Leslie E. Robertson
Leslie Earl Robertson
February 12, 1928
|Education||BS, University of California, Berkeley (1952)|
|Institutions|| National Academy of Engineering |
Institution of Structural Engineers
|Practice name||Leslie E. Robertson Associates (LERA)|
|Projects|| World Trade Center |
Shanghai World Financial Center
Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong
|Awards|| John Fritz Medal (2012)|
IStructE Gold Medal
Leslie Earl Robertson (born February 12, 1928) is an American engineer. He was the lead structural engineer of the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in New York City.He has since been structural engineer on numerous other projects, including the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong.
Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and structural systems to achieve design goals and ensure the safety and comfort of users or occupants. Their work takes account mainly of safety, technical, economic and environmental concerns, but they may also consider aesthetic and social factors.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex was located in New York City's Financial District and contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
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Robertson studied civil engineering at University of California, Berkeley, and received a BS degree in 1952.
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.
Robertson's engineering career began in 1952, when he joined Kaiser Engineering. In 1958 he joined the Seattle structural and civil engineering firm Worthington and Skilling. As an "up-and-coming engineer",[ citation needed ] Robertson was selected by Worthington, Skilling, Helle, and Jackson (WSHJ) to participate in the design of the World Trade Center Twin Towers (1966–1971), his first high rise construction. In 1967 Robertson was made a partner and WSHJ was renamed Skilling, Helle, Christiansen, Robertson. The firm split its operations in 1982, with Robertson renaming the East Coast office Leslie E. Robertson Associates RLLP
Magnusson Klemencic Associates is an American structural and civil engineering consulting firm with its headquarters in Seattle, Washington. The company has completed projects worth more than $73 billion in 47 states and 51 countries. Significant MKA projects through its history include the World Trade Center, the Columbia Center, Aqua, the Doha Convention Center Tower, and the Olympic Sculpture Park.
Since the collapse of the World Trade Center in 2001, debates about the safety of rent-space-maximized designs have engaged the profession, but most would agree that the design of the World Trade Center actually withstood the impact of the plane with enough time to allow many thousands of occupants to evacuate safely.Robertson's firm later participated in the development of a database of basic structural information for the towers of the World Trade Center (WTC1 and 2) for NIST and FEMA, and to record the undocumented structural changes that had been made to the buildings after construction began.
The Twin Towers of New York City's World Trade Center collapsed after being deliberately struck by two commercial passenger jets during the September 11 attacks. A total of four commercial aircraft were hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorists on 9/11 and two of those were crashed into the Twin Towers. American Airlines Flight 11 was crashed into the north side of the North Tower and United Airlines Flight 175 was crashed into the south side of the South Tower. The collapse of the Twin Towers destroyed the rest of the complex, and debris from the collapsing towers severely damaged or destroyed more than a dozen other adjacent and nearby structures. The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am, less than an hour after being hit, followed by the North Tower at 10:28 am. Later that day, the nearby Seven World Trade Center collapsed at 5:21 pm from fires that had started when the North Tower collapsed. As a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died including 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers as well as all the passengers and crew on the airplanes, including 147 civilians and the 10 hijackers.
Robertson has been married for several decades to SawTeen See, an engineer who also has served as business manager of their architectural engineering practice, Leslie E. Robertson Associates (LERA).
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization. The National Academy of Engineering is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, and the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is also known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem . The degree is typically a doctorate or, less commonly, a master's degree, and may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration.
The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering and applied sciences. In most of the countries it is a terminal research doctorate; in the United Kingdom it can be a higher doctorate. An EngD degree is essentially an engineering PhD with a solid industrial base and an additional taught element.
Fazlur Rahman Khan was a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer and architect, who initiated important structural systems for skyscrapers. Considered the "father of tubular designs" for high-rises, Khan was also a pioneer in computer-aided design (CAD). He was the designer of the Sears Tower, since renamed Willis Tower, the tallest building in the world from 1973 until 1998, and the 100-story John Hancock Center.
Arup is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London which provides engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment. Founded by Sir Ove Arup in 1946, the firm has over 14,000 staff based in 92 offices across 35 countries, and is present in Africa, the Americas, Australasia, East Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries.
