Leslie Stephen

Last updated

Sir Leslie Stephen

Leslie Stephen c1860.jpg
Stephen c.1860
Born(1832-11-28)28 November 1832
Died22 February 1904(1904-02-22) (aged 71)
Kensington, London, England
NationalityEnglish
Spouse(s)
Children
Parent(s)
Relatives

Sir Leslie Stephen KCB FBA (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.

Contents

Life

Sir Leslie Stephen came from a distinguished intellectual family, [1] and was born at 14 (later renumbered 42) Hyde Park Gate, Kensington in London, the son of Sir James Stephen and (Lady) Jane Catherine (née Venn) Stephen. His father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen (1829–1894) and Caroline Emelia Stephen (1834–1909).

His family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his father's house he saw a good deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor and Nassau Senior. Leslie Stephen was educated at Eton College, King's College London and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. (20th wrangler) in 1854 and M.A. in 1857. He was elected a fellow of Trinity Hall in 1854 and became a junior tutor in 1856. [2] In 1859 he was ordained but his study of philosophy, together with the religious controversies surrounding the publication of The Origin of Species (1859) by Charles Darwin, caused him to lose his faith in 1862, and in 1864 he resigned from his positions at Cambridge, and moved to London. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in some less formal Sketches from Cambridge: By a Don (1865). These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette , to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, he had been introduced by his brother. [1]

Marriage

(1) Harriet (Minny) Thackeray 1867–1875

Harriet and Leslie Stephen, 1867 Harriet and Leslie Stephen 1867.jpg
Harriet and Leslie Stephen, 1867
Harriet's grave, Kensal Green Cemetery Harriet Marian Thackeray Stephen, Kensal Green Cemetery.JPG
Harriet's grave, Kensal Green Cemetery

The family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackeray's and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863. His sister Caroline met Thackeray's daughters, Anny (1837–1919) and Minny (Harriet Marian Thackeray 1840–1875) when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron (of whom, see later). This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephen's mother, Lady Stephen, where the sisters met him. They also met at George Murray Smith's house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on 4 December 1866 and married on 19 June 1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sister's home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, who was a novelist. In the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on 7 December gave birth to their daughter, Laura Makepeace Stephen (1870–1945). Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens. The couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On 27 November she developed convulsions, and died the following day of eclampsia. [3]

After Minny's death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, but they moved to 11 Hyde Park gate South in 1876, next door to her widowed friend and collaborator, Julia Duckworth. Leslie Stephen and his daughter were also cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as "Silly Milly" and her books as "little works". [4] [5] [3] Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, to Leslie Stephen's consternation. Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on 2 August. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth.

(2) Julia Duckworth 1878–1895

Julia Duckworth by Julia Margaret Cameron, 1872 Julia Duckworth in Garden, by Julia Margaret Cameron.jpg
Julia Duckworth by Julia Margaret Cameron, 1872

His second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth (née Jackson, 1846–1895). Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones. [6] In 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth (1833 − 1870) by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870.

Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on 26 March 1878. They had four children:

In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15 (her children by her first marriage being adult by then). [7]

Career

In the 1850s, Stephen and his brother James Fitzjames Stephen were invited by Frederick Denison Maurice to lecture at The Working Men's College. Leslie Stephen became a member of the College's governing College Corporation. [8]

Stephen was an Honorary Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and received the honorary degree Doctor of Letters (D. Litt.) from the University of Cambridge and from the University of Oxford (November 1901 [9] ). While at Cambridge, Stephen became an Anglican clergyman. In 1865, having renounced his religious beliefs, and after a visit to the United States two years earlier, where he had formed lasting friendships with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., James Russell Lowell and Charles Eliot Norton, he settled in London and became a journalist, eventually editing the Cornhill Magazine in 1871 where R. L. Stevenson, Thomas Hardy, W. E. Norris, Henry James, and James Payn figured among his contributors.

