and Duchess of Bavaria by her first marriage to Duke Leopold I, as well as Margravine of Baden and Verona by her second marriage to Margrave Herman III.

Constance of Austria, Margravine of Meissen

Constance of Babenberg, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Margravine of Meissen from 1234 until her death, by her marriage with Margrave Henry the Illustrious.

Luitpold of Znojmo

Luitpold of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, ruled as Moravian duke of Znojmo for twenty years – from 1092 until his death.

Conrad II of Znojmo

Conrad II of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was a Bohemian prince who ruled in the Moravian principality of Znojmo from 1123 to 1128 and again from 1134 until his death.

References

Citations
  1. Lingelbach 1913, p. 90.
  2. "Google Map". Google Maps. Google. 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
Bibliography
Leopold II, Margrave of Austria
Born: 1050 Died: 1095
Preceded by
Ernest
Margrave of Austria
1075–1095
Succeeded by
Leopold III