Henry Petroski is an American engineer specializing in failure analysis. A professor both of civil engineering and history at Duke University, he is also a prolific author. Petroski has written over a dozen books – beginning with To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design (1985) and including a number of titles detailing the industrial design history of common, everyday objects, such as pencils, paper clips, and silverware. His first book was made into the film When Engineering Fails.. He is a frequent lecturer and a columnist for the magazines American Scientist and Prism.
Sir Henry Charles Husband, often known as H. C. Husband, was a leading British civil and consulting engineer from Sheffield, England, who designed bridges and other major civil engineering works. He is particularly known for his work on the Jodrell Bank radio telescopes; the first of these was the largest fully steerable radio telescope in the world on its completion in 1957. Other projects he was involved in designing include the Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station's aerials, one of the earliest telecobalt radiotherapy units, Sri Lanka's tallest building, and the rebuilding of Robert Stephenson's Britannia Bridge after a fire. He won the Royal Society's Royal Medal and the Wilhelm Exner Medal.
Dr. W. Gene Corley, P.E. was an American structural engineer and "preeminent expert on building collapse investigations and building codes." Corley was the Senior Vice President of CTLGroup from 1987 to 2013, where he led structural engineering projects, including numerous evaluations of buildings and structures damaged by earthquake, explosions, and from terrorist attacks. He led the investigation of structural performance of the Murrah Building following the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, and the World Trade Center Building Performance Study in 2001-2002 following the September 11, 2001 attacks. He died on March 1, 2013. He was 77.
Michael John Glover, FREng, is a British Engineer and a director of Arup and technical director of 'Rail Link Engineering'.
William Frazier Baker, also known as Bill Baker, is an American structural engineer known for engineering the Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building/man-made structure. He is currently a structural engineering partner in the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP (SOM).
Lawrence C. Bank is the Associate Provost for Research at The City College of New York and a Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at the Grove School of Engineering. He is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Wisconsin and the District of Columbia. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers, as well as a Fellow and currently President of the International Institute for FRP Composites in Construction. Prior to joining CCNY, Dr. Bank was on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Catholic University of America and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He has worked as a structural engineer for Leslie E. Robertson and Associates in New York City and as a consultant for the composite materials industry.
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is the academic department at Imperial College London dedicated to civil engineering. It is located at the South Kensington Campus in London, along Imperial College Road. The department is currently a part of the college's Faculty of Engineering, which was formed in 2001 when Imperial College restructured. The department has consistently ranked within the top five on the QS World University Rankings in recent years.
Dan Mircea Frangopol is an American civil engineer and the inaugural holder of the Fazlur R. Khan Endowed Chair of Structural Engineering and Architecture at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
AKT II is a London based firm of structural and civil engineering consultants. It was founded as Adams Kara Taylor in 1996 by Hanif Kara, Albert Williamson-Taylor and Robin Adams. Now numbering over 250 employees, it is one of the largest structural engineers in London.
Dr. Lynn S. Beedle was an American structural engineer, the founder and the director of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, notable also for his design and building of skyscrapers. The New York Times called him "an expert on tall buildings". Beedle is also credited with making Lehigh University a center of research for civil and structural engineering because of his "groundbreaking studies on the properties of steel structures". Beedle was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1972 “for contributions to steel structures research and design practice, especially plastic design and residual stress effects.” The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat honored Beedle with creation of the Lynn S. Beedle Achievement Award. Beedle was a recipient of a lifetime achievement award from the American Society of Civil Engineers. He also received Franklin Institute’s Frank P. Brown Medal, as well as the John Fritz Medal, the Berkeley Engineering Alumni Society Distinguished Engineering Alumnus Award, and was named Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering by Lehigh University.
Mark Sarkisian is an American structural engineer. He is the Partner of seismic and structural engineering in the San Francisco office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. He is notable for designing many landmark high rise buildings in USA, China and the middle east.
Homer G. Balcom (1870–1938) was a structural engineer who was responsible for designing the Empire State Building. Balcom was the most prominent consulting structural engineer in America after World War I (WWI).
Clyde N. Baker Jr. is an American geotechnical engineer who has received awards for his work to design advanced foundations supporting tall structures. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. In 2008, he received the Award of Excellence from Engineering News-Record.
Sir Alfred Grenville Pugsley, FRS was a British structural engineer.
The National Construction Safety Team Act, signed into law on October 1, 2002 by President George W. Bush, mandated the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish the likely technical cause or causes of the three building failures that occurred on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center as a result of a terrorist attack. NIST issued its final report on the collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in September 2005. It issued its final report on 7 World Trade Center in November 2008.