In his spare time, he participated in athletics and mountaineering. He also contributed to the Saturday Review, Fraser, Macmillan, the Fortnightly, and other periodicals. He was already known as a climber, as a contributor to Peaks, Passes and Glaciers (1862), and as one of the earliest presidents of the Alpine Club, when, in 1871, in commemoration of his own first ascents in the Alps, he published The Playground of Europe, which immediately became a mountaineering classic, drawing—together with Whymper's Scrambles Amongst the Alps—successive generations of its readers to the Alps.

During the eleven years of his editorship, in addition to three volumes of critical studies, he made two valuable contributions to philosophical history and theory. The first was The History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (1876 and 1881). This work was generally recognised as an important addition to philosophical literature and led immediately to Stephen's election at the Athenaeum Club in 1877. The second was The Science of Ethics (1882). It was extensively adopted as a textbook on the subject and made him the best-known proponent of evolutionary ethics in late-nineteenth-century Britain. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1901. [10]

Stephen also served as the first editor (1885–91) of the Dictionary of National Biography .

He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902. [11] [12]

Mountaineering

Leslie Stephen painted by George Frederic Watts, 1878. Sir Leslie Stephen by George Frederic Watts 1878.jpeg
Leslie Stephen painted by George Frederic Watts, 1878.

Stephen was one of the most prominent figures in the golden age of alpinism (the period between Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865) during which many major alpine peaks saw their first ascents. Joining the Alpine Club in 1857 (the year of its formation), Stephen made the first ascent, usually in the company of his favourite Swiss guide Melchior Anderegg, of the following peaks:

He was President of the Alpine Club from 1865–68.

List of selected publications

Death

Leslie Stephen's grave, Highgate Cemetery The grave of Sir Leslie Stephen, Highgate Cemetery, London.JPG
Leslie Stephen's grave, Highgate Cemetery

He died in Kensington and is buried in the eastern section of Highgate Cemetery in the raised section alongside the northern path. His daughter, Virginia Woolf, was badly affected by his death and she was cared for by his sister, Caroline. [4] Woolf in 1922 created a detailed psychological portrait of him in the fictional character of Mr. Ramsay in her classic novel, To the Lighthouse , (as well as of her mother as Mrs. Ramsay). (Ref: The Diaries and Letters of Virginia Woolf) His probate is worded: STEPHEN sir Leslie of 22 Hyde Park-gate Middlesex K.C.B. probate London 23 March to George Herbert Duckworth and Gerald de L'Etang Duckworth esquires Effects £15715 6s. 6d. [14]

Family tree

For Family Trees of the Stephens, Thackerays and Jacksons, see Bicknell (1996) [15] and Bloom and Maynard (1994). [16]

Related Research Articles

Virginia Woolf English modernist writer known for use of stream of consciousness

Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

Vanessa Bell British painter, designer and member of the Bloomsbury Group

Vanessa Bell was an English painter and interior designer, a member of the Bloomsbury Group and the sister of Virginia Woolf.

James Fitzjames Stephen British lawyer and judge

Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, 1st Baronet, KCSI was an English lawyer, judge and writer.

Leonard Woolf English political theorist, author, publisher and civil servant

Leonard Sidney Woolf was a British political theorist, author, publisher and civil servant, and husband of author Virginia Woolf.

Gerald de l'Etang Duckworth was an English publisher, who founded the London company that bears his name. Henry James and John Galsworthy were among the firm's early authors.

Courtenay Ilbert Lawyer, Civil Servant in India

Sir Courtenay Peregrine Ilbert was a distinguished British lawyer and civil servant who served as legal adviser to the Viceroy of India's Council for many years until his eventual return from India to England. His later career included appointments as the Parliamentary Counsel to the British Treasury and as Clerk of the House of Commons from 1902 to 1921.

Anthony Nicholas George Duckworth-Chad, of Pynkney Hall, near King's Lynn, Norfolk, England, is a landowner, City of London business man, and a senior county officer for Norfolk.

Anne Isabella Thackeray Ritchie novelist

Anne Isabella, Lady Ritchie, née Thackeray, was an English writer and the eldest daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray. Her several novels were highly regarded in their time and made her a central figure in the late Victorian literary scene. She is best remembered today as the custodian of her father's literary legacy, and for short fiction that places traditional fairy tale narratives in a Victorian milieu. Her 1885 novel Mrs. Dymond contains the earliest English-language use of the proverb "Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for life."

Zinalrothorn mountain in the Pennine Alps

The Zinalrothorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. Its name comes from the village of Zinal lying on the north side and from the German word Rothorn which means Red Peak. When it was first climbed in 1864 the mountain was known locally as Moming.

Melchior Anderegg Swiss mountain climber (1828-1914)

Melchior Anderegg, from Zaun, Meiringen, was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascensionist of many prominent mountains in the western Alps during the golden and silver ages of alpinism. His clients were mostly British, the most famous of whom was Leslie Stephen, the writer, critic and mountaineer; Anderegg also climbed extensively with members of the Walker family, including Horace Walker and Lucy Walker, and with Florence Crauford Grove. His cousin Jakob Anderegg was also a well-known guide.

Golden age of alpinism the decade in mountaineering between ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865

The golden age of alpinism was the decade in mountaineering between Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major peaks in the Alps saw their first ascents.

Adrian Stephen British MD & psychoanalyst

Adrian Stephen was a member of the Bloomsbury Group, an author and psychoanalyst, and the younger brother of Thoby Stephen, Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. He and his wife Karin Stephen became interested in the work of Sigmund Freud, and were among the first British psychoanalysts.

Thoby Stephen British aristocrat

Julian Thoby Stephen, known as the Goth, was the brother of Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf, both prominent members of the Bloomsbury Group, and of Adrian Stephen.

Orchardleigh Estate

Orchardleigh is a country estate in Somerset, approximately two miles north of Frome, and on the southern edge of the village of Lullington. The privately held estate comprises a Victorian country house, the Orchardleigh Lake with its island church, and an 18-hole golf course.

Edward Shirley Kennedy (1817–1898) was an English mountaineer and author, and a founding member of the Alpine Club.

Florence Crauford Grove was an English mountaineer and author, sometimes known as F. Crauford Grove. He led the first expedition to ascend the higher summit of Mount Elbrus and was at one time president of the Alpine Club.

Sir George Herbert Duckworth, CB, FSA was an English public servant.

John Venn was a priest of the Church of England and a central figure of the group of religious philanthropists known as the Clapham sect.

Caroline Stephen English writer on Quakerism

Caroline Emelia Stephen, also known as Milly Stephen, was a British philanthropist and a writer on Quakerism. Her niece was Virginia Woolf.

Julia Stephen English philanthropist, wife of Leslie Stephen, mother of Virginia Woolf

Julia Prinsep Stephen was a celebrated Englishwoman, noted for her beauty as a Pre-Raphaelite model and philanthropist. She was the wife of the biographer Leslie Stephen and mother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell, members of the Bloomsbury Group.

References

  1. 1 2 Luebering 2006.
  2. ACAD & STFN850L.
  3. 1 2 Bicknell 1996.
  4. 1 2 Lewis, Alison M (Spring 2001). "Caroline Stephen and her niece, Virginia Woolf". JOURNAL OF THE FELLOWSHIP OF QUAKERS IN THE ARTS (21). Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  5. Bloom & Maynard 1994.
  6. Smith College libraries biography of Julia Prinsep Stephen
  7. Gérin 1981, p. 178.
  8. J. F. C. Harrison, A History of the Working Men's College (1854–1954), Routledge Kegan Paul (1954)
  9. "University intelligence". The Times (36623). London. 27 November 1901. p. 6.
  10. American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
  11. "The Coronation Honours". The Times (36804). London. 26 June 1902. p. 5.
  12. "No. 27453". The London Gazette . 11 July 1902. p. 4441.
  13. "Review: Life of Henry Fawcett by Leslie Stephen". Westminster Review . 125: 83–95. 1886.
  14. Archives 2018.
  15. Bicknell 1996, p. 1.
  16. Bloom & Maynard 1994, p. xx.
  17. Bell 1972, Family Tree pp. x–xi
  18. Venn 1904.

Bibliography

Websites

Anne Thackeray Ritchie

External images